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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.
Lancet Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per ?L or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.
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Increasing incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome could be associated with livestock husbandry in Changchun, northeastern China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Since the end of the 1990s, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) has been increasing dramatically in Changchun, northeastern China. However, it is unknown which, and how, underlying risk factors have been involved in the reemergence of the disease.
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Epidemiologic features and environmental risk factors of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Xinyang, China.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease discovered in rural areas of Central China in 2009, caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV). The disease usually presents as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia, with case-fatality rates ranging from 2.5% to 30%. Haemaphysalis longicornis was suspected to be the most likely vector of SFTSV. By the end of 2012, the disease had expanded to 13 provinces of China. SFTS patients have been reported in Japan and South Korea, and a disease similar to SFTS has been reported in the United States.
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The rise and fall of HIV in high-prevalence countries: a challenge for mathematical modeling.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Several countries with generalized, high-prevalence HIV epidemics, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, have experienced rapid declines in transmission. These HIV epidemics, often with rapid onsets, have generally been attributed to a combination of factors related to high-risk sexual behavior. The subsequent declines in these countries began prior to widespread therapy or implementation of any other major biomedical prevention. This change has been construed as evidence of behavior change, often on the basis of mathematical models, but direct evidence for behavior changes that would explain these declines is limited. Here, we look at the structure of current models and argue that the common "fixed risk per sexual contact" assumption favors the conclusion of substantial behavior changes. We argue that this assumption ignores reported non-linearities between exposure and risk. Taking this into account, we propose that some of the decline in HIV transmission may be part of the natural dynamics of the epidemic, and that several factors that have traditionally been ignored by modelers for lack of precise quantitative estimates may well hold the key to understanding epidemiologic trends.
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HIV risk and prevention behaviors in men who have sex with men and women: a respondent-driven sampling study in Shenzhen, China.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) may expand the HIV epidemic from men who have sex with men to the female population. From a respondent-driven sampling survey in Shenzhen, China, we quantified the burden of HIV/syphilis and studied patterns of risk and prevention behaviors in 107 MSMW, and compared these with those of 542 men who have sex with men only (MSM-only). HIV prevention behaviors and consistent condom use with male partners did not differ between the two groups. However, HIV risk behaviors were more common among MSMW than MSM-only. Moreover, among MSMW, the HIV prevalence was as high as 6 % and consistent condom use was extremely low with female partners in MSMW. We conclude that there is risk of HIV transmission from MSMW to the female population. Special efforts are needed to convince MSMW they should refrain from HIV risk behaviors.
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A Comparison Between Respondent-Driven Sampling and Time-Location Sampling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV control and prevention in China. It is difficult to acquire representative samples of this hidden population. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), based on peer referral, and time-location sampling (TLS) based on random selection of venue-day-time periods, are among the most commonly used sampling methods. However, differences in HIV-related characteristics of MSM recruited by these two methods have not been fully evaluated. We compared sociodemographics, risk behaviors, utilization of HIV-related intervention services, and HIV/syphilis infection rates between samples of 621 RDS MSM and 533 TLS MSM in Shenzhen, China in 2010. We found that the HIV prevalence was comparable in RDS and TLS MSM. TLS recruited larger proportions of more marginalized MSM than RDS: MSM recruited by TLS were older, less educated and more likely to be migrants (without Shenzhen hukou registration), to be non-gay identified and to engage in risky sexual behaviors. On the other hand, MSM recruited by TLS were more likely to have been covered by HIV-related intervention services. To conclude, in Shenzhen, TLS is more effective to reach the marginalized population of MSM. But because TLS can only reach MSM who physically attend venues and HIV-related intervention services are already commonly available at gay venues in Shenzhen, RDS is more informative for allocating prevention efforts than TLS. Furthermore, researchers and public health authorities should take into account the different sample compositions of RDS and TLS and apply sampling methods consistently when evaluating trends over time.
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Looking upstream to prevent HIV transmission: can interventions with sex workers alter the course of HIV epidemics in Africa as they did in Asia?
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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High rates of partner change in 'upstream' sex work networks have long been recognized to drive 'downstream' transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used a stochastic microsimulation model (STDSIM) to explore such transmission dynamics in a generalized African HIV epidemic.
