JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of electrochemical dissolution and deposition order on lithium dendrite formation: a top view investigation.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rechargeable metallic lithium batteries are the ultimate solution to electrochemical storage due to their high theoretical energy densities. One of the key technological challenges is to control the morphology of metallic lithium electrode during electrochemical dissolution and deposition. Here we have investigated the morphology change of metallic lithium electrode after charging and discharging in nonaqueous batteries by ex situ SEM techniques from a top view. Formation of the hole structure after lithium dissolution and the filling of dendrite-like lithium into the holes has been observed for the first time. In addition, an in situ SEM investigation using an all-solid Li/Li2O/super aligned carbon nanotube set-up indicates that lithium ions could diffuse across through the surface oxide layer and grow lithium dendrites after applying an external electric field. The growth of lithium dendrites can be guided by electron flow when the formed lithium dendrite touches the carbon nanotube.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation Between Hyperhomocysteinemia and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overwhelming clinical and epidemiological studies have identified elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) as new important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. But the relationship between outcome and hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and short-term outcomes of patients with AMI. Eight hundred five patients were divided into high Hcy level group (group H: N = 457) and low Hcy level group (group L: N = 348) according to the plasma Hcy levels of 15 mmol/L. The comparisons were made between 2 groups in the following aspects: sex, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, the time for symptom from onset to percutaneous coronary intervention, homoccyteine, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (creatine kinase myocardial band), and the incidence of 30-day adverse events. The incidences of heart failure, cardiac rupture, death, and the total adverse cardiovascular events were statistically significantly higher in group H than in group L. But the incidence of postoperative angina pectoris and reinfarction was similar between groups. The results of logistic regression showed that the incidence of 30-day adverse events was closely related to the age and the level of Hcy. An elevated plasma total Hcy level in patients with AMI experienced pemutaneous coronary intervention may be related to the short-term outcomes. An elevated high plasma Hcy level also seems to be an independent predictor of 30-day cardiovascular events in patients with AMI.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of tumor growth by ?-elemene through downregulation of the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a murine intraocular melanoma model.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper explores the underlying mechanism through which ?-elemene inhibits the growth of intraocular melanoma in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were administered a subretinal injection of B16F10 melanoma cells and divided into two groups: treatment and control. The treatment group was administered ?-elemene through an intravitreal injection and the control group was injected with a blank emulsion. After 21 days of continuous treatment, tumor masses were removed and weighed. The mRNA expression levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were assayed by real-time PCR, and the protein expression levels of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were assayed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Tumor size was inhibited by ?-elemene in the treatment group, and the expressions of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were all downregulated at both the mRNA and the protein level compared with the control group. In a mouse model of intraocular melanoma, ?-elemene inhibits tumor growth by downregulating the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9.
Related JoVE Video
Screening and Isolation for Anti-hepatofibrotic Components from Medicinal Mushrooms using TGF-(?1-induced Live Fibrosis in Hepatic Stellate Cells.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury that could lead to liver failure, but treatment remains ineffective. In this study, we investigated anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia from six commercially available medicinal mushrooms in submerged culture, namely Antrodia camphorata, Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. Their anti-fibrotic activities were evaluated via inhibition against accumulation of TGF-?1-induced collagen deposition in CFSC-8B cells. Hex, Chl, and MeOH extracts of A. camphorata and Hex extract of A. mellea significantly decreased collagen production. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the identification of seven compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS from the Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata. At the molecular level, Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata suppressed ?-SMA, Collagen I, Collagen III, and Fibronectin expression induced by TGF-?1 in CFSC-8B cells as indicated by qRT-PCR analysis. They also inhibited ?-SMA and Collagen I protein expression according to western blot analyses. Mechanistically, Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata negatively regulates TGF-?1/Smad2/3 signaling. Our studies demonstrate that A. camphorata has in vitro anti-hepatofibrotic activity and that there is great potential for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of liver fibrosis by screening more medicinal mushrooms.
Related JoVE Video
Gastric Electrical Stimulation Optimized to Inhibit Gastric Motility Reduces Food Intake in Dogs.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that that a method of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) optimized to inhibit gastric motility was effective in reducing food intake in dogs.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular Template-Directed Synthesis of Microporous Polymer Networks for Highly Selective CO2 Capture.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous polymer networks have great potential in various applications including carbon capture. However, complex monomers and/or expensive catalysts are commonly used for their synthesis, which makes the process complicated, costly, and hard to scale up. Herein, we develop a molecular template strategy to fabricate new porous polymer networks by a simple nucleophilic substitution reaction of two low-cost monomers (i.e., chloromethylbenzene and ethylene diamine). The polymerization reactions can take place under mild conditions in the absence of any catalysts. The resultant materials are interconnected with secondary amines and show well-defined micropores due to the structure-directing role of solvent molecules. These properties make our materials highly efficient for selective CO2 capture, and unusually high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities are obtained. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be completely regenerated under mild conditions. Our materials may provide promising candidates for selective capture of CO2 from mixtures such as flue gas and natural gas.
Related JoVE Video
Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.
Related JoVE Video
Total synthesis and determination of the absolute configuration of rakicidin a.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rakicidin A is a cyclic depsipeptide that has exhibited unique growth inhibitory activity against chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells. Furthermore, rakicidin A has five chiral centers with unknown stereochemical assignment, and thus, can be represented by one of 32 possible stereoisomers. To predict the most probable stereochemistry of rakicidin A, calculations and structural comparison with natural cyclic depsipeptides were applied. A total synthesis of the proposed structure was subsequently completed and highlighted by the creation of a sterically hindered ester bond (C1-C15) through trans-acylation from an easily established isomer (C1-C13). The analytic data of the synthetic target were consistent with that of natural rakicidin A, and then the absolute configuration of rakicidin A was assigned as 2S, 3S, 14S, 15S, 16R. This work suggests strategies for the determination of unknown chiral centers in other cyclic depsipeptides, such as rakicidin B, C, D, BE-43547, and vinylamycin, and facilitates the investigations of rakicidin A as an anticancer stem cell agent.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance and therapeutic value of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims: We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GPx3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to characterize its tumor suppressive role. Methods: HCC patients (113) who underwent hepatectomy were recruited to examine the clinical relevance of GPx3. The tumor suppressive role of GPx3 was studied by administration of recombinant GPx3 (rGPx3) or over-expression of GPx3 in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic value of GPx3 for HCC was further investigated using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) as its delivery vehicle. Results: Down-regulation of GPx3 significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.024), venous infiltration (P = 0.043) and poor overall survival (P = 0.007) after hepatectomy. Lower plasma GPx3 in HCC patients was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.011), more tumor nodules (P = 0.032) and higher recurrence (P = 0.016). Over-expression of GPx3 or administration of rGPx3 significantly inhibited proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Tumor suppressive activity of GPx3 was mediated through Erk-NF?B-SIP1 pathway. GPx3 could be delivered by hiPSC-MSCs into the tumor and exhibited tumor suppressive activity in vivo. Conclusions: GPx3 is a tumor suppressor gene in HCC and may possess prognostic and therapeutic value for HCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous Detection of Four Common Oral Candida Species from Blood Samples by the Fluorescence Polarization Assay.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The genus Candida is both the commensal microbe and the opportunistic pathogen, containing approximately 200 species inhabiting in oral cavity of 53 % of the general population. Candida species can cause the diseases from local mucosal infections to systemic mycoses, even life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. The timely differentiation of Candida species is important for the guidance of clinical medication. Four common Candida species in Chinese population (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei) were chosen as the targets to develop the rapid screening method in this work. Combined with amplification by asymmetric PCR, this parallel fluorescence polarization (FP) immunoassay is carried out in homogeneous solution phase. The limit of detection of the assay was shown to be 50 copies/mL in blood samples. The evaluation in multicenter manner showed excellent reproducibility and stability. The comparison between DNA sequencing and the FP immunoassay indicated that there was no significant difference between these methods. This molecular strategy-based method is simple, rapid, and feasible for identifying common Candida species and thereby holding great potential in the application of clinical laboratories.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 ?g/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.
