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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Detection of changes in the structure and distribution map of triacylglycerol in fatty liver model by MALDI-SpiralTOF.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation spiral orbit-type time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-SpiralTOF) can analyse lipid profiles and characterise lipid structure. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) also provides distribution maps of selected m/z values. Here, we investigated triacylglycerol (TG) structure and distribution using these technologies to estimate mouse fatty liver. The distribution and intensity of the most intense mass spectrum ion was indicated by IMS at m/z 881.7 (52:2). Analysis using MS/MS showed a structural change between liver TG and dietary TG. These findings suggest that MALDI-SpiralTOF is a powerful tool for clinical screening and estimating fatty liver.
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DJ-1 protein expression as a predictor of pathological complete remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Parkinsons disease is associated with DJ-1/Parkinson protein 7 dysfunction. In contrast, hyperactivity of DJ-1 increases the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis. Recent genetic studies showed that, in addition to apoptosis pathways, DJ-1 is also involved in cellular defense against reactive oxygen species. The activity of apoptotic and cellular defense pathways is key in determining drug sensitivity. DJ-1 overexpression is associated with various cancers. However, we previously found that there were approximately 50 % patients with breast cancers that expressed low levels of DJ-1 protein, despite mRNA upregulation. Furthermore, low DJ-1 expression was a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome in these patients. This study aimed to determine the association between low DJ-1 protein expression and pathological complete remission (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Expression of DJ-1 in pre-therapeutic needle biopsies and surgical specimens obtained from 205 breast cancer cases that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy was determined using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Chemotherapy comprised epirubicin/cyclophosphamide taxane-based regimens with or without the inclusion of trastuzumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the predictive value of DJ-1 on pCR. Low DJ-1 protein expression was detected in 45.3 % (93/205) of all breast cancer cases and in 79.6 % (39/49) of pCR cases, irrespective of maintained mRNA levels. DJ-1 expression [hazard ratio (HR): 1.36; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.84] and HER2 status (HR: 0.84; 95 % CI: 0.62-1.14), in contrast to histological grade, hormone receptors status, Ki-67 labeling index, and intrinsic subtype, were significant predictors of pCR. Low DJ-1 expression predicted pCR in luminal A (P = 0.0004), luminal B (P = 0.0194), and triple negative (P = 0.0143) subtypes breast cancer patients and in patients receiving additional trastuzumab treatment (P = 0.008). In conclusion, low DJ-1 protein expression is a significant predictor of pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
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Proteomic analysis of the lung in rats with hypobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Experimental pulmonary hypertension that develops in hypobaric hypoxia is characterized by structural remodeling of the lung. Proteomics - which may be the most powerful way to uncover unknown remodeling proteins involved in enhancing cardiovascular performance - was used to study 150 male Wistar rats housed for up to 21 days in a chamber at the equivalent of 5500 m altitude level. After 14 days exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was significantly increased. In lung tissue, about 140 matching protein spots were found among 8 groups (divided according to their hypobaric period) by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) (pH4.5-pH6.5, 30 kDa-100 kDa). In hypobaric rats, three spots were increased two-fold or more (vs. control rats) in two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The increased proteins were identified, by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF), as one isoform of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and two isoforms of protein disulfide isomerase associated 3. This result was confirmed by Western blotting analysis of 2D-PAGE. Conceivably, HSP70 and PDIA3 may play roles in modulating the lung structural remodeling that occurs due to pulmonary hypertension in hypobaric hypoxia.