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Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) using universal test and treat (UTT) has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and other modeling studies did not always confirm the studys finding. The objective of our study is to better understand the implications of different model structures and assumptions, so as to arrive at the best possible predictions of the long-term impact of UTT and the possibility of elimination of HIV.
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Onchocerciasis: the pre-control association between prevalence of palpable nodules and skin microfilariae.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Elimination prospects depend strongly on local transmission conditions and therefore on pre-control infection levels. Pre-control infection levels in Africa have been mapped largely by means of nodule palpation of adult males, a relatively crude method for detecting infection. We investigated how informative pre-control nodule prevalence data are for estimating the pre-control prevalence of microfilariae (mf) in the skin and discuss implications for assessing elimination prospects.
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Joint marketing as a framework for targeting men who have sex with men in China: a pilot intervention study.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To apply the joint marketing principle as a new intervention approach for targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) who are often difficult to reach in societies with discrimination towards homosexuality and HIV/AIDS. A pilot intervention according to the principles of joint marketing was carried out by the CDC in Shenzhen, China, in MSM social venues. A self-designed questionnaire of HIV knowledge, condom use, and access to HIV-related services was used before and after the pilot intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. The CDC supported gatekeepers of MSM social venues in running their business and thereby increasing their respectability and income. In return, the gatekeepers cooperated with the CDC in reaching the MSM at the venues with health promotion messages and materials. Thus a win-win situation was created, bringing together two noncompetitive parties in reaching out to a shared customer, the MSM. The pilot intervention succeeded in demonstrating acceptability and feasibility of the joint marketing approach targeting MSM. HIV knowledge, the rate of condom use, and access to HIV-related services of participants in the pilot intervention increased significantly. The joint marketing intervention is an innovative way to create synergies between the gatekeepers of MSM social venues and public health officials for reaching and potentially changing HIV high-risk behaviors among MSM.
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Changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight: does neighborhood prevalence matter?
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We investigated whether the prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight in neighborhoods is associated with changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight over 13 years of follow-up in Dutch adults residing in 86 neighborhoods of Eindhoven in 1991. We showed that living in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of non-smoking, no sports participation and overweight increased the odds of quitting smoking, quitting sports and becoming overweight. After adjustments for age, gender, education and neighborhood deprivation this association remained significant for becoming overweight. Neighborhood prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight appears to be a currently neglected but relevant determinant of changes in health-related behaviors.
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African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015.
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Decision support system for the response to infectious disease emergencies based on WebGIS and mobile services in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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For years, emerging infectious diseases have appeared worldwide and threatened the health of people. The emergence and spread of an infectious-disease outbreak are usually unforeseen, and have the features of suddenness and uncertainty. Timely understanding of basic information in the field, and the collection and analysis of epidemiological information, is helpful in making rapid decisions and responding to an infectious-disease emergency. Therefore, it is necessary to have an unobstructed channel and convenient tool for the collection and analysis of epidemiologic information in the field.
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Modeling the impact and costs of semiannual mass drug administration for accelerated elimination of lymphatic filariasis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has a target date of 2020. This program is progressing well in many countries. However, progress has been slow in some countries, and others have not yet started their mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Acceleration is needed. We studied how increasing MDA frequency from once to twice per year would affect program duration and costs by using computer simulation modeling and cost projections. We used the LYMFASIM simulation model to estimate how many annual or semiannual MDA rounds would be required to eliminate LF for Indian and West African scenarios with varied pre-control endemicity and coverage levels. Results were used to estimate total program costs assuming a target population of 100,000 eligibles, a 3% discount rate, and not counting the costs of donated drugs. A sensitivity analysis was done to investigate the robustness of these results with varied assumptions for key parameters. Model predictions suggested that semiannual MDA will require the same number of MDA rounds to achieve LF elimination as annual MDA in most scenarios. Thus semiannual MDA programs should achieve this goal in half of the time required for annual programs. Due to efficiency gains, total program costs for semiannual MDA programs are projected to be lower than those for annual MDA programs in most scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this conclusion is robust. Semiannual MDA is likely to shorten the time and lower the cost required for LF elimination in countries where it can be implemented. This strategy may improve prospects for global elimination of LF by the target year 2020.