Related JoVE Video
FHL2-driven molecular network mediated Septin2 knockdown inducing apoptosis in mesangial cell.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The apoptosis of mesangial cells (MCs) plays a critical role in the pathological progress of MesPGN. Septin2, a filamentous GTPase, is implicated in the apoptotic progress of MCs in the rat MesPGN model. However, the molecular mechanism of SEPT2 in MCs apoptosis is not clear. Here, we present the FHL2-driven molecular network as the main mechanism of SEPT2-mediated rat primary MCs apoptosis. First, we proved that the expression of FHL2 and Septin2 were closely related with MCs apoptosis in anti-Thy1 nephritis model. Then, it was found that FHL2 was a new interaction protein of Septin2 and Septin2 knockdown could induce MC apoptosis by FHL2-mediatied signal pathways including p-ERK1 and p-AKT. We applied label-Free quantitative proteomics to identify the mechanism of Septin2/FHL2-regulated apoptosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that FHL2-driven molecular network composed of biological functions including glycolysis, oxidative stress, ribonucleotide metabolism, actin cytoskeleton regulation, and signaling pathway, was the main mechanism of SETP2-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, we showed that the effect of Septin2 knockdown on MC apoptosis could be alleviated by the overexpression of FHL2. Overall, this study illustrated the FHL2-driven molecular network controlling SEPT2-mediated apoptosis in MCs and their potential roles in mesangial proliferative nephritis.
Related JoVE Video
Cdc42 expression in cervical cancer and its effects on cervical tumor invasion and migration.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine Cdc42 expression in cervical cancer and explore its effects on invasion and migration capability of cervical cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cdc42 expression in normal cervical tissues as well as CIN I or below, CIN II or above, and cervical cancer tissues. Western blot analysis was used to explore Cdc42 expression in normal cervical cell line Crl-2614 and cervical cancer cell line HeLa. Plasmids of constitutively active Cdc42 (Cdc42 CA), wild-type Cdc42 (Cdc42 WT) and dominant negative Cdc42 (Cdc42 DN) were transfected, respectively, into HeLa cells to investigate the impacts of Cdc42 on migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells using Transwell and on cytoskeleton microfilaments using confocal microscopy after immunofluorescence staining. Cdc42 expression was gradually increased in the order of cervical tissues with CIN I or below, CIN II or above and cancer, showing significant difference (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in HeLa cells than in Crl-2614 cells (P<0.05). Migration ability of HeLa cells transfected with Cdc42 CA was significantly higher than that of non-transfected, as well as Cdc42 WT- or Cdc42 DN-transfected HeLa cells (P<0.05). Overexpression of Cdc42 CA can promote filopodia formation in HeLa cells. We concluded that Cdc42 overexpression significantly improved the ability of cervical cancer cells to migrate possibly due to improved pseudopodia formation.
Related JoVE Video
miRNA-646 suppresses osteosarcoma cell metastasis by downregulating fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2).
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that play crucial roles in cancer development and progression. MicroRNA-646 (miR-646) is downregulated in many human cancers, and increasing evidence indicates that it functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of miR-646 in osteosarcoma remains unclear. Expression levels of miR-646 in osteosarcoma cell lines and patient tissues were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the clinicopathological significance of the resultant data was later analyzed. Next, we investigated the role of miR-646 to determine its potential roles on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the target gene of miR-646, and the results were validated in the osteosarcoma cell line. In this study, we found that miR-646 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma tissues compared with normal osteoblast cell line NHOst and paired adjacent nontumor tissue. We found that a lower expression of miR-646 was associated with metastasis. In osteosarcoma cells, overexpression of miR-646 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In contrast, downregulation of miR-646 expression promoted osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Next, we identified that the FGF2 gene is a novel direct target of miR-646 in osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, enforced expression of FGF2 partially reversed the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion that was caused by miR-646. Our study demonstrated that miR-646 might be a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma via the regulation of FGF2, which provided a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.
Related JoVE Video
Energetic requirements of iridium(III) complex based photosensitisers in photocatalytic hydrogen generation.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new family of Ir(III) complexes were synthesised and employed as light-induced hydrogen-production photosensitisers in aqueous systems, where hydrogen evolution was observed only when the PS* was reduced by the sacrificial agent, NEt3, signifying that a minimum potential difference of >0.2 V between E(PS*/PS(-)) and E(NEt3(+)/NEt3) is required for efficient hydrogen production [i.e., E(PS*/PS(-)) >1.19 V versus NHE]. The analytical method developed here is demonstrated to be useful for screening new photosensitisers for light-driven hydrogen generation.
