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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hippocampal Extracellular Matrix Levels and Stochasticity in Synaptic Protein Expression Increase with Age and Are Associated with Age-dependent Cognitive Decline.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wild-type mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits, we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed robust and progressive up-regulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, which indicated that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix might limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance in old age.
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Neuregulin-3 in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex regulates impulsive action.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A deficit in impulse control is a prominent, heritable symptom in several psychiatric disorders, such as addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Here, we aimed to identify genes regulating impulsivity, specifically of impulsive action, in mice.
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Prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric Acid type a receptor insertion controls cue-induced relapse to nicotine seeking.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Current smoking cessation therapies offer limited success, as relapse rates remain high. Nicotine, which is the major component of tobacco smoke, is thought to be primarily responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine relapse, hampering development of more effective therapies. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic receptors in controlling relapse to nicotine seeking.
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C-terminal interactors of the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit Shisa9.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Shisa9 (initially named CKAMP44) has been identified as auxiliary subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and was shown to modulate its physiological properties. Shisa9 is a type-I transmembrane protein and contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that potentially interacts with cytosolic proteins. In this study, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that yielded eight PDZ domain-containing interactors of Shisa9, which were independently validated. The identified interactors are known scaffolding proteins residing in the neuronal postsynaptic density. To test whether C-terminal scaffolding interactions of Shisa9 affect synaptic AMPA receptor function in the hippocampus, we disrupted these interactions using a Shisa9 C-terminal mimetic peptide. In the absence of scaffolding interactions of Shisa9, glutamatergic AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the lateral perforant path of the mouse hippocampus had a faster decay time, and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced. Furthermore, disruption of the PDZ interactions between Shisa9 and its binding partners affected hippocampal network activity. Taken together, our data identifies novel interaction partners of Shisa9, and shows that the C-terminal interactions of Shisa9 through its PDZ domain interaction motif are important for AMPA receptor synaptic and network functions.
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A Sustained Depressive State Promotes a Guanfacine Reversible Susceptibility to Alcohol Seeking in Rats.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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High rates of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are reported. Preclinical models examining effects of primary depression on secondary AUD are currently absent, preventing adequate testing of drug treatment. Here, we combined social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) and operant alcohol self-administration (SA) paradigms to assess causality between these two neuropsychiatric disorders. We then exploited guanfacine, an FDA-approved adrenergic agent reported to reduce drug craving in humans, against SDPS-induced modulation of operant alcohol SA. Wistar rats were socially defeated and isolated for a period of ?9 weeks, during which depression-like symptomatology (cognitive and social behavioral symptoms) was assessed. Subsequently, animals were subjected to a 5-month operant alcohol SA paradigm, examining acquisition, motivation, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The effects of guanfacine on motivation and relapse were measured at >6 months following defeat. SDPS rats exhibited significant disruption of social and cognitive behavior, including short-term spatial and long-term social memory, several months following defeat. Notably, SDPS increased motivation to obtain alcohol, and cue-induced relapse vulnerability. Guanfacine reversed the SDPS-induced effects on motivation and relapse. Together, our model mimics core symptomatology of a sustained depressive-like state and a subsequent vulnerability to alcohol abuse. We show that SDPS is strongly associated with an enhanced motivation for alcohol intake and relapse. Finally, we show that the clinically employed drug guanfacine has potential as a novel treatment option in comorbid patients, as it effectively reduced the enhanced sensitivity to alcohol and alcohol-associated stimuli.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 11 December 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.311.