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Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors.
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Naturally acquired immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage antigens Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 in an area of seasonal transmission.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Acquisition of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum sexual stages is a key determinant for reducing human-mosquito transmission by preventing the fertilization and the development of the parasite in the mosquito midgut. Naturally acquired immunity against sexual stages may therefore form the basis for the development of transmission-blocking vaccines, but studies conducted to date offer little in the way of consistent findings. Here, we describe the acquisition of antigametocyte immune responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Burkina Faso. A total of 719 blood samples were collected in a series of three cross-sectional surveys at the start, peak, and end of the wet season. The seroprevalence of antibodies with specificity for the sexual stage antigens Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 was 2-fold lower (22 to 28%) than that for an asexual blood stage antigen glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) (65%) or for the preerythrocytic stage antigen circumsporozoite protein (CSP) (54%). The youngest children responded at frequencies similar to those for all four antigens but, in contrast with the immune responses to GLURP and CSP that increased with age independently of season and area of residence, there was no evidence for a clear age dependence of responses to Pfs48/45 and Pfs230. Anti-Pfs230 antibodies were most prevalent at the peak of the wet season (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that naturally acquired immunity against Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 is a function of recent exposure rather than of cumulative exposure to gametocytes.
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Patient delay determinants for patients with suspected tuberculosis in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Indonesia has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), despite the successful introduction of the directly observed treatment short-course strategy (DOTS strategy). DOTS depends on passive case finding. It is therefore important to identify determinants of patient delay and reasons for visiting a DOTS healthcare provider when seeking care. The aim of this study was to assess these determinants in TB suspects (coughing for at least 2 weeks).
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The contribution of water contact behavior to the high Schistosoma mansoni Infection rates observed in the Senegal River Basin.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases in the world in terms of people infected and those at risk. Infection occurs through contact with water contaminated with larval forms of the parasite, which are released by freshwater snails and then penetrate the skin of people. Schistosomiasis infection and human water contact are thus essentially linked, and more knowledge about their relationship will help us to develop appropriate control measures. So far, only few studies have related water contact patterns to infection levels.
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Ageing with HIV in South Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2011
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We used an established microsimulation model, quantified to a rural South African setting with a well developed antiretroviral treatment programme, to predict the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the HIV epidemic in the population aged over 50 years. We show that the HIV prevalence in patients aged over 50 years will nearly double in the next 30 years, whereas the fraction of HIV-infected patients aged over 50 years will triple in the same period. This ageing epidemic has important consequences for the South African healthcare system, as older HIV patients require specialized care.
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The impact of the new WHO antiretroviral treatment guidelines on HIV epidemic dynamics and cost in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Since November 2009, WHO recommends that adults infected with HIV should initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at CD4+ cell counts of ?350 cells/µl rather than ?200 cells/µl. South Africa decided to adopt this strategy for pregnant and TB co-infected patients only. We estimated the impact of fully adopting the new WHO guidelines on HIV epidemic dynamics and associated costs.
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in mainland China dissected.
Infect Dis Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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This paper provides a review of a recently published series of studies that give a detailed and comprehensive documentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, which severely struck the country in the spring of 2003. The epidemic spanned a large geographical extent but clustered in two areas: first in Guangdong Province, and about 3 months later in Beijing with its surrounding areas. Reanalysis of all available epidemiological data resulted in a total of 5327 probable cases of SARS, of whom 343 died. The resulting case fatality ratio (CFR) of 6.4% was less than half of that in other SARS-affected countries or areas, and this difference could only partly be explained by younger age of patients and higher number of community acquired infections. Analysis of the impact of interventions demonstrated that strong political commitment and a centrally coordinated response was the most important factor to control SARS in mainland China, whereas the most stringent control measures were all initiated when the epidemic was already dying down. The long-term economic consequence of the epidemic was limited, much consumption was merely postponed, but for Beijing irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector were considerable. An important finding from a cohort study was that many former SARS patients currently suffer from avascular osteonecrosis, as a consequence of the treatment with corticosteroids during their infection. The SARS epidemic provided valuable information and lessons relevant in controlling outbreaks of newly emerging infectious diseases, and has led to fundamental reforms of the Chinese health system. In particular, a comprehensive nationwide internet-based disease reporting system was established.