Related JoVE Video
IGF2R Expression is Associated with the Chemotherapy Response and Prognosis of Patients with Advanced NSCLC.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway has been suggested as a new molecular target for the treatment of cancer including Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We postulated that IGF-2 receptor (IGF2R) may be associated with treatment response and prognosis of NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 464 patients with inoperable advanced stage of NSCLC were enrolled. All patients received platinum-based chemotherapy. Meanwhile, the IGF2R expression in tumor samples was detected by Immunohistochemical analysis. The IGF2R expression was inhibited in several human NSCLC cell lines (H292, A549, NCI-H460, Calu-3 and NCI-H23) after small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection and the cellular biology behavior were evaluated. Results: Of all NSCLC patients, 204 had high IGF2R expression and 260 had low IGF2R expression. The low IGF2R expression was significantly associated with the smoking status, higher tumor stage, and poorer differentiation status of these patients. Notably, we found that the low IGF2R expression was closely associated with the chemotherapy response in NSCLC patients. Patients with low IGF2R expressions had a poorer prognosis than those with high IGF2R expressions. IGF2R inhibition by si-RNA technique in NSCLC cell lines increased the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, but reduced the apoptosis rate. IGF2R silencing significantly enhanced the chemo-resistance of NSCLC cell lines to cisplatin treatment. Conclusion: The IGF2R expression in tumor is associated with the chemotherapy response and prognosis of Patients with advanced NSCLC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma Reduces Oxidative Stress Caused by Hyperuricemia via Upregulation of Catalase.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background/Aims: Reports have suggested that the traditional Chinese medicine Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma attenuates hyperuricemia, but its mechanism is unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that uric acid could induce the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS), which subsequently cause endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we focused on the oxidative stress process. In this study, we would use LC-MS and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: We utilized LC-MS to reveal the differential protein expression in the kidneys of rats in the hyperuricemia group and the Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma treatment group and then subjected the differentially expressed proteins to bioinformatic analysis. We also determined the serum ROS level of the two groups. According the above results, we built our hypothesis and performed in vitro experiments to validate this hypothesis. Results: We found that catalase was upregulated in the group treated with Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma, and the level of reactive oxygen species was higher in the hyperuricemia group. Thus, we speculated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate oxidative stress by upregulating catalase. In vitro experiments, we found that high concentrations of uric acid reduced catalase expression in endothelial cells, which was alleviated by Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma and resulted in a reduction of reactive oxygen species. Knockdown of catalase led to an increase in reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by hyperuricemia by upregulating catalase expression. This finding could represent a new application for Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma in the treatment of hyperuricemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Marked anti-tumor effects of CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells from melanoma-bearing mice.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells have been shown to play pivotal roles in anti-viral immunity, chronic myeloid leukemia and renal cell carcinoma. Recently, CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells from naïve mice (nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells) have shown superior anti-tumor properties in melanoma-bearing mice. Considering that antigen-specific memory T cells have shown to possess more potent immunity than non-specific memory T cells, we hypothesized that CD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells from tumor-bearing individuals (mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells) might have superior anti-tumor effect than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells. Therefore, we investigated phenotypes, functions and the in vivo distribution of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells in tumor-bearing mice. We found that, while keeping the features of central memory T cells, the frequency of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cell in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice was significantly higher than that the one of nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cell in naive mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells had higher proliferation rate and IFN-? production than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells, in vitro. We performed adoptive transfer of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells into melanoma-bearing mice and tracked them in spleen, lymph nodes and in melanoma tissues. Our results show that mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells had stronger in vivo anti-tumoral activity than nCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of mCD8(+)CD62L(+) T cells in the immunotherapy of melanoma and possibly other tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic Significance of MicroRNA-375 Downregulation in Solid Tumors: A Meta-Analysis.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective. Recently, many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA) exhibit altered expression in various cancers and may play an important role as prognostic biomarker of cancers. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of miR-375 expression in solid tumors on patients' overall survival (OS). Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embace, and Cochrane Library (last search update was in May 2014) and were assessed by further quality evaluation. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for total and stratified analyses were calculated to investigate the association between miR-375 expression and cancer patients OS. Results. Our analysis results indicated that downregulation of miR-375 predicted poor OS (HR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.48-2.45, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that lower expression of miR-375 was significantly related with poor OS in patients with esophageal carcinoma (HR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.69-2.96, P < 0.001) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.31-2.24, P < 0.001). Conclusions. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that miR-375 expression is associated with OS of patients with malignant tumors and could be a useful clinical prognostic biomarker.
Related JoVE Video
HOMO Stabilisation in ?-Extended Dibenzotetrathiafulvalene Derivatives for Their Application in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three new organic semiconductors, in which either two methoxy units are directly linked to a dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DB-TTF) central core and a 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole is fused on the one side, or four methoxy groups are linked to the DB-TTF, have been synthesised as active materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Their electrochemical behaviour, electronic absorption and fluorescence emission as well as photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer were studied. The electron-withdrawing 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole unit significantly affects the electronic properties of these semiconductors, lowering both the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and hence increasing the stability of the semiconducting material. The solution-processed single-crystal transistors exhibit high performance with a hole mobility up to 0.04?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) as well as good ambient stability.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of miR-218 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth through RET.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world with poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA 218 (miR-218) in regulating human HCC development. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to compare the expression levels of miR-218 between eight HCC and a normal liver cell lines, as well as nine primary HCC tissues and adjacent non-carcinoma tissues. HCC cell lines MHCC97L and Huh7 were transfected with lentiviral vector of miR-218 mimics. The effect of miR-218 overexpression on cancer cell growth, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as cancer cell invasion was examined. A bioinformatic method was used to predict the binding of miR-218 to RET proto-oncogene (RET). Small interfering RNA (SiRNA)-mediated genetic knock-down of RET was performed in MHCC97L and Huh7 cells, and its modulatory effect on miR-218-mediated HCC development was examined. miR-218 was found to be downregulated in HCC cell lines and primary HCC tissues. Overexpression of miR-218 in MHCC97L or Huh7 cells resulted in significant decrease in cell proliferation and invasion capability. Overexpression of miR-218 also reduced the tumor growth of xenografted Huh7 cells in vivo. The expression of endogenous RET was found to be upregulated by miR-218, and siRNA-induced RET downregulation resulted in phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) upregulation and reversal of the inhibitory effect of miR-218 upregulation on HCC proliferation. Our results indicate that miR-218 modulates HCC development, and this effect may be through RET and PTEN.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness on micromotion of immediately loaded implants in three types of bone quality: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the influence of thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness on micromotion in immediately loaded implants in bone of varying density (D2, D3, and D4). Five models of the three-dimensional finite element (0.8?mm pitch, 1.6?mm pitch, 2.4?mm pitch, double-threaded, and triple-threaded implants) in three types of bone were created using Pro/E, Hypermesh, and ABAQUS software. The study had three groups: Group 1, different pitches (Pitch Group); Group 2, same compactness but different helix angles (Angle Group); and Group 3, same helix angle but different compactness (Compact Group). Implant micromotion was assessed as the comprehensive relative displacement. We found that vertical relative displacement was affected by thread pitch, helix angle, and compactness. Under vertical loading, displacement was positively correlated with thread pitch and helix angle but negatively with compactness. Under horizontal loading in D2, the influence of pitch, helix angle, and compactness on implant stability was limited; however, in D3 and D4, the influence of pitch, helix angle, and compactness on implant stability is increased. The additional evidence was provided that trabecular bone density has less effect on implant micromotion than cortical bone thickness. Bone type amplifies the influence of thread pattern on displacement.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive evaluation of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 gene polymorphisms in risk of bone sarcoma.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a critical immunoregulatory molecule that attenuates the antitumor response by elevating the T-cell activation threshold, thus inducing occurrence of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C.
Related JoVE Video
The clinical performance of APTIMA human papillomavirus and Hybrid Capture 2 assays in the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate the clinical performance of APTIMA human papillomavirus (AHPV) assay and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay in screening for cervical disease, especially in women with atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).