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Pivotal advance: characterization of mouse liver phagocytic B cells in innate immunity.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Although B cells in vertebrates have been thought to lack phagocytic activity, there has been a recent report of such ability by the B cells of early vertebrates such as fish and frogs. Here, we show for the first time that mouse liver IgM(+) B cells actively phagocytose microsphere beads and Escherichia coli and that they effectively kill bacterial cells. Such phagocytic activity is not observed in other liver MNCs, except for F4/80(+) Kupffer cells. In the presence of fresh mouse serum (but not heat-inactivated serum), the heat-killed E. coli phagocytic activity of liver B cells increased significantly but was inhibited significantly by anticomplement component C3 antibody, suggesting E. coli opsonization by serum factors, including complement components. Upon i.v. injection of FITC-labeled E. coli into mice, a substantial proportion of liver B cells phagocytosed the bacteria, as compared with spleen B cells. Functional phagolysosome formation in liver B cells was supported by several reagents showing an acidic change and lysosomes in the phagocytosed vacuoles. Indeed, mouse liver B cells killed viable E. coli more efficiently than did spleen B cells in vitro. Further, E. coli-phagocytic liver B cells produced a substantial amount of IL-12. These results indicate that liver B cells have phagocytic and bactericidal activities similar to those of dedicated phagocytes and may contribute to bacterial clearance.
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A high-cholesterol diet exacerbates liver fibrosis in mice via accumulation of free cholesterol in hepatic stellate cells.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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Some studies have indicated that dietary cholesterol has a role in the progression of liver fibrosis. We investigated the mechanisms by which dietary cholesterol might contribute to hepatic fibrogenesis.
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Expression of P2X4R mRNA and protein in rats with hypobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The experimental pulmonary hypertension that develops in hypobaric hypoxia is characterized by structural remodeling of the heart. The P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) controls vascular tone and vessel remodeling in several blood vessels, and it has emerged as a key factor in the enhancement of cardiovascular performance.
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Lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma of the pleura.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Lymphohistiocytoid mesothelioma (LHM), reported to be a rare variant of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, is challenging to differentiate from non-Hodgkins lymphoma due to marked lymphocytic infiltration. To aid accurate recognition of LHM, we examined immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization (ISH) of Epstein-Barr virus RNA (EBER-1) mRNA, fluorescence ISH (FISH) for homozygous deletion of 9p21, and asbestos analysis in four cases (three men and 1 woman). Three patients died, while Case 4 was still alive 19 months after extrapleural pneumonectomy. Histologically, these cases were characterized by heavy lymphocytic infiltration. All neoplastic cells were positive for calretinin, AE1/AE3, and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for CEA. EBER1 factor was negative. FISH analysis demonstrated homozygous deletion of the 9p21 locus in three of the four cases. In Case 1: (i) autopsy findings showed mesothelioma primarily located in the right parietal pleura, but metastasized into the left lung and abdominal organs; (ii) the histological findings at autopsy indicated sarcomatoid mesothelioma; and (iii) we found asbestos bodies and fibers in extracts from lung tissue (Cases 1 & 4) using digestion with bleaching fluid. LHM, an infrequent variant of sarcomatoid mesothelioma, displayed homozygous deletion of the 9p21 locus (three of four cases), and has a relatively favorable prognosis for the sarcomatoid type.
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Characterization of two F4/80-positive Kupffer cell subsets by their function and phenotype in mice.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Liver Kupffer cells have been suggested to be heterogeneous macrophage lineage cells. We explored this possibility by classifying the mouse Kupffer cells into subpopulations and characterizing them by their phenotype and function.
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A pilot study of mRNA expressions of 5-fluorouracil pathway genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor tissues in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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To assess whether early lung cancer prediction might be informed by an mRNA assay for 5-fluorouracil pathway genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), we examined specimens taken from 51 adenocarcinoma patients and 38 controls (including six patients with benign tumors). PBMNCs and tumor-tissue specimens were taken for measurement of the mRNAs of various 5-fluorouracil pathway genes [thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT)]. By quantitative RT-PCR, all four mRNAs were detected in both PBMNCs and tumor tissues. In PBMNCs, TS mRNA/GAPDH mRNA levels were significantly higher in adenocarcinoma patients than in the controls, and significantly higher for pathological stages 2-4 and lymph-node involvement pN1-pN3 than for pathological stage 1 and pN0, respectively. No correlation between PBMNCs and tumor-tissue specimens was found for the level of any mRNA. Thus, the measurement of TS mRNA in PBMNCs might aid the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.