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The potential impact of RV144-like vaccines in rural South Africa: a study using the STDSIM microsimulation model.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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The only successful HIV vaccine trial to date is the RV144 trial of the ALVAC/AIDSVAX vaccine in Thailand, which showed an overall incidence reduction of 31%. Most cases were prevented in the first year, suggesting a rapidly waning efficacy. Here, we predict the population level impact and cost-effectiveness of practical implementation of such a vaccine in a setting of a generalised epidemic with high HIV prevalence and incidence.
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The long-term effect of current and new interventions on the new case detection of leprosy: a modeling study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Although the number of newly detected leprosy cases has decreased globally, a quarter of a million new cases are detected annually and eradication remains far away. Current options for leprosy prevention are contact tracing and BCG vaccination of infants. Future options may include chemoprophylaxis and early diagnosis of subclinical infections. This study compared the predicted trends in leprosy case detection of future intervention strategies.
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The potential impact of an HIV vaccine with limited protection on HIV incidence in Thailand: a modeling study.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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The RV144 trial on the ALVAC/AIDSVAX candidate HIV vaccine, carried out in Thailand, showed short-lived protection against infection.
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Diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis patients in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia is related to the quality of services in DOTS facilities.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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To understand determinants of care-seeking patterns and diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis (TB) patients diagnosed at direct observed treatment short course (DOTS) facilities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
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Clinical and immunological characteristics of patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection after vaccination.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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We followed a cohort of 773 individuals who received a monovalent vaccine against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Approximately 6 weeks after vaccination, 12 persons developed the disease.
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Health seeking behaviour and utilization of health facilities for schistosomiasis-related symptoms in ghana.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Schistosomiasis causes long-term illness and significant economic burden. Morbidity control through integration within existing health care delivery systems is considered a potentially sustainable and cost-effective approach, but there is paucity of information about health-seeking behaviour.
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Different mechanisms for heterogeneity in leprosy susceptibility can explain disease clustering within households.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The epidemiology of leprosy is characterized by heterogeneity in susceptibility and clustering of disease within households. We aim to assess the extent to which different mechanisms for heterogeneity in leprosy susceptibility can explain household clustering as observed in a large study among contacts of leprosy patients.We used a microsimulation model, parameterizing it with data from over 20,000 contacts of leprosy patients in Bangladesh. We simulated six mechanisms producing heterogeneity in susceptibility: (1) susceptibility was allocated at random to persons (i.e. no additional mechanism), (2) a household factor, (3, 4) a genetic factor (dominant or recessive), or (5, 6) half a household factor and half genetic. We further assumed that a fraction of 5%, 10%, and 20% of the population was susceptible, leading to a total of 18 scenarios to be fitted to the data. We obtained an acceptable fit for each of the six mechanisms, thereby excluding none of the possible underlying mechanisms for heterogeneity of susceptibility to leprosy. However, the distribution of leprosy among contacts did differ between mechanisms, and predicted trends in the declining leprosy case detection were dependent on the assumed mechanism, with genetic-based susceptibility showing the slowest decline. Clustering of leprosy within households is partially caused by an increased transmission within households independent of the leprosy susceptibility mechanism. Even a large and detailed data set on contacts of leprosy patients could not unequivocally reveal the mechanism most likely responsible for heterogeneity in leprosy susceptibility.
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Sexual behaviour does not reflect HIV-1 prevalence differences: a comparison study of Zimbabwe and Tanzania.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence has been observed within sub-Saharan Africa. It is not clear which factors can explain these differences. Our aim was to identify risk factors that could explain the large differences in HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Moshi, Tanzania.
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The plasticity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in relation to age in Burkina Faso.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Malaria transmission depends on the presence of gametocytes in the peripheral blood. In this study, the age-dependency of gametocytaemia was examined by microscopy and molecular tools.
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Risk factors of poultry outbreaks and human cases of H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in West Java Province, Indonesia.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors to the spread and maintenance of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in poultry and humans at the district level in West Java Province, Indonesia.