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Behavioral evidence for photophobia and stress-related ipsilateral head pain in transgenic Cacna1a mutant mice.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Migraine is a highly prevalent, disabling and complex episodic brain disorder whose pathogenesis is poorly understood, due in part to the lack of valid animal models. Here we report behavioral evidence of hallmark migraine features, photophobia and unilateral head pain, in transgenic knock-in mice bearing human familial hemiplegic migraine, type 1 (FHM-1) gain-of-function missense mutations (R192Q or S218L) in the Cacna1a gene encoding the CaV2.1 calcium channel ?1 subunit. Photophobia was demonstrated using a modified elevated plus maze in which the safe closed arms were brightly illuminated; mutant mice avoided the light despite showing no differences in the standard (anxiety) version of the test. Multiple behavioral measures suggestive of spontaneous head pain were found in 192Q mutants subjected to novelty and/or restraint stress. These behaviors were: (1) more frequent in mutant versus wildtype mice; (2) lateralized in mutant but not in wildtype mice; (3) more frequent in females versus males; and (4) dose-dependently normalized by systemic administration of 2 different acute analgesics, rizatriptan and morphine. Furthermore, some of these behaviors were found to be more frequent and severe in 218L compared to 192Q mutants, consistent with the clinical presentation in humans. We suggest that Cacna1a transgenic mice can experience migraine-related head pain and can thus serve as unique tools to study the pathogenesis of migraine and test novel antimigraine agents.
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Enhanced alcohol self-administration and reinstatement in a highly impulsive, inattentive recombinant inbred mouse strain.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Deficits in executive control have frequently been associated with alcohol use disorder. Here we investigated to what extent pre-existing genetically encoded levels of impulsive/inattentive behavior associate with motivation to take alcohol and vulnerability to cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking in an operant self-administration paradigm. We took advantage of BXD16, a recombinant inbred strain previously shown to have enhanced impulsivity and poor attentional control. We compared BXD16 with C57BL/6J mice in a simple choice reaction time task (SCRTT) and confirmed its impulsive/inattentive phenotype. BXD16 mice were less active in a novel open field (OF), and were equally active in an automated home cage environment, showing that increased impulsive responding of BXD16 mice could not be explained by enhanced general activity compared to C57BL/6J mice. After training in a sucrose/alcohol fading self-administration procedure, BXD16 showed increased motivation to earn 10% alcohol solution, both under fixed ratio (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR2) schedules of reinforcement. Responding on the active lever readily decreased during extinction training with no apparent differences between strains. However, upon re-exposure to alcohol-associated cues, alcohol seeking was reinstated to a larger extent in BXD16 than in C57BL/6J mice. Although further studies are needed to determine whether impulsivity/inattention and alcohol seeking depend on common or separate genetic loci, these data show that in mice enhanced impulsivity coincides with increased motivation to take alcohol, as well as relapse vulnerability.
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Expression QTL mapping in regulatory and helper T cells from the BXD family of strains reveals novel cell-specific genes, gene-gene interactions and candidate genes for auto-immune disease.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in the control of the immune response. Treg cells represent important targets for therapeutic interventions of the immune system. Therefore, it will be very important to understand in more detail which genes are specifically activated in Treg cells versus T helper (Th) cells, and which gene regulatory circuits may be involved in specifying and maintaining Treg cell homeostasis.
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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?2 subunits in the medial prefrontal cortex control attention.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2011
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More than one-third of all people are estimated to experience mild to severe cognitive impairment as they age. Acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain diminish with aging, and nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) stimulation is known to enhance cognitive performance. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in a range of cognitive functions and is thought to mediate attentional focus. We found that mice carrying nAChR ?2-subunit deletions have impaired attention performance. Efficient lentiviral vector-mediated reexpression of functional ?2-subunit-containing nAChRs in PFC neurons of the prelimbic area (PrL) completely restored the attentional deficit but did not affect impulsive and motivational behavior. Our findings show that ?2-subunit expression in the PrL PFC is sufficient for endogenous nAChR-mediated cholinergic regulation of attentional performance.