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Glucose-regulated protein 78 expression in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2009
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To examine glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78; a major molecular chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, strongly expressed in several tumours) expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper urinary tract (UUT) and to evaluate the diagnostic and progressive importance of GRP78 expression in UC-UUT.
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Pretreatment with ascorbic acid prevents lethal gastrointestinal syndrome in mice receiving a massive amount of radiation.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2009
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While bone marrow or stem cell transplantation can rescue bone marrow aplasia in patients accidentally exposed to a lethal radiation dose, radiation-induced irreversible gastrointestinal damage (GI syndrome) is fatal. We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on radiation-induced GI syndrome in mice. Ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to mice for 3 days, and then the mice underwent whole body irradiation (WBI). Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) 24 h after irradiation rescued mice receiving a WBI dose of less than 12 Gy. No mice receiving 14 Gy-WBI survived, because of radiation-induced GI syndrome, even if they received BMT. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid significantly suppressed radiation-induced DNA damage in the crypt cells and prevented denudation of intestinal mucosa; therefore, ascorbic acid in combination with BMT rescued mice after 14 Gy-WBI. DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that irradiation up-regulated expressions of apoptosis-related genes in the small intestine, including those related to the caspase-9-mediated intrinsic pathway as well as the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway, and down-regulated expressions of these genes in ascorbic acid-pretreated mice. Thus, pretreatment with ascorbic acid may effectively prevent radiation-induced GI syndrome.
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Malignant pleural mesothelioma initially diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
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Reported herein is a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma, initially diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. A 58-year-old man, without obvious evidence of asbestos exposure, exhibited repeated pleural effusion (cause unclear), which was resolved by diuretics. A neck mass was apparent and was identified pathologically as a lymph node metastasis of malignant mesothelioma. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT established the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Two conclusions emerge from this report: (i) cervical lymph node metastasis of pleural mesothelioma, although rare, should be included in differential diagnosis; and (ii) positron emission tomography/CT is useful for establishing a diagnosis of mesothelioma.
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LAT1 expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas: analyses by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (237 cases) and immunohistochemistry (295 cases).
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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System l-amino acid transport mediates the uptake of aromatic neutral amino acids and nutritionally essential amino acids from extracellular fluids. Little is known about the role of l-amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), a member of the system l-amino acid transporter family, in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs).
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Thromboangiitis obliterans with multiple large vessel involvement: case report and analysis of immunophenotypes.
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO, Buergers disease) is an idiopathic, recurrent, segmental, nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory, occlusive vascular disease with a poorly understood pathogenesis. Intestinal or multi-organ involvement is rare. Recent immunohistochemical analyses of ordinary TAO have indicated an inflammatory and immunologic pathogenesis. We report a case of TAO involving multiple large vessels. By immunohistochemistry, CD3+ T cells were revealed around the recanalization sites within the abdominal aorta. CD4+ T cells were almost equal in number to CD8+ T cells. These findings indicate the participation of inflammatory and immunologic processes in TAO with multi-organ involvement (as in ordinary TAO).
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Immunohistochemistry of cytokeratins 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, and GLUT-1 aids differentiation of desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma from fibrous pleuritis.
Histol. Histopathol.
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It is difficult to distinguish desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma (DMM) from fibrous pleuritis (FP). We investigated the utility of immunohistochemistry as a way of differentiating between DMM and FP. We examined 11 DMMs and 46 FPs with the aid of antibodies against 18 cytokeratin (CK) subtypes, calponin, caldesmon, desmin, and GLUT-1. The best sensitivity and specificity cut-off values in the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CKs 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, and GLUT-1 were each above 60%. When cases with either DMM or FP were partitioned by the staining score associated with the best sensitivity and specificity cut-off values in ROC, the incidence of a positive expression for CKs 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, and GLUT-1 was significantly higher in DMM than in FP. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry for CKs 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, and GLUT-1 may be useful, alongside histological characteristics, for separating DMM from FP.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.