Related JoVE Video
Methylation patterns of estrogen receptor ? promoter correlate with estrogen receptor ? expression and clinicopathological factors in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the seventh most common type of cancer; notably, the incidence of HCC is four to eight times higher in men than women. Previous studies reported that the estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of HCC, although the extent of its involvement is unclear due to several conflicting reports. In the present study, tumor and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 157 HCC patients were collected. Transcriptome sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to quantify the ER ? (ESR1) expression levels, and the Sequenom EpiTYPER assay was used to delineate the methylation patterns in the ESR1 promoter. We found that ESR1 expression was significantly reduced in tumor tissues (P?
Related JoVE Video
Contrast formation in Kelvin probe force microscopy of single ?-conjugated molecules.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the contrast formation in the local contact potential difference (LCPD) measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on single charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) on a NaCl bilayer on Cu(111). At different tip heights, we found quantitatively different LCPD contrasts that characterize different properties of the molecule. In the small distance regime, the tip penetrates the electron density of the molecule, and the contrast is related to the size and topography of the electron shell of the molecule. For larger distances, the LCPD contrast corresponds to the electrostatic field above the molecule. However, in the medium-distance regime, that is, for tip heights similar to the size of the molecule, the nonspherical distribution of ?- and ?-electrons often conceals the effect of the partial charges within the molecule. Only for large distances does the LCPD map converge toward the simple field of a dipole for a polar molecule.
Related JoVE Video
A novel oxygen carrier "YQ23" suppresses the liver tumor metastasis by decreasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and regulatory T cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surgical therapies are the first-line treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the high incidence of tumor metastasis after liver surgery remains a severe problem. We aim to investigate the roles and the underlying mechanism of YQ23, stabilized non-polymeric diaspirin cross-linked tetrameric hemoglobin, in liver tumor metastasis after major hepatectomy and partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury.
Related JoVE Video
Presence of power Doppler synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with synthetic and/or biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug-induced clinical remission: experience from a Chinese cohort.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who reached clinical remission. Two hundred and two RA patients were enrolled into this study. One hundred and eleven RA patients achieved clinical remission with the treatment of synthetic and/or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Subclinical synovitis was assessed by power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). PD synovitis was semi-quantitatively recorded. Twenty-two joint regions were imaged: bilateral wrists, metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. PD remission was defined as a total PD score of 0. The subclinical synovitis in the RA patients who achieved clinical remission was evaluated. The correlations between PD total scores and clinical/laboratory parameters were analyzed. Among the 111 RA patients who achieved clinical remission, 110 (99.1 %), 67 (60.4 %), 55 (49.5 %), 50 (45.0 %), and 54 (48.6 %) patients, respectively, satisfied DAS28 (CRP), DAS28 (ESR), CDAI, SDAI, and 2010 ACR/EULAR remission criteria. However, only 54 (48.6 %) patients achieved PD remission. Subclinical synovitis was detectable in 57 (51.8 %), 30 (44.8 %), 22 (40.0 %), 19 (38.0 %), and 18 (33.3 %) patients accordingly. On the contrary, 11 (26.8 %) out of 41 patients who fulfilled all five clinical remission criteria had evidence of subclinical synovitis. In those 91 patients who did not achieved clinical remission, total PD score was correlated with swollen joint counts (SJC), tender joint counts (TJC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and complex disease activity indexes (P?
Related JoVE Video
Safety and feasibility of transulnar versus transradial artery approach for coronary catheterization in non-selective patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transradial approach catheterization is now widely used in coronary angiography and angioplasty. The ulnar artery, which is one of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, may be a potential approach for cardiac catheterization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a transulnar approach for coronary catheterization in non-selective patients.
Related JoVE Video
The inhibition of aldose reductase attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through reducing inflammatory response.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aim to investigate the role of aldose reductase (AR) in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of normal and fatty livers and to explore the underlying mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Alpha-terpineol promotes triterpenoid production of Antrodia cinnamomea in submerged culture.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antrodia cinnamomea is a medicinal mushroom producing potent bioactive triterpenoids. However, triterpenoids of A. cinnamomea in submerged culture are much less than those in fruiting bodies. Here we evaluated effects of different extracts from a host-related species, Cinnamomum camphora, on the mycelial growth and triterpenoid production of A. cinnamomea in submerged culture. The hot water extract of the stem showed the strongest promotion of the mycelial growth. The petroleum ether extract of the stem (PES) (0.05 g L(-1)) showed the greatest stimulatory effect on content and production of triterpenoids. A total of 39 compounds including terpenoids, phenolic and aromatic compounds were identified in the PES by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, the effects of seven compounds contained in the PES on the mycelial growth and triterpenoid production of A. cinnamomea were evaluated. Among them, ?-terpineol (0.5 mg L(-1)) showed the greatest stimulatory effect on the triterpenoid content (23.31 mg g(-1)) and triterpenoid production (91.33 mg L(-1)) of A. cinnamomea. Results of LC-MS analysis showed that ?-terpineol (0.5 mg L(-1)) stimulated the syntheses of six triterpenoids in the mycelia of A. cinnamomea. This indicates that ?-terpineol can act as an elicitor for triterpenoid biosynthesis in A. cinnamomea.
Related JoVE Video
Selenium-platinum coordination compounds as novel anticancer drugs: selectively killing cancer cells via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis route.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the preparation of selenium-containing platinum-based anticancer drug EG-Se/Pt. EG-Se/Pt was obtained from the coordination of selenium-containing molecules (EG-Se) with cisplatin (CDDP). The structure of EG-Se/Pt was characterized by (1) H and (77) Se?NMR spectroscopy, XPS, ESI-MS, and MALDI-TOF. In aqueous solution, EG-Se/Pt self-assembles to form spherical aggregates. EG-Se/Pt shows enhanced stability against dilution and high salt concentration compared with EG-Se. EG-Se/Pt induces cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to high selectivity between cancer cells and normal cells in cytotoxicity assays. More importantly, EG-Se/Pt effectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. It is anticipated that tuning the ROS level through the assembly of selenium-containing molecules can be a general method to realize anticancer selectivity.