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Novel candidate genes associated with hippocampal oscillations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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The hippocampus is critical for a wide range of emotional and cognitive behaviors. Here, we performed the first genome-wide search for genes influencing hippocampal oscillations. We measured local field potentials (LFPs) using 64-channel multi-electrode arrays in acute hippocampal slices of 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains. Spontaneous activity and carbachol-induced fast network oscillations were analyzed with spectral and cross-correlation methods and the resulting traits were used for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), i.e., regions on the genome that may influence hippocampal function. Using genome-wide hippocampal gene expression data, we narrowed the QTLs to eight candidate genes, including Plcb1, a phospholipase that is known to influence hippocampal oscillations. We also identified two genes coding for calcium channels, Cacna1b and Cacna1e, which mediate presynaptic transmitter release and have not been shown to regulate hippocampal network activity previously. Furthermore, we showed that the amplitude of the hippocampal oscillations is genetically correlated with hippocampal volume and several measures of novel environment exploration.
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Proteomics, ultrastructure, and physiology of hippocampal synapses in a fragile X syndrome mouse model reveal presynaptic phenotype.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of hereditary mental retardation, is caused by a loss-of-function mutation of the Fmr1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP affects dendritic protein synthesis, thereby causing synaptic abnormalities. Here, we used a quantitative proteomics approach in an FXS mouse model to reveal changes in levels of hippocampal synapse proteins. Sixteen independent pools of Fmr1 knock-out mice and wild type mice were analyzed using two sets of 8-plex iTRAQ experiments. Of 205 proteins quantified with at least three distinct peptides in both iTRAQ series, the abundance of 23 proteins differed between Fmr1 knock-out and wild type synapses with a false discovery rate (q-value) <5%. Significant differences were confirmed by quantitative immunoblotting. A group of proteins that are known to be involved in cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth was regulated; they included Basp1 and Gap43, known PKC substrates, and Cend1. Basp1 and Gap43 are predominantly expressed in growth cones and presynaptic terminals. In line with this, ultrastructural analysis in developing hippocampal FXS synapses revealed smaller active zones with corresponding postsynaptic densities and smaller pools of clustered vesicles, indicative of immature presynaptic maturation. A second group of proteins involved in synaptic vesicle release was up-regulated in the FXS mouse model. In accordance, paired-pulse and short-term facilitation were significantly affected in these hippocampal synapses. Together, the altered regulation of presynaptically expressed proteins, immature synaptic ultrastructure, and compromised short-term plasticity points to presynaptic changes underlying glutamatergic transmission in FXS at this stage of development.
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Retrieval-specific endocytosis of GluA2-AMPARs underlies adaptive reconsolidation of contextual fear.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Upon retrieval, fear memories are rendered labile and prone to modification, necessitating a restabilization process of reconsolidation to persist further. This process is also crucial for modulating both strength and content of an existing memory and forms a promising therapeutic target for fear-related disorders. However, the molecular and cellular mechanism of adaptive reconsolidation still remains obscure. Here we show that retrieval of fear memory induces a biphasic temporal change in GluA2-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) membrane expression and synaptic strength in the mouse dorsal hippocampus. Blockade of retrieval-induced, regulated, GluA2-dependent endocytosis enhanced subsequent expression of fear. In addition, this blockade prevented the loss of fear response after reconsolidation-update of fear memory content in the long-term. Thus, endocytosis of GluA2-containing AMPARs allows plastic changes at the synaptic level that exerts an inhibitory constraint on memory strengthening and underlies the loss of fear response by reinterpretation of memory content during adaptive reconsolidation.
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Development of the motivational system during adolescence, and its sensitivity to disruption by nicotine.
Dev Cogn Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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The brain continues to develop during adolescence, and exposure to exogenous substances such as nicotine can exert long-lasting adaptations during this vulnerable period. In order to fully understand how nicotine affects the adolescent brain it is important to understand normal adolescent brain development. This review summarizes human and animal data on brain development, with emphasis on the prefrontal cortex, for its important function in executive control over behavior. Moreover, we discuss how nicotine exposure during adolescence can disrupt brain development bearing long-term consequences on executive cognitive function in adulthood.
