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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Golgi Phosphoprotein 3 Triggers Signal-mediated Incorporation of Glycosyltransferases into Coatomer-coated (COPI) Vesicles.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Newly synthesized membrane and secreted proteins undergo a series of posttranslational modifications in the Golgi apparatus, including attachment of carbohydrate moieties. The final structure of so-formed glycans is determined by the order of execution of the different glycosylation steps, which seems intimately related to the spatial distribution of glycosyltransferases and glycosyl hydrolases within the Golgi apparatus. How cells achieve an accurate localization of these enzymes is not completely understood but might involve dynamic processes such as coatomer-coated (COPI) vesicle-mediated trafficking. In yeast, this transport is likely to be regulated by vacuolar protein sorting 74 (Vps74p), a peripheral Golgi protein able to interact with COPI coat as well as with a binding motif present in the cytosolic tails of some mannosyltransferases. Recently, Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), the mammalian homolog of Vps74, has been shown to control the Golgi localization of core 2 N-acetylglucosamine-transferase 1. Here, we highlight a role of GOLPH3 in the spatial localization of ?-2,6-sialyltransferase 1. We show, for the first time, that GOLPH3 supports incorporation of both core 2 N-acetylglucosamine-transferase 1 and ?-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 into COPI vesicles. Depletion of GOLPH3 altered the subcellular localization of these enzymes. In contrast, galactosyltransferase, an enzyme that does not interact with GOLPH3, was neither incorporated into COPI vesicles nor was dependent on GOLPH3 for proper localization.
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Non-invasive pre-implantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked disorders.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a powerful clinical tool to identify embryos with or at risk of specific genetic diseases before implantation in utero after in vitro fertilization (IVF). PGD is performed on embryo biopsies that are obtained by aspiration of one or two cells from pre-implantation embryos at day 3 or day 5/6 of culture. However this is a traumatic method that cannot be avoided because non-invasive procedures to assess the genetic status of pre-implantation embryos are not available yet. We hypothesize that cell-free nucleic acids, which are released by embryos in the culture medium during the IVF procedure, could be used for genetic screening. To test our hypothesis we will focus first on X-linked disorders because these single-gene diseases due to the presence of defective genes on the X chromosome are dominant in males. Therefore the objective here is to discriminate between female (XX) and male (XY) embryos by detecting Y chromosome-specific sequences in cell-free nucleic acids. Using culture medium from embryos we are able to discriminate between male and female embryos. This opens new avenues for the development of a non-invasive PGD method.
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Female aging alters expression of human cumulus cells genes that are essential for oocyte quality.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Impact of female aging is an important issue in human reproduction. There was a need for an extensive analysis of age impact on transcriptome profile of cumulus cells (CCs) to link oocyte quality and developmental potential with patient's age. CCs from patients of three age groups were analyzed individually using microarrays. RT-qPCR validation was performed on independent CC cohorts. We focused here on pathways affected by aging in CCs that may explain the decline of oocyte quality with age. In CCs collected from patients >37 years, angiogenic genes including ANGPTL4, LEPR, TGFBR3, and FGF2 were significantly overexpressed compared to patients of the two younger groups. In contrast genes implicated in TGF-? signaling pathway such as AMH, TGFB1, inhibin, and activin receptor were underexpressed. CCs from patients whose ages are between 31 and 36 years showed an overexpression of genes related to insulin signaling pathway such as IGFBP3, PIK3R1, and IGFBP5. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the microRNAs that are potential regulators of the differentially expressed genes of the study. It revealed that the pathways impacted by age were potential targets of specific miRNAs previously identified in our CCs small RNAs sequencing.
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Cell-free nucleic acids as non-invasive biomarkers of gynecological cancers, ovarian, endometrial and obstetric disorders and fetal aneuploidy.
