The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving and diversifying pathogen necessitating the development of improved vaccines. Immunity to PRRSV is not well understood although there are data suggesting that virus-specific T cell IFN-? responses play an important role. We therefore aimed to better characterise the T cell response to genotype 1 (European) PRRSV by utilising a synthetic peptide library spanning the entire proteome and a small cohort of pigs rendered immune to PRRSV-1 Olot/91 by repeated experimental infection. Using an IFN-? ELISpot assay as a read-out, we were able to identify 9 antigenic regions on 5 of the viral proteins and determine the corresponding responder T cell phenotype. The diversity of the IFN-? response to PRRSV proteins suggests that antigenic regions are scattered throughout the proteome and no one single antigen dominates the T cell response. To address the identification of well-conserved T cell antigens, we subsequently screened groups of pigs infected with a closely related avirulent PRRSV-1 strain (Lelystad) and a divergent virulent subtype 3 strain (SU1-Bel). Whilst T cell responses from both groups were observed against many of the antigens identified in the first study, animals infected with the SU1-Bel strain showed the greatest response against peptides representing the non-structural protein 5. The proteome-wide peptide library screening method used here, as well as the antigens identified, warrant further evaluation in the context of next generation vaccine development.
In lagomorphs, lymphocyte subset distributions and the importance of CD4(+) T cell levels has so far only been considered in the frame of rabbit disease models. In this study, the first assessment of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in peripheral blood cells in brown hares (Lepus europaeus L., 1758), a further leporid species using a cross-reactive rabbit anti-CD4 antibody in flow cytometry, is presented. In addition, the entire coding region of the hare CD4 gene (1380 bp) coding for a polypeptide of 459 amino acids has been sequenced. Using generalized least squares fitting by maximum likelihood (GLS) test, significantly (p=0.0095) higher CD4(+) T cell frequencies in males than in females and significantly (p=0.0001) higher frequencies for leverets (younger than 2 months of age) than for subadult and adult (older than 7 months of age) individuals were detected. No significant age influence, however, was found for subadult and adult hares. The study is particularly meant to provide a first step in establishing a toolbox for the assessment of the immune response in this leporid species.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has largely been used for species delimitation. However, mtDNA introgression across species boundaries can lead to inconsistent phylogenies. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial genome in the chamois, genus Rupicapra, show the presence of three well differentiated clades, West (mtW), Central (mtC) and East (mtE), each with a geographically restricted distribution. The complete mtDNAs of the clades mtW and mtE (main representatives of the two currently considered species R. pyrenaica and R. rupicapra respectively) have been reported. In the present study, we sequenced the clade mtC present in populations from both species inhabiting the central area of Europe: the Apennines (R. pyrenaica ornata) and the Chartreuse Mountains (R. rupicapra cartusiana). The phylogenetic comparison with the genomes of Caprini highlights the ancient presence of chamois in Europe relative to the fossil record, and the old age of the chamois clade mtC that was split from the clade mtW in the early Pleistocene. The separation of R. pyrenaica ornata and R. rupicapra cartusiana female lineages was recent, dating of the late Pleistocene. Our data represent an example of mtDNA introgression of resident females of Chartreuse Mountains into immigrant males of R. rupicapra due to male-biased migration and female phylopatry.
Canine lymphoma represents the most frequent haematopoietic cancer and it shares some similarities with human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a coordinated role during invasion and proliferation of malignant cells; however, little is known about their role in canine haematologic malignancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and the most relevant MMPs in canine lymphoma. Lymph node aspirates from 26 B-cell and 21 T-cell lymphomas were collected. The protein expression levels of MMP-9, MMP-2 and VEGF-A were evaluated by immunocytochemistry, and the mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, RECK, VEGF-A and VEGF-164 were measured using quantitative RT-PCR.
The taxonomy of chamois and the effects of historical and evolutionary events on its diversification are still under discussion given that different morphological and genetic features presented partially discordant views. One of the morphological features that differentiate the two currently considered species, Rupicapra pyrenaica (southern chamois) and R. rupicapra (northern chamois) is coat color pattern. The melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R) is related with differences in coloration in different mammals and was analyzed here in a sample of 25 chamois covering the 10 subspecies recognized, three in R. pyrenaica, (parva, pyrenaica and ornata) and seven in R. rupicapra (cartusiana, rupicapra, tatrica, carpatica, balcanica, asiatica and caucasica). Comparison with other caprinae showed that the MC1R gene has evolved under strong purifying selection. Three well differentiated haplotypes were identified: one shared by the seven subspecies of R. rupicapra, other common to the two Iberian chamois, both of the species R. pyrenaica, and a third haplotype, basal in the phylogenetic tree, unique to the subspecies from the Apennines, R. pyrenaica ornata. This pattern of variation, with three conspicuous clades, concurs with previous findings on microsatellites and mtDNA and argues in favor of the old classifications that distinguished the species R. ornata.