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Lasting synaptic changes underlie attention deficits caused by nicotine exposure during adolescence.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Tobacco smoking and nicotine exposure during adolescence interfere with prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and lead to cognitive impairments in later life. The molecular and cellular underpinnings of these consequences remain elusive. We found that adolescent nicotine exposure induced lasting attentional disturbances and reduced mGluR2 protein and function on presynaptic terminals of PFC glutamatergic synapses. Restoring mGluR2 activity in vivo by local infusion of a group II mGluR agonist in adult rats that received nicotine as adolescents rescued attentional disturbances.
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Changes in molecular composition of rat medial prefrontal cortex synapses during adolescent development.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Postnatal brain development continues throughout adolescence into young adulthood. In particular, synapse strengthening and elimination are prominent processes during adolescence. However, molecular data of this relatively late stage of synaptic development are sparse. In this study, we used iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification)-based proteomics and electron microscopy to investigate the molecular composition of a synaptic membrane fraction from adolescent postnatal day (P)34 and P44 and adult (P78) rat medial prefrontal cortex. Differential expression of proteins was most prominent between early adolescence and young adulthood (35%, P34-P78), with an over-representation of cell-membrane proteins during adolescent development (between P34 and P44), and synaptic vesicle proteins between late adolescence and young adulthood (P44-P78). Indicative of the critical period of development, we found that, between P34 and P44, a substantial number of proteins was differentially expressed (14%), much more than during the period after adolescence, i.e. between P44 and P78 (5%). A striking observation was the developmental non-stoichiometric regulation of distinct classes of proteins from the synaptic vesicle and the presynaptic release machinery. Electron microscopy demonstrated a small change in the number of docked vesicles between P34 and P44, but not in the total number of synaptic vesicles and in the size of the vesicle cluster. We conclude that the molecular composition of synapses, and more specifically the synaptic release machinery, of the medial prefrontal cortex changes drastically during adolescent development.
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Extracellular matrix plasticity and GABAergic inhibition of prefrontal cortex pyramidal cells facilitates relapse to heroin seeking.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Successful treatment of drug addiction is hampered by high relapse rates during periods of abstinence. Neuroadaptation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to have a crucial role in vulnerability to relapse to drug seeking, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown. To identify protein changes that contribute to relapse susceptibility, we investigated synaptic membrane fractions from the mPFC of rats that underwent 21 days of forced abstinence following heroin self-administration. Quantitative proteomics revealed that long-term abstinence from heroin self-administration was associated with reduced levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. After extinction of heroin self-administration, downregulation of ECM proteins was also present in the mPFC, as well as nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these adaptations were partially restored following cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. In the mPFC, these ECM proteins are condensed in the perineuronal nets that exclusively surround GABAergic interneurons, indicating that ECM adaptation might alter the activity of GABAergic interneurons. In support of this, we observed an increase in the inhibitory GABAergic synaptic inputs received by the mPFC pyramidal cells after the re-exposure to heroin-conditioned cues. Recovering levels of ECM constituents by metalloproteinase inhibitor treatment (FN-439; i.c.v.) prior to a reinstatement test attenuated subsequent heroin seeking, suggesting that the reduced synaptic ECM levels during heroin abstinence enhanced sensitivity to respond to heroin-conditioned cues. We provide evidence for a novel neuroadaptive mechanism, in which heroin self-administration-induced adaptation of the ECM increased relapse vulnerability, potentially by augmenting the responsivity of mPFC GABAergic interneurons to heroin-associated stimuli.
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The Netherlands Twin Register biobank: a resource for genetic epidemiological studies.