Hum. Reprod. Update
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Proper folliculogenesis is fundamental to obtain a competent oocyte that, once fertilized, can support the acquisition of embryo developmental competence and pregnancy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of folliculogenesis, which are expressed in the cumulus-oocyte complex and in granulosa cells and some can also be found in the bloodstream. These circulating miRNAs are intensively studied and used as diagnostic/prognostic markers of many diseases, including gynecological and pregnancy disorders. In addition, serum contains small amounts of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), presumably resulting from the release of genetic material from apoptotic/necrotic cells. The quantification of nucleic acids in serum samples could be used as a diagnostic tool for female infertility.
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Endometrial receptivity profile in patients with premature progesterone elevation on the day of HCG administration.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL) on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.
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Noninvasive near-infrared fluorescent protein-based imaging of tumor progression and metastases in deep organs and intraosseous tissues.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Whole-body imaging of experimental tumor growth is more feasible within the near-infrared (NIR) optical window because of the highest transparency of mammalian tissues within this wavelength spectrum, mainly due to improved tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. We took advantage from the recently cloned infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) together with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based lentiviral vector to produce virally transduced tumor cells that permanently express this protein. We then noninvasively explored metastatic spread as well as primary tumor growth in deep organs and behind bone barriers. Intrabone tumor growth was investigated through intracranial and intratibial injections of glioblastoma and osteosarcoma cells, respectively, and metastasis was assessed by tail vein injection of melanoma cells. We found that the emitted fluorescence is captured as sharp images regardless of the organ or tissue considered. Furthermore, by overlaying fluorescence spots with the white light, it was possible to afford whole-body images yet never observed before. This approach allowed us to continuously monitor the growth and dissemination of tumor cells with a small number of animals, minimal animal handling, and without the need for any additive. This iRFP-based system provides high-resolution readouts of tumorigenesis that should greatly facilitate preclinical trials with anticancer therapeutic molecules.
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Adrenomedullin blockade suppresses growth of human hormone-independent prostate tumor xenograft in mice.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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To study the role of the adrenomedullin system [adrenomedullin and its receptors (AMR), CLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3] in prostate cancer androgen-independent growth.
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MicroRNAs: new candidates for the regulation of the human cumulus-oocyte complex.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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What is the expression pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs)?
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Comparative gene expression profiling in human cumulus cells according to ovarian gonadotropin treatments.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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In in vitro fertilization cycles, both HP-hMG and rFSH gonadotropin treatments are widely used to control human follicle development. The objectives of this study are (i) to characterize and compare gene expression profiles in cumulus cells (CCs) of periovulatory follicles obtained from patients stimulated with HP-hMG or rFSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle and (ii) to examine their relationship with in vitro embryo development, using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Genes that were upregulated in HP-hMG-treated CCs are involved in lipid metabolism (GM2A) and cell-to-cell interactions (GJA5). Conversely, genes upregulated in rFSH-treated CCs are implicated in cell assembly and organization (COL1A1 and COL3A1). Interestingly, some genes specific to each gonadotropin treatment (NPY1R and GM2A for HP-hMG; GREM1 and OSBPL6 for rFSH) were associated with day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst grade at day 5, while others (STC2 and PTX3) were related to in vitro embryo quality in both gonadotropin treatments. These genes may prove valuable as biomarkers of in vitro embryo quality.
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Human cumulus cells molecular signature in relation to oocyte nuclear maturity stage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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The bi-directional communication between the oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells (CCs) is crucial for the acquisition of oocyte competence. We investigated the transcriptomic profile of human CCs isolated from mature and immature oocytes under stimulated cycle. We used human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays to perform an extensive analysis of the genes expressed in human CCs obtained from patients undergoing intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. CC samples were isolated from oocyte at germinal vesicle, stage metaphase I and stage metaphase II. For microarray analysis, we used eight chips for each CC category. Significance analysis of microarray multiclass was used to analyze the microarray data. Validation was performed by RT-qPCR using an independent cohort of CC samples. We identified differentially over-expressed genes between the three CC categories. This study revealed a specific signature of gene expression in CCs issued from MII oocyte compared with germinal vesicle and metaphase I. The CC gene expression profile, which is specific of MII mature oocyte, can be useful as predictors of oocyte quality.