Related JoVE Video
Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-103 promotes colorectal cancer by targeting tumor suppressor DICER and PTEN.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, noncoding RNAs that act as key regulators in various physiological and pathological processes. However, the regulatory mechanisms for miRNAs in colorectal cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-103 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its overexpression is closely associated with tumor proliferation and migration. In addition, repressing the expression of miR-103 apparently inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and HCT-116 xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Subsequent software analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay identified two tumor suppressor genes DICER and PTEN as direct targets of miR-103, and up-regulation of DICER and PTEN obtained similar results to that occurred in the silencing of miR-103. In addition, restoration of DICER and PTEN can inhibit miR-103-induced colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration. Our data collectively demonstrate that miR-103 is an oncogene miRNA that promotes colorectal cancer proliferation and migration through down-regulation of the tumor suppressor genes DICER and PTEN. Thus, miR-103 may represent a new potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for colorectal cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of steroid hydroxylation yield from dehydroepiandrosterone by cyclodextrin complexation technique.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cyclodextrins (CDs) complexation technique was performed for the enhancement of hydroxylation yield from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) by Colletotrichum lini ST-1. Using DHEA/methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M-?-CD) or DHEA/hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) inclusion complexes as substrate (10g/L), the hydroxylation yields were increased by 14.98% and 20.54% respectively, and the biotransformation course was shortened by 12h. X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and phase solubility analyses showed an inclusion complex was formed between CDs and DHEA at a molar ratio of 1:1, which remarkably increased the solubility of DHEA, and then improved substrate biotransformation efficiency and hydroxylation yield. Meanwhile, results of thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H, ?S and Ks) analysis revealed the complexation process was spontaneous and DHEA/CDs inclusion complex was stable. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the enhancement of DHEA hydroxylation yield also depended on the improvement of cell permeability through interaction between cytomembrane and CDs. These results suggested that the CDs complexation technique was a promising method to enhance steroids hydroxylation yield by increasing steroids solubility and decreasing membrane resistance of substrate and product during biotransformation process.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of transmembrane protein 98 as a novel chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. To identify novel chemoresistance-associated targets in hepatocellular carcinoma, chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were established. By comparing the global gene expression profiles between chemoresistant and chemosensitive cell lines, eight novel chemoresistance-associated genes were identified to be significantly associated with the commonly augmented chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. One upregulated candidate named transmembrane protein 98 (TMEM98) was found to be overexpressed in 80 of 118 (67.80%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. TMEM98 mRNA in tumor tissues was significantly higher than nontumor tissues of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (P < 0.0001). Upregulation of TMEM98 was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.048), high incidence of early tumor recurrence (P = 0.005), poor overall survival (P = 0.029), and poor disease-free survival (P = 0.011) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. Importantly, upregulation of TMEM98 mRNA in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment was significantly higher than in patients without TACE treatment (P = 0.046). Moreover, patients with poor response to TACE treatment had higher degree of TMEM98 upregulation than the responsive patients. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that suppression of TMEM98 in chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells restored their chemosensitivity, while forced overexpression of TMEM98 enhanced their chemoresistance. The mechanism of TMEM98 in conferring chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma might be possibly through activation of the AKT pathway and deactivation of p53. In conclusion, we identified a panel of novel common chemoresistance-associated genes and demonstrated that TMEM98 is a chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological traits but not chemical traits.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leaves and fine roots are among the most important and dynamic components of terrestrial ecosystems. To what extent plants synchronize their resource capture strategies above- and belowground remains uncertain. Existing results of trait relationships between leaf and root showed great inconsistency, which may be partly due to the differences in abiotic environmental conditions such as climate and soil. Moreover, there is currently little evidence on whether and how the stringent environments of high-altitude alpine ecosystems alter the coordination between above- and belowground. Here we measured six sets of analogous traits for both leaves and fine roots of 139 species collected from Tibetan alpine grassland and Mongolian temperate grassland. N, P and N:P ratio of leaves and fine roots were positively correlated, independent of biogeographic regions, phylogenetic affiliation or climate. In contrast, leaves and fine roots seem to regulate morphological traits more independently. The specific leaf area (SLA)-specific root length (SRL) correlation shifted from negative at sites under low temperature to positive at warmer sites. The cold climate of alpine regions may impose different constraints on shoots and roots, selecting simultaneously for high SLA leaves for rapid C assimilation during the short growing season, but low SRL roots with high physical robustness to withstand soil freezing. In addition, there might be more community heterogeneity in cold soils, resulting in multidirectional strategies of root in resource acquisition. Thus our results demonstrated that alpine climate alters the relationships between leaf and root morphological but not chemical traits.
Related JoVE Video
miR-34a regulates mesangial cell proliferation via the PDGFR-?/Ras-MAPK signaling pathway.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The main pathological characteristic of glomerulonephritis is diffuse mesangial cell proliferation. MiR-34a is associated with the proliferation of various organs and cancer cells. However, the role of miR-34a in renal proliferation diseases is not clear. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of miR-34a in the regulation of renal mesangial cell proliferation. The miR-34a expression level at different time points in an anti-Thy1 mesangial proliferative nephritis rat model was determined by qRT-PCR. The cell proliferation rate and cell cycle changes were measured in the in vitro cultured rat mesangial cells (RMCs). Our results suggested that miR-34a expression was negatively correlated with the degree of cell proliferation in the anti-Thy1 nephritis model. MiR-34a could extend the G0/G1 phase and block cell proliferation in RMCs. Dual-luciferase assay results showed that there were binding sites of miR-34a at 3'-UTR of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-? (PDGFR-?). MiR-34a can inhibit PDGFR-? protein expression at a post-transcriptional level, suppress Ras/MAPK signaling pathways, and down-regulate expression of cell cycle proteins at the G0/G1 phase, such as cyclin D1, CDK4/CDK6. In addition, miR-34a may also inhibit RMC proliferation by directly targeting cyclin E and CDK2. MiR-34a inhibits exogenous stimuli-induced proliferation of mesangial cells. Expression levels of phospho-PDGFR-? and phospho-MEK1 (an important downstream molecule in PDGFR-?-induced signaling pathway) were significantly increased in the anti-Thy-1 nephritis rat model. These results suggest that miR-34a may regulate RMC proliferation by directly inhibiting expressions of PDGFR-?, MEK1, and cell cycle proteins, cyclin E and CDK2.
Related JoVE Video
S-allylmercaptocysteine promotes MAPK inhibitor-induced apoptosis by activating the TGF-? signaling pathway in cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, can induce the apoptosis of many types of cancer cells through the MAPK signaling pathway. The TGF-? signaling pathway also plays a pivotal role in the process of oncogenesis, and has a certain crosstalk with the MAPK pathway. In the present study, hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 with an intact TGF-? signal and colon cancer cell line SW620 with an imperfect TGF-? signal were selected to ascertain whether SAMC induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by TGF-? signaling. In both cell lines treated with MAPK inhibitors and SAMC, an increased apoptosis rate was observed by electron microscopy, TUNEL and flow cytometric assays. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays showed that SAMC induced the apoptosis of cancer cells by activating TGF-?1, T?RII, p-smad2/3, smad4 and smad7 signals, and promoting Bim expression while decreasing Bcl-2 expression and finally activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway proteins caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the HepG2 cell line. In contrast, in the SW620 cell line, the apoptosis induced by SAMC only affected TGF-?1 and smad7 signals, and promoted the expression of Bax and Bad and finally activated the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway protein caspase-9. When we compare the apoptosis rate in both cell lines, a significantly lower apoptosis rate was noted in the SW620 cell line than the rate noted in the HepG2 cell line. In summary, SAMC induces the apoptosis of cancer cells by activating the TGF-? signaling pathway, after MAPK signaling is inhibited.