Twin Res Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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In 2004 the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) started a large scale biological sample collection in twin families to create a resource for genetic studies on health, lifestyle and personality. Between January 2004 and July 2008, adult participants from NTR research projects were invited into the study. During a home visit between 7:00 and 10:00 am, fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. Fertile women were bled on day 2-4 of the menstrual cycle, or in their pill-free week. Biological samples were collected for DNA isolation, gene expression studies, creation of cell lines and for biomarker assessment. At the time of blood sampling, additional phenotypic information concerning health, medication use, body composition and smoking was collected. Of the participants contacted, 69% participated. Blood and urine samples were collected in 9,530 participants (63% female, average age 44.4 (SD 15.5) years) from 3,477 families. Lipid profile, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, haematology, CRP, fibrinogen, liver enzymes and creatinine have been assessed. Longitudinal survey data on health, personality and lifestyle are currently available for 90% of all participants. Genome-wide SNP data are available for 3,524 participants, with additional genotyping ongoing. The NTR biobank, combined with the extensive phenotypic information available within the NTR, provides a valuable resource for the study of genetic determinants of individual differences in mental and physical health. It offers opportunities for DNA-based and gene expression studies as well as for future metabolomic and proteomic projects.
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Quantitative cortical synapse proteomics of a transgenic migraine mouse model with mutated Ca(V)2.1 calcium channels.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the alpha1A pore-forming subunit of Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels. Knock-in (KI) transgenic mice expressing Ca(V)2.1 Ca(2+) channels with a human pathogenic FHM1 mutation reveal enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cortex. In this study, we employed an iTRAQ-based LC-LC MS/MS approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in cortical synapse proteomes of Cacna1a R192Q KI and wild-type mice. All expression differences determined were subtle and in the range of 10-30%. Observed upregulated proteins in the mutant mice are involved in processes, such as neurite outgrowth and actin dynamics, vesicle turnover, and glutamate transporters. Our data support the view that in Cacna1a R192Q KI mice, several compensatory mechanisms counterbalancing a dysregulated glutamatergic signaling have come into effect. We propose that such adaptation mechanisms at the synapse level may play a role in the pathophysiology of FHM and possibly in the common forms of migraine.
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Stimulated gene expression profiles as a blood marker of major depressive disorder.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a moderately heritable disorder with a high lifetime prevalence. At present, laboratory blood tests to support MDD diagnosis are not available.
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Inhibitory control and response latency differences between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice in a Go/No-Go and 5-choice serial reaction time task and strain-specific responsivity to amphetamine.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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Among the best-replicated and most heritable endophenotypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are deficits in attention, inhibitory response control and larger intra-individual variability in response latencies. Here, we explored the presence of these heritable ADHD endophenotypes in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, and investigated whether treatment with the stimulant amphetamine affected these phenotypes. Both in an operant Go/No-Go task and 5-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, DBA/2J mice showed reduced inhibitory response control compared with C57BL/6J mice. Mean correct response latencies of DBA/2J mice were slower in both tasks. Analysis of the distribution of correct response latencies suggested similar processing speed, but DBA/2J mice displayed larger intra-individual variability. Amphetamine did not affect inhibition in the Go/No-Go task but increased omission errors. In contrast, in the 5-CSRT task, amphetamine did not affect omission errors but impaired inhibitory response control, specifically in C57BL/6J mice. The dopamine uptake inhibitor, GBR 12909, mimicked this effect and decreased accurate choice, specifically in C57BL/6J mice, indicating that dopamine modulates inhibitory response control and attention in the murine 5-CSRT task. Amphetamine did not affect response distributions in either task. Furthermore, we extended previous reports on differences in the brain dopamine system of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, by showing differential gene expression levels of three dopamine receptors (Drd1, Drd4 and Drd5) in the mPFC. In conclusion, genetic differences between DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice translate into multiple ADHD-related phenotypes, indicating that these strains are valuable resources to understand genetic mechanisms underlying ADHD-relevant phenotypes.