Differentiation of porcine T helper cells is still poorly investigated, partly due to a lack of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for molecules involved in this process. Recently, we identified a mAb specific for porcine CD27 and showed that CD27 is expressed by all naïve CD8?- T helper cells but divides CD8?+ T helper cells into a CD27+ and a CD27- subset. In the present study, detailed phenotypical and functional analyses of these T-helper cell subpopulations were performed. Naïve CD8?-CD27+ T helper cells predominantly resided in various lymph nodes, whereas higher proportions of CD8?+CD27+ and CD8?+CD27- T helper cells were found in blood, spleen and liver. Both CD8?+CD27+ and CD8?+CD27- T helper cells were capable of producing IFN-? upon in vitro polyclonal stimulation and antigen-specific restimulation. Experiments with sorted CD8?-CD27+, CD8?+CD27+ and CD8?+CD27- T-helper cell subsets following polyclonal stimulation revealed the lowest proliferative response but the highest ability for IFN-? and TNF-? production in the CD8?+CD27- subset. Therefore, these cells resembled terminally differentiated effector memory cells as described in human. This was supported by analyses of CCR7 and CD62L expression. CD8?+CD27- T helper cells were mostly CCR7- and had considerably reduced CD62L mRNA levels. In contrast, expression of both homing-receptors was increased on CD8?+CD27+ T helper cells, which also had a proliferation rate similar to naïve CD8?-CD27+ T helper cells and showed intermediate levels of cytokine production. Therefore, similar to human, CD8?+CD27+ T helper cells displayed a phenotype and functional properties of central memory cells.
This work describes peptides from non-structural proteins (nsp) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) predicted as potential T cell epitopes by bioinfornatics and tested for their ability to induce IFN-? and IL-10 responses. Pigs immunized with either genotype 1 or genotype 2 PRRSV attenuated vaccines (n=5/group) and unvaccinated pigs (n = 4) were used to test the peptides. Swine leukocyte antigen haplotype of each pig was also determined. Pigs were initially screened for IFN-? responses (ELISPOT) and three peptides were identified; two of them in non-conserved segments of nsp2 and nsp5 and the other in a conserved region of nsp5 peptide. Then, peptides were screened for IL-10 inducing properties. Six peptides were found to induce IL-10 release in PBMC and some of them were also able to inhibit IFN-? responses on PHA-stimulated cells. Interestingly, the IFN-? low responder pigs against PRRSV were mostly homozygous for their SLA haplotypes. In conclusion, these results indicate that nsp of PRRSV contain T-cell epitopes inducing IFN-? responses as well as IL-10 inducing segments with inhibitory capabilities.
Natural Killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the early phase of immune responses against various pathogens. In swine so far only little information about this lymphocyte population exists. Phenotypical analyses with newly developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against porcine NKp46 recently revealed that in blood NKp46- and NKp46+ cells with NK phenotype exist with comparable cytotoxic properties. In spleen a third NKp46-defined population with NK phenotype was observed that was characterised by a low to negative CD8? and increased NKp46 expression. In the current study it is shown that this NKp46high phenotype was correlated with an increased expression of CD16 and CD27 compared to the CD8?+NKp46- and NKp46+ NK-cell subsets in spleen and blood. Additionally NKp46high NK cells expressed elevated levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 on mRNA level. Functional analyses revealed that splenic NKp46high NK cells produced much higher levels of Interferon-? and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? upon stimulation with cytokines or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/Ionomycin compared to the other two subsets. Furthermore, cross-linking of NKp46 by NKp46-specific mAbs led to a superior CD107a expression in the NKp46high NK cells, thus indicating a higher cytolytic capacity of this subset. Therefore porcine splenic NKp46high NK cells represent a highly activated subset of NK cells and may play a profound role in the immune surveillance of this organ.