Related JoVE Video
A compact tetrathiafulvalene-benzothiadiazole dyad and its highly symmetrical charge-transfer salt: ordered donor ?-stacks closely bound to their acceptors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A compact and planar donor-acceptor molecule 1 comprising tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and benzothiadiazole (BTD) units has been synthesised and experimentally characterised by structural, optical, and electrochemical methods. Solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films of 1 have also been explored as active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For these devices, hole field-effect mobilities of ?FE = (1.3±0.5)×10(-3) and (2.7±0.4)×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V?s(-1) were determined for the solution-processed and thermally evaporated thin films, respectively. An intense intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition at around 495?nm dominates the optical absorption spectrum of the neutral dyad, which also shows a weak emission from its ICT state. The iodine-induced oxidation of 1 leads to a partially oxidised crystalline charge-transfer (CT) salt {(1)2I3}, and eventually also to a fully oxidised compound {1I3}?1/2I2. Single crystals of the former CT compound, exhibiting a highly symmetrical crystal structure, reveal a fairly good room temperature electrical conductivity of the order of 2?S?cm(-1). The one-dimensional spin system bears compactly bonded BTD acceptors (spatial localisation of the LUMO) along its ridge.
Related JoVE Video
?-Elemene inhibits the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells by downregulation of the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-Elemene has been reported to be effective for the treatment of leukemia and certain solid tumors in basic and clinical studies. However, the mechanism of action of this phytochemical remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of ?-elemene in the mouse melanoma cell line B16F10. Cell viability was measured using the MTT assay. ?-Elemene inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell metastasis, examined using scratch and Transwell migration/invasion assays. The mRNA and protein expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), the uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were assayed using real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and western blotting methods. The results indicated that ?-elemene inhibited the viability of B16F10 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The migratory and invasive capacities of B16F10 cells were also inhibited by ?-elemene. The expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was reduced by ?-elemene at both the mRNA and protein level. ?-Elemene inhibits the metastasis of B16F10 melanoma cells through downregulation of the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Thus, ?-elemene is a natural potential anticancer drug.
Related JoVE Video
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 activates MMP9 to increase invasiveness of colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular mechanism underlying the invasiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells remains largely unknown. Here, we found that astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues, compared with the adjacent normal tissues from human patients. Ectopic expression of AEG-1 enhanced the invasive ability of CRC cells, while small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of AEG-1 inhibited the invasive ability of CRC cells. Transcription, protein levels, and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), all increased by AEG-1 overexpression in CRC cells, and all decreased by AEG-1 inhibition. Suppression of endogenous MMP9 abrogated the effects of AEG-1 on invasiveness, without affecting AEG-1 levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that AEG-1 contributes to CRC invasiveness and metastasis by enhancing MMP9 activity. Thus, AEG-1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for preventing the metastasis of CRC.
Related JoVE Video
A new tumor suppressor LncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 is regulated by DNMT1 and inhibits migration of glioma cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growing number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as new modulators in cancer origination and progression. A lncRNA, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9 (ADAMTS9) antisense RNA 2 (ADAMTS9-AS2), with unknown function, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor ADAMTS9. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern and functional role of ADAMTS9-AS2 in glioma by using real-time PCR and gain-/loss-of-function studies. The results showed that the ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues and reversely associated with tumor grade and prognosis. Multivariate analysis of the prognosis factors showed that low ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was a significant independent predictor of poor survival in glioma. Overexpression of ADAMTS9-AS2 resulted in significant inhibition of cell migration in glioma, whereas knockdown of ADAMTS9-AS2 showed the opposite effect. We also found that ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was negatively correlated with DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1). In addition, DNMT1 knockdown led to remarkable enhancement of ADAMTS9-AS2 expression. By 5-aza-dC treatment, the ADAMTS9-AS2 expression was also reactivated. The results suggested that ADAMTS9-AS2 is a novel tumor suppressor modulated by DNMT1 in glioma. LncRNA ADAMTS9-AS2 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.
Related JoVE Video
Mammalian E-type cyclins control chromosome pairing, telomere stability and CDK2 localization in male meiosis.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Loss of function of cyclin E1 or E2, important regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, yields viable mice, but E2-deficient males display reduced fertility. To elucidate the role of E-type cyclins during spermatogenesis, we characterized their expression patterns and produced additional deletions of Ccne1 and Ccne2 alleles in the germline, revealing unexpected meiotic functions. While Ccne2 mRNA and protein are abundantly expressed in spermatocytes, Ccne1 mRNA is present but its protein is detected only at low levels. However, abundant levels of cyclin E1 protein are detected in spermatocytes deficient in cyclin E2 protein. Additional depletion of E-type cyclins in the germline resulted in increasingly enhanced spermatogenic abnormalities and corresponding decreased fertility and loss of germ cells by apoptosis. Profound meiotic defects were observed in spermatocytes, including abnormal pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, heterologous chromosome associations, unrepaired double-strand DNA breaks, disruptions in telomeric structure and defects in cyclin-dependent-kinase 2 localization. These results highlight a new role for E-type cyclins as important regulators of male meiosis.
Related JoVE Video
Quality and innovations for caring hospitalized older persons in the unites States.
Aging Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Older persons are occasionally acutely ill and their hospitalizations frequently end up with complications and adverse outcomes. Medicare from U.S. federal government's payment resource for older persons is facing financial strain. Medicare highlights both cost-saving and high quality of care while older persons are hospitalized. Several health policy changes were initiated to achieve Medicare's goals. In response to Medicare's health policy changes, U.S. hospital environments have been changed and these resulted in hospital quality measurements' improvement. American seniors are facing the challenges during and around their hospital care. Several innovative measures are suggested to overcome these challenges.
Related JoVE Video
RhoC mediates invasion and migration of CaSki cells through the Rho-associated serine-threonine protein kinase 1 signaling pathway.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The small GTPase RhoC in human cancers is up-regulated and correlated with tumor metastasis. However, the role of Rho/Rho-associated serine-threonine protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) signaling pathway in human cervical cancer is still unclear. In this study, we examine the effects of RhoC and its major downstream target, ROCK1, on the invasion and migration of CaSki cells to investigate the role of RhoC/ROCK1 signaling pathway in the progression of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Drug-Induced Acute Liver Injury Within 12 Hours After Fluvastatin Therapy.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although statins are generally well-tolerated drugs, recent cases of drug-induced liver injury associated with their use have been reported. A 52-year-old Chinese man reported with liver damage, which appeared 12 hours after beginning treatment with fluvastatin. Patient presented with complaints of increasing nausea, anorexia, and upper abdominal pain. His laboratory values showed elevated creatine kinase and transaminases. Testing for autoantibodies was also negative. The liver biochemistries eventually normalized within 3 weeks of stopping the fluvastatin. Therefore, when prescribing statins, the possibility of hepatic damage should be taken into account.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of costimulatory molecules B7-H1, B7-H4 and Foxp3(+) Tregs in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immune escape plays an important role in tumor progression. In the present study, the expression of B7-H1, B7-H4 and Foxp3 involved in immune escape in gastric carcinoma was investigated and the corresponding clinical significance was evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40-60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ? 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5?mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as -30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone.