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Brief report: benchmarking human pluripotent stem cell markers during differentiation into the three germ layers unveils a striking heterogeneity: all markers are not equal.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) are functionally characterized by their capacity to differentiate into all the cell types from the three germ layers. A wide range of markers, the expression of which is associated with pluripotency, has been used as surrogate evidence of PSC pluripotency, but their respective relevance is poorly documented. Here, we compared by polychromatic flow cytometry the kinetics of loss of expression of eight widely used pluripotency markers (SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, CD24, OCT4, NANOG, and alkaline phosphatase [AP]) at days 0, 5, 7, and 9 after induction of PSC differentiation into cells representative of the three germ layers. Strikingly, each marker showed a different and specific kinetics of disappearance that was similar in all the PSC lines used and for all the induced differentiation pathways. OCT4, SSEA3, and TRA-1-60 were repeatedly the first markers to be downregulated, and their expression was completely lost at day 9. By contrast, AP activity, CD24, and NANOG proteins were still detectable at day 9. In addition, we show that differentiation markers are coexpressed with pluripotency markers before the latter begin to disappear. These results suggest that OCT4, SSEA3, and TRA-1-60 might be better to trace in vitro the emergence of pluripotent cells during reprogramming.
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[Other actors in the oocyte and follicular growth: the role of microRNAs in the cumulus-oocyte dialog].
Gynecol Obstet Fertil
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The good folliculogenesis evolution is fundamental for the obtaining of a competent oocyte, able to lead to pregnancy, once fertilized. During the follicular development, the oocyte is in close contact with surrounding cumulus cells (CCs) to form a cumulus-oocyte complex. The bidirectional exchange between oocyte and contiguous CCs via gap junction communications and paracrine signaling is important for oocyte competence and CCs development. These reciprocal regulations are controlled by some key genes. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these genes are themselves regulated by short RNAs fragments (approximately 22 nucleotides), called microRNAs. The identification and the quantification in the CCs of the microRNAs regulating these genes could promote the development of non invasive tests in order to assess the oocyte quality and its ability to provide embryo with a high implantation potential. This approach could be decisive in the embryo selection to transfer and could avoid the risk of multiple pregnancies by the replacement of a single embryo.
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Transcriptome analysis reveals dialogues between human trophectoderm and endometrial cells during the implantation period.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Crosstalk between human trophectoderm (TE) and endometrial cells during the implantation window is a complex and not well-understood process. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the global gene expression profile in TE cells from Day 5 human blastocysts issued from IVF, (ii) to compare these data with the transcriptomic profile of endometrial cells in stimulated cycles for IVF and (iii) to identify potential early dialogues between maternal and embryonic cells during the implantation window.
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Insights into human endometrial receptivity from transcriptomic and proteomic data.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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The appreciation of endometrial receptivity is a crucial step in assisted reproductive technology as implantation failures are thought to result, in large part, from abnormal endometrial receptivity. Using emerging omics technologies, investigators have begun to define both molecular signatures and specific biomarkers of receptive endometrium. The aim of this review was to analyse the new perspectives brought to the appreciation of endometrial receptivity by transcriptomic and proteomic technologies, involving the analysis of gene- or protein-expression-profile shifts between the pre-receptive and receptive secretory stages and how they might lead to new strategies for endometrial receptivity assessments. The use of omics as molecular tools to determine the effects of stimulation protocols on endometrial gene expression and clinical outcomes has also been investigated.