Vaccination with live attenuated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccines induces a rapid onset of protection which has been associated with virus-specific CD8 T cell IFN-? responses. In this study, we assessed the specificity of this response, by screening a peptide library spanning the CSFV C-strain vaccine polyprotein to identify and characterise CD8 T cell epitopes. Synthetic peptides were pooled to represent each of the 12 CSFV proteins and used to stimulate PBMC from four pigs rendered immune to CSFV by C-strain vaccination and subsequently challenged with the virulent Brescia strain. Significant IFN-? expression by CD8 T cells, assessed by flow cytometry, was induced by peptide pools representing the core, E2, NS2, NS3 and NS5A proteins. Dissection of these antigenic peptide pools indicated that, in each instance, a single discrete antigenic peptide or pair of overlapping peptides was responsible for the IFN-? induction. Screening and titration of antigenic peptides or truncated derivatives identified the following antigenic regions: core241-255 PESRKKLEKALLAWA and NS31902-1912 VEYSFIFLDEY, or minimal length antigenic peptides: E2996-1003 YEPRDSYF, NS21223-1230 STVTGIFL and NS5A3070-3078 RVDNALLKF. The epitopes are highly conserved across CSFV strains and variable sequence divergence was observed with related pestiviruses. Characterisation of epitope-specific CD8 T cells revealed evidence of cytotoxicity, as determined by CD107a mobilisation, and a significant proportion expressed TNF-? in addition to IFN-?. Finally, the variability in the antigen-specificity of these immunodominant CD8 T cell responses was confirmed to be associated with expression of distinct MHC class I haplotypes. Moreover, recognition of NS21223-1230 STVTGIFL and NS31902-1912 VEYSFIFLDEY by a larger group of C-strain vaccinated animals showed that these peptides could be restricted by additional haplotypes. Thus the antigenic regions and epitopes identified represent attractive targets for evaluation of their vaccine potential against CSFV.
T-helper (TH) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important modulators of immune responses. Aim of this study was to analyse their expression potential for cytokines and other immune-relevant molecules. Therefore, porcine PBMC, CD4(-) cells, CD4(+)CD25(-) resting, CD4(+)CD25(dim) activated TH cells, and CD4(+)CD25(high) Tregs were analysed on their mRNA expression potential ex vivo or after in vitro stimulation with CD3 and IL-2 by RT-qPCR. In vitro stimulation led to an increased production of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF?) and TH (IL-2, IL-4, IL-17, IFN-?) cytokines and a diverse production of immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-?) in PBMC, CD4(-), and CD4(+) cells. Resting and activated TH cells showed an increased expression of various immune-modulatory molecules indicating that porcine TH cells possess distinct immunological skills in order to react on the actual immune situation. In contrast, Tregs appear to fulfil mainly immunosuppressive functions characterized by increased production of IL-10, IL-35, CD40L, and CD25.
Up to now for Swine Workshop Cluster 2 (SWC2) the orthologous human CD molecule was unknown. By use of the SWC2-specific mAb b30c7 and a retroviral cDNA expression library derived from stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells we could identify SWC2 as porcine CD27. Phenotypic analyses of lymphocytes isolated from blood and lymphatic organs revealed that mature T cells in thymus and T cells in the periphery with a naïve phenotype were CD27(+). However, within CD8?(+) T helper and CD8?(+) ?? T cells also CD27(-) cells were present, indicating a down-regulation after antigen contact in vivo. B cells lacked CD27 expression, whereas NK cells expressed intermediate levels. Furthermore, plate-bound mAb b30c7 showed a costimulatory capacity on CD3-activated T cells for proliferation, IFN-? and TNF-? production. Hence, our data indicate an important role of porcine CD27 for T-cell differentiation and activation as described for humans and mice.
Cell lines are key tools in cancer research allowing the generation of neoplasias in animal models resembling the initial tumours able to mimic the original neoplasias closely in vivo. Canine lymphoma is the major hematopoietic malignancy in dogs and considered as a valuable spontaneous large animal model for human Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL). Herein we describe the establishment and characterisation of an in vivo model using the canine B-cell lymphoma cell line CLBL-1 analysing the stability of the induced tumours and the ability to resemble the original material. CLBL-1 was injected into Rag2(-/-)?(c) (-/-) mice. The generated tumor material was analysed by immunophenotyping and histopathology and used to establish the cell line CLBL-1M. Both cell lines were karyotyped for detection of chromosomal aberrations. Additionally, CLBL-1 was stimulated with IL-2 and DSP30 as described for primary canine B-cell lymphomas and NHL to examine the stimulatory effect on cell proliferation. CLBL-1 in vivo application resulted in lymphoma-like disease and tumor formation. Immunophenotypic analysis of tumorous material showed expression of CD45(+), MHCII(+), CD11a(+) and CD79?cy(+). PARR analysis showed positivity for IgH indicating a monoclonal character. These cytogenetic, molecular, immunophenotypical and histological characterisations of the in vivo model reveal that the induced tumours and thereof generated cell line resemble closely the original material. After DSP30 and IL-2 stimulation, CLBL-1 showed to respond in the same way as primary material. The herein described CLBL-1 in vivo model provides a highly stable tool for B-cell lymphoma research in veterinary and human medicine allowing various further in vivo studies.