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GABAergic synapse properties may explain genetic variation in hippocampal network oscillations in mice.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Cognitive ability and the properties of brain oscillation are highly heritable in humans. Genetic variation underlying oscillatory activity might give rise to differences in cognition and behavior. How genetic diversity translates into altered properties of oscillations and synchronization of neuronal activity is unknown. To address this issue, we investigated cellular and synaptic mechanisms of hippocampal fast network oscillations in eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains. The frequency of carbachol-induced oscillations differed substantially between mouse strains. Since GABAergic inhibition sets oscillation frequency, we studied the properties of inhibitory synaptic inputs (IPSCs) received by CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells of three mouse strains that showed the highest, lowest and intermediate frequencies of oscillations. In CA3 pyramidal cells, the frequency of rhythmic IPSC input showed the same strain differences as the frequency of field oscillations. Furthermore, IPSC decay times in both CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells were faster in mouse strains with higher oscillation frequencies than in mouse strains with lower oscillation frequency, suggesting that differences in GABA(A)-receptor subunit composition exist between these strains. Indeed, gene expression of GABA(A)-receptor ?2 (Gabrb2) and ?3 (Gabrb2) subunits was higher in mouse strains with faster decay kinetics compared with mouse strains with slower decay kinetics. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mouse strains with higher oscillation frequencies and faster decay kinetics fired action potential at higher frequencies. These data indicate that differences in genetic background may result in different GABA(A)-receptor subunit expression, which affects the rhythm of pyramidal neuron firing and fast network activity through GABA synapse kinetics.
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Dopamine receptor D1/D5 gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts impulsive choice in rats.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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A neuropsychological hallmark of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the reduced ability to tolerate delay of reinforcement, leading to impulsive choice. Genetic association studies have implicated several genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD. In this study, we investigated whether differences in the expression level of these dopamine-related genes of rats predict the individual level of impulsive choice. Among all frontostriatal brain regions tested, only in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), we observed significant positive correlations between impulsive choice and transcript levels of the dopamine receptor D(1), the dopamine receptor D(5) and calcyon. Local mPFC infusions of the D(1)/D(5) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 and agonist SKF 38393 resulted in increased impulsive choice, in agreement with the idea that endogenous receptor D(1)/D(5) stimulation in the mPFC promotes the choice of large delayed rewards. Together, these data indicate that this class of dopamine receptors in the mPFC plays a pivotal role in impulsive choice, and aberrancies thereof might contribute to ADHD symptomatology.
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Prefrontal cortex plasticity mechanisms in drug seeking and relapse.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2009
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Development of pharmacotherapy to reduce relapse rates is one of the biggest challenges in drug addiction research. The enduring nature of relapse suggests that it is maintained by long-lasting molecular and cellular adaptations in the neuronal circuitry that mediates learning and processing of motivationally relevant stimuli. Studies employing the reinstatement model of drug relapse in rodents point to an important role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), with distinct contributions of the dorsal and ventral regions of the mPFC to drug-, stress- and cue-induced drug seeking. Whereas drug-induced neuroadaptations in the dorsal mPFC function to enhance excitatory output and drive expression of drug seeking, recent evidence suggests that plasticity in the ventral mPFC leads to reduced glutamatergic transmission in this region, thereby impairing response inhibition upon exposure to drug-conditioned stimuli. Treatments aimed at restoring drug-induced neuroadaptations in the mPFC may help to reduce cue-reactivity and relapse susceptibility.
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Long-lasting cognitive deficits resulting from adolescent nicotine exposure in rats.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Adolescence is a developmental period, during which the brain and particularly medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) regions thereof have not fully matured. Because epidemiological data have suggested that adolescent nicotine use may result in disturbances in cognitive function in adulthood, we investigated the long-term effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to either nicotine (three times daily, 0.4 mg/kg s.c.) or saline for 10 days during (postnatal day (PND) 34-43) or following (PND 60-69) adolescence. After 5 weeks during adulthood, separate groups of animals were tested in operant paradigms taxing attention and distinct measures of impulsivity. Visuospatial attention and impulsive action were tested in the five-choice serial reaction time task, whereas impulsive choice was assessed in the delayed reward task. Our data show that adolescent, but not postadolescent, nicotine exposure affects cognitive performance in adulthood and results in diminished attentional performance and increments in impulsive action, while leaving impulsive choice intact. This altered cognitive performance appeared to be associated with enhanced releasability of dopamine in the mPFC. Together, these data suggest that adolescence is a time window during which the brain is vulnerable to long-lasting cognitive disturbances resulting from nicotine exposure.