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Involvement of BCL2 family members in the regulation of human oocyte and early embryo survival and death: gene expression and beyond.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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In women, up to 99.9% of the oocyte stockpile formed during fetal life is decimated by apoptosis. Apoptotic features are also detected in human preimplantation embryos both in vivo and in vitro. Despite the important consequences of cell death processes to oocyte competence and early embryonic development, little is known about its genetic and molecular control. B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) family proteins are major regulators of cell death and survival. Here, we present a literature review on BCL2 family expression and protein distribution in human and animal oocytes and early embryos. Most of the studies focused on the expression of two antagonistic members: the founding and survival family member BCL2 and its proapoptotic homolog BAX. However, recent transcriptomic analyses have identified novel candidate genes related to oocyte and/or early embryonic viability (such as BCL2L10) or commitment to apoptosis (e.g. BIK). Interestingly, some BCL2 proteins appear to be differentially distributed at the subcellular level during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development, a process probably linked to the functional compartmentalization of the ooplasm and blastomere. Assessment of BCL2 family involvement in regulating the survival of human oocytes and embryos may be of particular value for diagnosis and assisted reproductive technology. We suggest that implications of not only aberrant gene expression but also abnormal subcellular protein redistribution should be established in pathological conditions resulting in infertility.
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Dynamic changes in gene expression during human early embryo development: from fundamental aspects to clinical applications.
Hum. Reprod. Update
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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The first week of human embryonic development comprises a series of events that change highly specialized germ cells into undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that display an extraordinarily broad developmental potential. The understanding of these events is crucial to the improvement of the success rate of in vitro fertilization. With the emergence of new technologies such as Omics, the gene expression profiling of human oocytes, embryos and hESCs has been performed and generated a flood of data related to the molecular signature of early embryo development.
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A glycosyltransferase-enriched reconstituted membrane system for the synthesis of branched O-linked glycans in vitro.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Mimicking the biochemical reactions that take place in cell organelles is becoming one of the most important challenges in biological chemistry. In particular, reproducing the Golgi glycosylation system in vitro would allow the synthesis of bioactive glycan polymers and glycoconjugates for many future applications including treatments of numerous pathologies. In the present study, we reconstituted a membrane system enriched in glycosyltransferases obtained by combining the properties of the wheat germ lectin with the dialysable detergent n-octylglucoside. When applied to cells engineered to express the O-glycan branching enzyme core2 beta (1,6)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (C2GnT-I), this combination led to the reconstitution of lipid vesicles exhibiting an enzyme activity 11 times higher than that found in microsomal membranes. The enzyme also showed a slightly higher affinity than its soluble counterpart toward the acceptor substrate. Moreover, the use of either the detergent re-solubilization, glycoprotein substrates or N-glycanase digestion suggests that most of the reconstituted glycosyltransferases have their catalytic domains in an extravesicular orientation. Using the disaccharide substrate Gal?1-3GalNAc-O-p-nitrophenyl as a primer, we performed sequential glycosylation reactions and compared the recovered oligosaccharides to those synthesized by cultured parental cells. After three successive glycosylation reactions using a single batch of the reconstituted vesicles and without changing the buffer, the acceptor was transformed into an O-glycan with chromatographic properties similar to glycans produced by C2GnT-I-expressing cells. Therefore, this new and efficient approach would greatly improve the synthesis of bioactive carbohydrates and glycoconjugates in vitro and could be easily adapted for the study of other reactions naturally occurring in the Golgi apparatus such as N-glycosylation or sulfation.
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Human cumulus cells as biomarkers for embryo and pregnancy outcomes.
Mol. Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Single-embryo transfer is becoming increasingly common in in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment as a means of reducing multiple pregnancy rates leading to a higher incidence of medical, perinatal and neonatal complications. Consequently, selecting embryos with the highest implantation potential is of great importance in assisted reproductive technology. To date, the choice of the best embryos to transfer is based on subjective morphological parameters. However, as judged by their subjective aspect, movement towards more sophisticated technologies to select the most competent oocytes and/or embryos with the greatest implantation potential have become available, including emerging omics sciences, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. In this way, the study of the cumulus cells (CCs) transcriptomic profile offers the opportunity, by a non-invasive method, to predict oocyte and embryo competence because bidirectional traffic between CCs and the oocyte is very important for the acquisition of this competence. Using either RT-PCR or DNA microarrays, some studies have provided evidence for the genes expressed in CCs presenting potential biomarkers to predict embryo quality and pregnancy outcomes. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about CCs as biomarkers for oocyte and embryo selection under an IVF program.