The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbors the highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I and II gene clusters encoding glycoproteins that present antigenic peptides to T cells in the adaptive immune response. In Austria, the majority of commercial pigs are F 2 descendants of F 1 Large White/Landrace hybrids paired with Pietrain boars. Therefore, the repertoire of SLA alleles and haplotypes present in Pietrain pigs has an important influence on that of their descendants. In this study, we characterized the SLA class I ( SLA-1 , SLA-2 , SLA-3 ) and class II ( SLA-DRB1 , SLA-DQB1 , SLA-DQA ) genes of 27 purebred Pietrain pigs using a combination of the high-resolution sequence-based typing (SBT) method and a low-resolution (Lr) PCR-based method using allele-group, sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). A total of 15 class I and 13 class II haplotypes were identified in the studied cohort. The most common SLA class I haplotype Lr-43.0 ( SLA-1 *11XX- SLA-3 *04XX- SLA-2 *04XX) was identified in 11 animals with a frequency of 20%. For SLA class II, the most prevalent haplotype, Lr-0.14 [ SLA-DRB1 *0901- SLA-DQB1 *0801- SLA-DQA *03XX], was found in 14 animals with a frequency of 26%. Two class II haplotypes, tentatively designated as Lr-Pie-0.1 [ SLA-DRB1 *01XX/be01/ha04- SLA-DQB1 *05XX- SLA - DQA*blank] and Lr-Pie-0.2 [ SLA-DRB1 *06XX- SLA-DQB1 *03XX- SLA-DQA *03XX], appeared to be novel and have never been reported so far in other pig populations. We showed that SLA genotyping using PCR-SSP-based assays represents a rapid and cost-effective way to study SLA diversity in outbred commercial pigs and may facilitate the development of more effective vaccines or identification of disease-resistant pigs in the context of SLA antigens to improve overall swine health.
So far little is known about natural killer (NK) cells in the pig due to the lack of NK cell-specific markers. In this study, we identified the activating receptor NKp46 (CD335) in swine with newly developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for more detailed studies on NK cells in this species. The NKp46 mAbs showed a specific reactivity with a distinct population of perforin(+) CD2(+) CD3(-) CD8?(+) CD16(+) lymphocytes. In spleen and liver, an additional subset of CD8?(dim/-) lymphocytes with increased NKp46 expression was observed. Surprisingly, we could identify NKp46(-) cells with an NK cell phenotype in all animals analyzed. These lymphocytes showed comparable cytolytic activity against xenogeneic and allogeneic target cells as NKp46(+) NK cells. In contrast, NKp46(+) NK cells produced several fold higher levels of interferon-? (IFN-?) than the NKp46(-) cells after cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, an activation-dependent induction of NKp46 expression in formerly NKp46(-) cells after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-12, and IL-18 could be shown. In summary, our data indicate that NKp46 is not expressed by all porcine NK cells and that NKp46 discriminates porcine NK cells differing in regard to cytokine production, which challenges the paradigm of NKp46 as a comprehensive marker for NK cells across different mammalian species.
During the last decades for several species--e.g. swine--many mAb to leukocyte-specific molecules have been developed and clusters of differentiation corresponding to human CD could be established. However, for a significant amount of the raised mAb the corresponding antigens were not characterized on the molecular level and therefore preliminary clusters--in swine so-called Swine workshop clusters (SWC)--were established. These clusters contain antigens with currently no obvious orthologs to human leukocyte differentiation antigens. In this study, we describe the generation of a eukaryotic cDNA expression library from in vitro activated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Screening of this library with an antibody recognizing SWC1 enabled isolation and sequencing of cDNAs coding for the porcine SWC1 molecule. A BLAST search of the obtained sequence revealed that SWC1 is the orthologous molecule of human CD52. Therefore, our study provides the basis for comparative studies on the role of CD52 in different mammalian species. In addition, the established cDNA library can be used for investigation of additional SWC-defined molecules.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.