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The Yin and Yang of Nicotine: Harmful during Development, Beneficial in Adult Patient Populations.
Front Pharmacol
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Nicotine has remarkably diverse effects on the brain. Being the main active compound in tobacco, nicotine can aversively affect brain development. However, it has the ability to act positively by restoring attentional capabilities in smokers. Here, we focus on nicotine exposure during the prenatal and adolescent developmental periods and specifically, we will review the long-lasting effects of nicotine on attention, both in humans and animal models. We discuss the reciprocal relation of the beneficial effects of nicotine, improving attention in smokers and in patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, vs. nicotine-related attention deficits already caused during adolescence. Given the need for research on the mechanisms of nicotines cognitive actions, we discuss some of the recent work performed in animals.
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Distinct gene loci control the host response to influenza H1N1 virus infection in a time-dependent manner.
BMC Genomics
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There is strong but mostly circumstantial evidence that genetic factors modulate the severity of influenza infection in humans. Using genetically diverse but fully inbred strains of mice it has been shown that host sequence variants have a strong influence on the severity of influenza A disease progression. In particular, C57BL/6J, the most widely used mouse strain in biomedical research, is comparatively resistant. In contrast, DBA/2J is highly susceptible.
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The synaptic pathology of drug addiction.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
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A hallmark of drug addiction is the uncontrollable desire to consume drugs at the expense of severe negative consequences. Moreover, addicts that successfully refrain from drug use have a high vulnerability to relapse even after months or years of abstinence. In this chapter, we will discuss the current understanding of drug-induced neuroplasticity within the mesocorticolimbic brain system that contributes to the development of addiction and the persistence of relapse to drug seeking. I particular, we will focus at animal models that can be translated to human addiction. Although dopaminergic transmission is important for the acute effects of drug intake, the long-lived behavioral abnormalities associated with addiction are thought to arise from pathological plasticity in glutamatergic neurotransmission. The nature of changes in excitatory synaptic plasticity depends on several factors, including the type of drug, the brain area, and the time-point studied in the transition of drug exposure to withdrawal and relapse to drug seeking. Identification of drug-induced neuroplasticity is crucial to understand how molecular and cellular adaptations contribute to the end stage of addiction, which from a clinical perspective, is a time-point where pharmacotherapy may be most effectively employed.
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Adolescent nicotine exposure transiently increases high-affinity nicotinic receptors and modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex.
FASEB J.
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Adolescence is a critical developmental period during which most adult smokers initiate their habit. Adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to nicotines long-term effects on addictive and cognitive behavior. We investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in rats modifies expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the short and/or long term, and whether this has functional consequences. Using receptor binding studies followed by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits, we showed that adolescent nicotine exposure, as compared with saline, caused an increase in mPFC nAChRs containing ?4 or ?2 subunits (24 and 18%, respectively) 24 h after the last injection. Nicotine exposure in adulthood had no such effect. This increase was transient and was not observed 5 wk following either adolescent or adult nicotine exposure. In line with increased nAChRs expression 1 d after adolescent nicotine exposure, we observed a 34% increase in amplitude of nicotine-induced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons. These effects were transient and specific, and observed only acutely after adolescent nicotine exposure, but not after 5 wk, and no changes were observed in adult-exposed animals. The acute nicotine-induced increase in ?4?2-containing receptors in adolescents interferes with the normal developmental decrease (37%) of these receptors from early adolescence (postnatal day 34) to adulthood (postnatal day 104) in the mPFC. Together, this suggests that these receptors play a role in mediating the acute rewarding effects of nicotine and may underlie the increased sensitivity of adolescents to nicotine.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.