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MVL-PLA2, a snake venom phospholipase A2, inhibits angiogenesis through an increase in microtubule dynamics and disorganization of focal adhesions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Integrins are essential protagonists of the complex multi-step process of angiogenesis that has now become a major target for the development of anticancer therapies. We recently reported and characterized that MVL-PLA2, a novel phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina venom, exhibited anti-integrin activity. In this study, we show that MVL-PLA2 also displays potent anti-angiogenic properties. This phospholipase A2 inhibited adhesion and migration of human microvascular-endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in a dose-dependent manner without being cytotoxic. Using Matrigel and chick chorioallantoic membrane assays, we demonstrated that MVL-PLA2, as well as its catalytically inactivated form, significantly inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We have also found that the actin cytoskeleton and the distribution of alphav beta3 integrin, a critical regulator of angiogenesis and a major component of focal adhesions, were disturbed after MVL-PLA2 treatment. In order to further investigate the mechanism of action of this protein on endothelial cells, we analyzed the dynamic instability behavior of microtubules in living endothelial cells. Interestingly, we showed that MVL-PLA2 significantly increased microtubule dynamicity in HMEC-1 cells by 40%. We propose that the enhancement of microtubule dynamics may explain the alterations in the formation of focal adhesions, leading to inhibition of cell adhesion and migration.
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Human pluripotent stem cells: from biology to cell therapy.
World J Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), encompassing embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, proliferate extensively and differentiate into virtually any desired cell type. PSCs endow regenerative medicine with an unlimited source of replacement cells suitable for human therapy. Several hurdles must be carefully addressed in PSC research before these theoretical possibilities are translated into clinical applications. These obstacles are: (1) cell proliferation; (2) cell differentiation; (3) genetic integrity; (4) allogenicity; and (5) ethical issues. We discuss these issues and underline the fact that the answers to these questions lie in a better understanding of the biology of PSCs. To contribute to this aim, we have developed a free online expression atlas, Amazonia!, that displays for each human gene a virtual northern blot for PSC samples and adult tissues (http://www.amazonia.transcriptome.eu).
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Expression map of the human exome in CD34+ cells and blood cells: increased alternative splicing in cell motility and immune response genes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Hematopoietic cells are endowed with very specific biological functions, including cell motility and immune response. These specific functions are dramatically altered during hematopoietic cell differentiation, whereby undifferentiated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) residing in bone marrow differentiate into platelets, red blood cells and immune cells that exit into the blood stream and eventually move into lymphoid organs or inflamed tissues. The contribution of alternative splicing (AS) to these functions has long been minimized due to incomplete knowledge on AS events in hematopoietic cells.
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Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization alters endometrial receptivity in humans: protocol effects.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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The impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist long compared with GnRH antagonist protocols, under in vitro fertilization conditions on endometrial receptivity, is still debated. Therefore, we compared the effect of both GnRH antagonist and agonist long protocols on the endometrial receptivity by analyzing, to our knowledge for the first time, the global gene expression profile shift during the prereceptive and receptive stages of stimulated cycles under the two GnRH analogue protocols compared with natural cycles in the same patients. For the same normal-responder patients, endometrial biopsies were collected on the day of oocyte retrieval and on the day of embryo transfer after human chorionic gonadotropin administration of a stimulated cycle with either GnRH agonist long or GnRH antagonist protocols and compared with the prereceptive and receptive stages of a natural cycle. Samples were analyzed using DNA microarrays. Gene expression profiles and biological pathways involved during the prereceptive stage to the receptive endometrial transition of stimulated and natural cycles were analyzed and compared for each patient. Both protocols affect endometrial receptivity in comparison with their natural cycle in the same patients. Major differences in endometrial chemokines and growth factors under stimulated cycles in comparison with natural cycles were observed. Such an effect has been associated with gene expression alterations of endometrial receptivity. However, the endometrial receptivity under the GnRH antagonist protocol was more similar to the natural cycle receptivity than that under the GnRH agonist protocol.