Related JoVE Video
Association between complement factor H Val62Ile polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An increasing body of studies has assessed the contribution of Val62Ile polymorphism to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk, but the exact association still remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was undertaken in order to further characterize the potential association between Val62Ile polymorphism and AMD risk in four different ethnic populations.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of radiosensitivity by 5-Aza-CdR through activation of G2/M checkpoint response and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiation resistance is a major problem preventing successful treatment. Therefore, identifying sensitizers is vitally important for radiotherapy success. Epigenetic events such as DNA methylation have been proposed to mediate the sensitivity of tumor therapy. In this study, we investigated the influence of demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on the radiosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cell lines. 5-Aza-CdR was capable of sensitizing three osteosarcoma cells to irradiation in a time-dependent manner, with the maximum effect attained by 48 h. Pretreatment with 5-Aza-CdR synchronized cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and enhanced irradiation-induced apoptosis compared with irradiation alone in SaOS2, HOS, and U2OS cells. Moreover, 5-Aza-CdR restored mRNA expressions of 14-3-3?, CHK2, and DAPK-1 in the three cells, accompanied with demethylation of their promoters. These findings demonstrate that demethylation with 5-Aza-CdR increases radiosensitivity in some osteosarcoma cells through arresting cells at G2/M phase and increasing apoptosis, which is partly mediated by upregulation of 14-3-3?, CHK2, and DAPK-1 genes, suggesting that 5-Aza-CdR may be a potential radiosensitizer to improve the therapy effect in osteosarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Ser326Cys polymorphism in the human 8-oxogunaine glycosylase (hOGG1) gene with lung cancer susceptibility had been investigated by the approaches of PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and ASA. Due to limited specimen and different approaches the conclusion was drawn toughly. To evaluate this correlation comprehensively, a meta-analysis was performed based on 30 case-control studies, including 10,327 cases and 12,148 controls. The random-effects model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95 % confidence interval for various contrasts of this polymorphism. The combined results suggested that the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer susceptibility in different genetic models. Similarly, in the stratified analyses by ethnicity and source of control, no risk was observed between all the genetic models and lung cancer risk. Our meta-analysis revealed that there was little correlation between the hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of Per3 genotypes on circadian rhythmicity in flight cadets after militarized management.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of PERIOD3 (PER3) genotypes on circadian rhythmicity in flight cadets after militarized management.
Related JoVE Video
A Simplified and Versatile System for the Simultaneous Expression of Multiple siRNAs in Mammalian Cells Using Gibson DNA Assembly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) denotes sequence-specific mRNA degradation induced by short interfering double-stranded RNA (siRNA) and has become a revolutionary tool for functional annotation of mammalian genes, as well as for development of novel therapeutics. The practical applications of RNAi are usually achieved by expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or siRNAs in cells. However, a major technical challenge is to simultaneously express multiple siRNAs to silence one or more genes. We previously developed pSOS system, in which siRNA duplexes are made from oligo templates driven by opposing U6 and H1 promoters. While effective, it is not equipped to express multiple siRNAs in a single vector. Gibson DNA Assembly (GDA) is an in vitro recombination system that has the capacity to assemble multiple overlapping DNA molecules in a single isothermal step. Here, we developed a GDA-based pSOK assembly system for constructing single vectors that express multiple siRNA sites. The assembly fragments were generated by PCR amplifications from the U6-H1 template vector pB2B. GDA assembly specificity was conferred by the overlapping unique siRNA sequences of insert fragments. To prove the technical feasibility, we constructed pSOK vectors that contain four siRNA sites and three siRNA sites targeting human and mouse ?-catenin, respectively. The assembly reactions were efficient, and candidate clones were readily identified by PCR screening. Multiple ?-catenin siRNAs effectively silenced endogenous ?-catenin expression, inhibited Wnt3A-induced ?-catenin/Tcf4 reporter activity and expression of Wnt/?-catenin downstream genes. Silencing ?-catenin in mesenchymal stem cells inhibited Wnt3A-induced early osteogenic differentiation and significantly diminished synergistic osteogenic activity between BMP9 and Wnt3A in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that the GDA-based pSOK system has been proven simplistic, effective and versatile for simultaneous expression of multiple siRNAs. Thus, the reported pSOK system should be a valuable tool for gene function studies and development of novel therapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
Silica nanoparticles induce autophagy and endothelial dysfunction via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although nanoparticles have a great potential for biomedical applications, there is still a lack of a correlative safety evaluation on the cardiovascular system. This study is aimed to clarify the biological behavior and influence of silica nanoparticles (Nano-SiO2) on endothelial cell function. The results showed that the Nano-SiO2 were internalized into endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Monodansylcadaverine staining, autophagic ultrastructural observation, and LC3-I/LC3-II conversion were employed to verify autophagy activation induced by Nano-SiO2, and the whole autophagic process was also observed in endothelial cells. In addition, the level of nitric oxide (NO), the activities of NO synthase (NOS) and endothelial (e)NOS were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent way, while the activity of inducible (i)NOS was markedly increased. The expression of C-reactive protein, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin [IL]-1?, and IL-6) were significantly elevated. Moreover, Nano-SiO2 had an inhibitory effect on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that Nano-SiO2 could disturb the NO/NOS system, induce inflammatory response, activate autophagy, and eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. This indicates that exposure to Nano-SiO2 is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Glimepiride Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation in Rat Osteoblasts via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathway in a High Glucose Microenvironment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous studies demonstrated that glimepiride enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and led to activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Recent genetic evidence shows that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in bone homeostasis. In this study, we further elucidated the roles of eNOS, PI3K and Akt in bone formation by osteoblasts induced by glimepiride in a high glucose microenvironment. We demonstrated that high glucose (16.5 mM) inhibits the osteogenic differentiation potential and proliferation of rat osteoblasts. Glimepiride activated eNOS expression in rat osteoblasts cultured with two different concentrations of glucose. High glucose-induced osteogenic differentiation was significantly enhanced by glimepiride. Down-regulation of PI3K P85 levels by treatment with LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) led to suppression of P-eNOS and P-AKT expression levels, which in turn resulted in inhibition of RUNX2, OCN and ALP mRNA expression in osteoblasts induced by glimepiride at both glucose concentrations. ALP activity was partially inhibited by 10 µM LY294002. Taken together, our results demonstrate that glimepiride-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts occurs via eNOS activation and is dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in a high glucose microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct Role of CD86 Polymorphisms (rs1129055, rs17281995) in Risk of Cancer: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies concerning the role of CD86 polymorphisms (rs1129055 and rs17281995) in cancer fail to provide compelling evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of common polymorphisms in the risk of cancer by meta-analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of microRNA-21 overexpression in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have highlighted the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a prognostic biomarker of breast cancer. However, controversy still remains. The present study aimed to summarize available evidences and obtain a more precise estimation of a prognostic role of miR-21 in breast cancer patients. All eligible studies were searched from PubMed and EMBASE through multiple search strategies. Data were extracted from studies comparing survival in breast cancer patients having higher miR-21 expression with those having lower expression. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify prognostic role of miR-21 in patients with breast cancer. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to patients' ethnicity. A total of 6 eligible articles comprising 951 cases were selected for this meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for overall survival (OS) were 2.11 (1.09-4.08) and for disease free survival (DFS) was 1.6 (1.30-1.96). Subgroup analysis indicated high miR-21 expression was significantly associated with worse OS in Asian patients (HR = 4.39, 95% CI: 2.47-7.80) but not in non-Asian patients (HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.81-1.70). Sensitivity analysis revealed results of this meta-analysis were robust. Odds ratios (ORs) showed that miR-21 expression was closely associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node metastasis, histological grade, Her2/neu. The pooled ORs and 95% CIs were 0.53 (0.35-0.80), 0.49 (0.32-0.74), 2.32 (1.54-3.50), 2.44 (1.58-3.75), 4.29 (2.34-7.85), respectively. Our results indicated that elevated miR-21 expression could potentially predict poor survival in patients with breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
LncRNA TSLC1-AS1 is a novel tumor suppressor in glioma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growing evidence demonstrates that long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in cancer origination and progression. A novel lncRNA, TSLC1-AS1, is the antisense transcript of tumor suppressor TSLC1. The expression profile and function of TSLC1-AS1 in glioma were investigated using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and siRNA knockdown. The data showed that TSLC1-AS1 expression was down-regulated in tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and negatively associated with the WHO criteria of the tumors. Overexpression of TSLC1-AS1 resulted in up-regulation of TSLC1 and significant inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion in U87 cells, while knockdown of TSLC1-AS1 in SNB-19 cells showed the opposite effect. The expression of TSLC1-AS1 was also positively correlated with other tumor suppressors NF1, VHL, PIK3R1 and negatively correlated with the oncogene BRAF. The results suggested that TSLC1-AS1 was a tumor suppressor of glioma and a mediator of TSLC1 expression. LncRNA TSLC1-AS1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma.
Related JoVE Video
A novel long non-coding RNA FOXCUT and mRNA FOXC1 pair promote progression and predict poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accumulating evidences demonstrated that many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can cooperate with the adjacent coding genes, forming into "lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs" in multiple biological cellular processes. Here, we showed that a novel long non-coding RNA FOXCUT (FOXC1 promoter upstream transcript) and its neighboring gene FOXC1 played a similar important role in the oncogenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, the expression of FOXCUT/FOXC1 was measured in 82 ESCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The prognostic significance of the lncRNA-mRNA gene pair was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Cell biological experiments were performed in ESCC cell lines to explore their functions in tumor progression. Notably elevated FOXCUT and FOXC1 expression levels were observed in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent noncancerous tissues (86.6% and 84.1%, respectively; P < 0.01), showing strong correlations with poor differentiation, advanced lymph node classification and metastasis (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients with upregulated FOXCUT or FOXC1 experienced a significantly worse prognosis than those with downregulated FOXCUT or FOXC1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively). In addition, the expression of FOXCUT was positively correlated with expression of FOXC1 in ESCC specimens. And the expression of FOXC1 was also decreased as the FOXCUT expression was silenced by siRNA. Assays in vitro demonstrated that knockdown of either FOXCUT or FOXC1 remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion in ESCC cells. In conclusion, FOXCUT may be functionally involved in the tumor progression and survival of ESCC patients, at least in part, by modulating FOXC1. FOXCUT and FOXC1 may function as a lncRNA-mRNA gene pair, which may represent a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased expression of a novel lncRNA CADM1-AS1 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype in renal cell carcinomas. Rapidly accumulating studies show that the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play essential roles in cancers. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of a novel lncRNA CADM1-AS1 in ccRCC by quantitative real time PCR. The results showed that CADM1-AS1 expression was down-regulated in tumor tissues in 64 patients with ccRCC compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the expression of CADM1-AS1 was positively correlated with the expression of mRNA CADM1 in ccRCC specimens (R = 0.611, P <0.0001). Decreased CADM1-AS1 expression was correlated with the progression of AJCC stage (P = 0.039) and worse survival of ccRCC patients (P <0.05). Also, multivariate analysis identified low CADM1-AS1 expression as an independent prognostic factor for ccRCC (P <0.001, HR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.088-0.504). In addition, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to evaluate the biological function of CADM1-AS1 in vitro. The results showed that CADM1-AS1 expression was positively associated with CADM1 mRNA expression in 786-O cells and ACHN cells. Functional experiments demonstrated markedly enhanced ability of growth and migration, and reduced apoptotic rate in CADM1-AS1 knocking down in 786-O cells. Conversely, overexpression of CADM1-AS1 showed a significant decrease in growth and migration, along with an increase in apoptotic rate in ACHN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated CADM1-AS1 is a new tumor suppressor in ccRCC which regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration via the expression pattern of "CADM1-AS1/CADM1 mRNA gene pairs". CADM1-AS1 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with ccRCC.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Fas -1377 G/A polymorphism with susceptibility to cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between Fas -1377 G/A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility has been implicated in accumulating data. However, the data presented inconsistent results. This study was devised to investigate the association of Fas -1377 G/A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility in a large number of participants.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of p300 and CBP is associated with poor prognosis in small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the correlation among p300, CBP and MLL expression and the clinicopathological characteristics in resected SCLC patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Epidemiology of invasive fungal disease in patients with hematological diseases].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the epidemiological profiles of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in hospitalized patients with hematological diseases during 2007-2012.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of ocular fundus pathology with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese urban community as assessed by telescreening.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the telescreening model and assess the prevalence of ocular fundus pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes within a Chinese urban community.
Related JoVE Video
Geographical prevalence and risk factors for pterygium: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pterygium is considered to be a proliferative overgrowth of bulbar conjunctiva that can induce significant astigmatism and cause visual impairment; this is the first meta-analysis to investigate the pooled prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the global world.
Related JoVE Video
Characterizations of Ohmic and Schottky-behaving contacts of a single ZnO nanowire.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current-voltage and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements were performed on single ZnO nanowires. Measurements are shown to be strongly correlated with the contact behavior, either Ohmic or diode-like. The ZnO nanowires were obtained by metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and contacted using electronic-beam lithography. Depending on the contact geometry, good quality Ohmic contacts (linear I-V behavior) or non-linear (diode-like) contacts were obtained. Current-voltage and KPFM measurements on both types of contacted ZnO nanowires were performed in order to investigate their behavior. A clear correlation could be established between the I-V curve, the electrical potential profile along the device and the nanowire geometry. Some arguments supporting this behavior are given based on technological issues and on depletion region extension. This work will help to better understand the electrical behavior of Ohmic contacts on single ZnO nanowires, for future applications in nanoscale field-effect transistors and nano-photodetectors.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.