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LH/hCGR gene expression in human cumulus cells is linked to the expression of the extracellular matrix modifying gene TNFAIP6 and to serum estradiol levels on day of hCG administration.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Recent studies suggest a role for luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LH/hCGR) signalling in the regulation of the oocyte-cumulus oophorus cell interplay. The present study aimed at assessing the LH/hCGR gene expression in cumulus cells (CCs) surrounding oocytes in patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COS) before ICSI and to relate the LH/hCGR expression to other COS quality parameters.
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Correlating global gene regulation to angiogenesis in the developing chick extra-embryonic vascular system.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Formation of blood vessels requires the concerted regulation of an unknown number of genes in a spatial-, time- and dosage-dependent manner. Determining genes, which drive vascular maturation is crucial for the identification of new therapeutic targets against pathological angiogenesis. METHOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We accessed global gene regulation throughout maturation of the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM), a highly vascularized tissue, using pan genomic microarrays. Seven percent of analyzed genes showed a significant change in expression (>2-fold, FDR<5%) with a peak occurring from E7 to E10, when key morphogenetic and angiogenic genes such as BMP4, SMO, HOXA3, EPAS1 and FGFR2 were upregulated, reflecting the state of an activated endothelium. At later stages, a general decrease in gene expression occurs, including genes encoding mitotic factors or angiogenic mediators such as CYR61, EPAS1, MDK and MYC. We identified putative human orthologs for 77% of significantly regulated genes and determined endothelial cell enrichment for 20% of the orthologs in silico. Vascular expression of several genes including ENC1, FSTL1, JAM2, LDB2, LIMS1, PARVB, PDE3A, PRCP, PTRF and ST6GAL1 was demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Up to 9% of the CAM genes were also overexpressed in human organs with related functions, such as placenta and lung or the thyroid. 21-66% of CAM genes enriched in endothelial cells were deregulated in several human cancer types (P<.0001). Interfering with PARVB (encoding parvin, beta) function profoundly changed human endothelial cell shape, motility and tubulogenesis, suggesting an important role of this gene in the angiogenic process.
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The CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway controls insulin secretion.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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CDK4-pRB-E2F1 cell-cycle regulators are robustly expressed in non-proliferating beta cells, suggesting that besides the control of beta-cell number the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway has a role in beta-cell function. We show here that E2F1 directly regulates expression of Kir6.2, which is a key component of the K(ATP) channel involved in the regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. We demonstrate, through chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis from tissues, that Kir6.2 expression is regulated at the promoter level by the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 pathway. Consistently, inhibition of CDK4, or genetic inactivation of E2F1, results in decreased expression of Kir6.2, impaired insulin secretion and glucose intolerance in mice. Furthermore we show that rescue of Kir6.2 expression restores insulin secretion in E2f1(-/-) beta cells. Finally, we demonstrate that CDK4 is activated by glucose through the insulin pathway, ultimately resulting in E2F1 activation and, consequently, increased expression of Kir6.2. In summary we provide evidence that the CDK4-pRB-E2F1 regulatory pathway is involved in glucose homeostasis, defining a new link between cell proliferation and metabolism.
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Gene expression profile of human endometrial receptivity: comparison between natural and stimulated cycles for the same patients.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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The adjunction of exogenous hormones for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) may alter endometrial receptiveness. In order to identify the genes misregulated under COS, we compared the endometrium gene expression profiles, from the same patients, in a natural cycle and in a subsequent COS cycle.
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[Human embryonic stem cells: from the human embryo transgressed to the regenerative medicine of tomorrow].
Gynecol Obstet Fertil
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the human blastocyst at day 5 or 6 of the early embryo development. These cells display two cardinal features: they are able to differentiate into cell types from many if not all human tissue (pluripotency) and they proliferate strongly and indefinitely without senescence in vitro. Therefore, hESC are a source of choice for stem cells for regenerative medicine and are a reference model to study the biology of pluripotency. Since 2004, the French law (loi de Bioéthique) authorizes hESC research under certain conditions.
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A gene expression signature shared by human mature oocytes and embryonic stem cells.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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The first week of human pre-embryo development is characterized by the induction of totipotency and then pluripotency. The understanding of this delicate process will have far reaching implication for in vitro fertilization and regenerative medicine. Human mature MII oocytes and embryonic stem (ES) cells are both able to achieve the feat of cell reprogramming towards pluripotency, either by somatic cell nuclear transfer or by cell fusion, respectively. Comparison of the transcriptome of these two cell types may highlight genes that are involved in pluripotency initiation.
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Expression of a functional recombinant C-type lectin-like protein lebecetin in the human embryonic kidney cells.
Biotechnol. Prog.
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Lebecetin is an anticoagulant C-type lectin-like protein that was previously isolated from Macrovipera lebetina venom and described to consist of two subunits (alpha and beta). It was reported to potently prevent platelet aggregation by binding to glycoprotein Ib and to exhibit a broad spectrum of inhibitory activities on various integrin-mediated functions of tumor cells, including adhesion, proliferation, and cell migration. This study aimed to investigate the structure-function of lebecetin. Accordingly, the cDNA of each subunit was cloned and separately or jointly expressed in the human embryonic kidney cells using two vectors with different selectable tags. The immunofluorescence analysis of transfected cells revealed significant expression levels and co-localization of the two lebecetin subunits. The recombinant proteins were efficiently secreted and purified using metal-chelating affinity chromatography. We found that the Lebecetin alpha and beta subunits were produced as a mixture of homodimers and heterodimers and that the heterodimerization represents a prerequisite for functioning.
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Altered gene expression profile in cumulus cells of mature MII oocytes from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Hum. Reprod.
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Oocyte developmental competence is altered in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); is gene expression in cumulus cells (CCs) from mature metaphase II oocytes of patients with PCOS altered as well?
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Transcriptomic analysis of the developing and adult mouse cochlear sensory epithelia.
PLoS ONE
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The adult mammalian cochlea lacks regenerative ability and the irreversible degeneration of cochlear sensory hair cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Previous data show that early postnatal cochlea harbors stem/progenitor-like cells and shows a limited regenerative/repair capacity. These properties are progressively lost later during the postnatal development. Little is known about the genes and pathways that are potentially involved in this difference of the regenerative/repair potentialities between early postnatal and adult mammalian cochlear sensory epithelia (CSE). The goal of our study is to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of these two stages. We used Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray to perform an extensive analysis of the genes expressed in mouse postnatal day-3 (P3) and adult CSE. Statistical analysis of microarray data was performed using SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) software. We identified 5644 statistically significant differentially expressed transcripts with a fold change (FC) >2 and a False Discovery Rate (FDR) ?0.05. The P3 CSE signature included 3,102 transcripts, among which were known genes in the cochlea, but also new transcripts such as, Hmga2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) and Nrarp (Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein). The adult CSE overexpressed 2,542 transcripts including new transcripts, such as Prl (Prolactin) and Ar (Androgen receptor), that previously were not known to be expressed in the adult cochlea. Our comparative study revealed important genes and pathways differentially expressed between the developing and adult CSE. The identification of new candidate genes would be useful as potential markers of the maintenance or the loss of stem cells and regenerative/repair ability during mammalian cochlear development.
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Transcriptome analysis during human trophectoderm specification suggests new roles of metabolic and epigenetic genes.
PLoS ONE
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In humans, successful pregnancy depends on a cascade of dynamic events during early embryonic development. Unfortunately, molecular data on these critical events is scarce. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern the specification/development of the trophoblast cell lineage, the transcriptome of human trophectoderm (TE) cells from day 5 blastocysts was compared to that of single day 3 embryos from our in vitro fertilization program by using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Some of the microarray data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The TE molecular signature included 2,196 transcripts, among which were genes already known to be TE-specific (GATA2, GATA3 and GCM1) but also genes involved in trophoblast invasion (MUC15), chromatin remodeling (specifically the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3L) and steroid metabolism (HSD3B1, HSD17B1 and FDX1). In day 3 human embryos 1,714 transcripts were specifically up-regulated. Besides stemness genes such as NANOG and DPPA2, this signature included genes belonging to the NLR family (NALP4, 5, 9, 11 and 13), Ret finger protein-like family (RFPL1, 2 and 3), Melanoma Antigen family (MAGEA1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 12) and previously unreported transcripts, such as MBD3L2 and ZSCAN4. This study provides a comprehensive outlook of the genes that are expressed during the initial embryo-trophectoderm transition in humans. Further understanding of the biological functions of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis and epigenetic regulation of transcription that are up-regulated in TE cells may clarify their contribution to TE specification and might also provide new biomarkers for the selection of viable and competent blastocysts.
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Differences in transcriptomic profiles of human cumulus cells isolated from oocytes at GV, MI and MII stages after in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation.
Hum. Reprod.
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Oocyte maturation and competence to development depends on its close relationship with cumulus cells (CCs). However, the maturation conditions of human cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) might affect gene expression in both oocyte and CCs. We thus compared the transcriptome profiles of CCs isolated from in vivo and in vitro matured COCs at different nuclear maturation stages.
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Slow freezing and vitrification differentially modify the gene expression profile of human metaphase II oocytes.
Hum. Reprod.
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Cryopreservation is now considered as an efficient way to store human oocytes to preserve fertility. However, little is known about the effects of this technology on oocyte gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the two cryopreservation procedures, slow freezing and vitrification, on the gene expression profile of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes.
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Developmental Regulated Expression of Anti- and Pro-Apoptotic BCL-2 Family Genes During Human Early Embryonic Development.
Curr. Med. Chem.
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Apoptotic cell death has been reported in human oocytes and preimplantation embryos under in vivo and in vitro conditions. BCL-2 family proteins comprise both anti- and pro-apoptotic members, which are likely to play a key role in controlling oocyte and early embryo survival. However, very limited data are available on their expression kinetics during human early embryonic development. Using our DNA microarray data, we analyzed the expression pattern of 21 BCL-2 family genes in human mature MII oocytes, day 3 embryos and day 5/6 blastocysts from patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Selected genes were further validated by qRT-PCR and their subcellular localization analyzed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Our results suggest a switch from oocyte-inherited BCL-2 family transcripts, such as BCL2L10, to embryo-produced transcripts after embryonic genome activation, including BIK, BCL2L11 and NOXA. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic gene BCL2L13 was constitutively expressed throughout human early embryonic development. Remarkably, day 3 embryos expressed more BCL-2 pro-apoptotic genes than mature MII oocytes and day 5/6 blastocysts, suggesting that embryos at this stage are more prone to apoptosis. This is further supported by an absence of cleaved Caspase-3 in the oocyte and its presence in the embryo. Using a drug that induces apoptosis (gambogic acid), we were able to show activated Caspase-3 in the oocyte in addition to an alteration of BCL2L13 protein localization. Similarly BCL2L13 localization was altered in degenerated oocytes. This study opens new perspectives for understanding the molecular regulation of human oocyte and pre-implantation embryo survival and death.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.