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Spatiotemporal dynamics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Beijing, Peoples Republic of China.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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We used geographic information systems to characterize the dynamic change in spatial distribution of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. The seasonal variation in its incidence was observed by creating an epidemic curve. HFRS was associated with developed land, orchards, and rice paddies.
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The impact of public health control measures during the SARS epidemic in mainland China.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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We tracked the effective reproductive number (Rt) over time to assess the impact of important public health control measures in the five most SARS-affected geographic areas in mainland China. As soon as the Chinese authorities gained full control of all activities to combat SARS, Rt decreased dramatically and consistently below one. Many control measures that seriously affected public life were implemented afterwards, i.e., when the epidemic was already dying down.
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Transmission of SARS in three Chinese hospitals.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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To quantify the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in hospitals in mainland China and to assess the effectiveness of control measures.
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The SARS outbreak in a general hospital in Tianjin, China: clinical aspects and risk factors for disease outcome.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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To describe clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients in a hospital in Tianjin, China, thereby comparing probable and suspected cases; to study risk factors associated with the death of cases; to describe the implementation of preventive interventions during the hospital outbreak.
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No evidence of over-reporting of SARS in mainland China.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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To find out whether there was over-reporting of SARS patients in mainland China in view of the relatively low case fatality ratio in mainland China, in comparison with other affected countries and areas.
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Substantial contribution of submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage to the infectious reservoir in an area of seasonal transmission.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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Man to mosquito transmission of malaria depends on the presence of the sexual stage parasites, gametocytes, that often circulate at low densities. Gametocyte densities below the microscopical threshold of detection may be sufficient to infect mosquitoes but the importance of submicroscopical gametocyte carriage in different transmission settings is unknown.
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How to optimize tuberculosis case finding: explorations for Indonesia with a health system model.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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A mathematical model was designed to explore the impact of three strategies for better tuberculosis case finding. Strategies included: (1) reducing the number of tuberculosis patients who do not seek care; (2) reducing diagnostic delay; and (3) engaging non-DOTS providers in the referral of tuberculosis suspects to DOTS services in the Indonesian health system context. The impact of these strategies on tuberculosis mortality and treatment outcome was estimated using a mathematical model of the Indonesian health system.
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The SARS epidemic in mainland China: bringing together all epidemiological data.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To document and verify the number of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) during the 2002-2003 epidemic in mainland China.
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Avascular osteonecrosis after treatment of SARS: a 3-year longitudinal study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To investigate the relationship between avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) and corticosteroid treatment given to patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
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Duration of symptom onset to hospital admission and admission to discharge or death in SARS in mainland China: a descriptive study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To describe and analyse factors associated with the duration of disease onset to hospital admission, admission to discharge and admission to death for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), using the recently developed comprehensive database covering all regions of mainland China, and compare the results within and outside China.
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Geographical spread of SARS in mainland China.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To describe the spatiotemporal diffusion of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in mainland China, and to analyse the spatial pattern of SARS transmission from the Beijing epicentre to its neighbouring areas.
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The economic impact of SARS in Beijing, China.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To document the impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Beijing on indicators of social and economic activity.
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Mathematical modelling of SARS and other infectious diseases in China: a review.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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To give an overview of the recent history of publications on mathematical modelling of infectious diseases in the Chinese literature, and a more detailed review of the models on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
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Case fatality of SARS in mainland China and associated risk factors.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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To analyse the case fatality ratio (CFR) and its risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in mainland China by using a comprehensive dataset of all probable cases.
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Heterogeneity in host HIV susceptibility as a potential contributor to recent HIV prevalence declines in Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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HIV prevalence has recently declined in several African countries, and prior to this the risk of HIV acquisition per unprotected sex contact also declined in Kenyan sex workers. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in HIV host susceptibility might underpin both of these observations.
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Serological reports of human infections of H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in northern China.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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H7 and H9 subtype avian influenza viruses pose a similar threat to humans as H5 virus.
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Care-seeking behaviour among individuals with TB symptoms in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia: a community-based study.
Int Health
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Care-seeking behaviour of individuals with TB symptoms is a critical factor in early detection and treatment. Thorough understanding of determinants of the care-seeking process helps TB programme managers to improve TB case finding. The aim of this study was to assess determinants of care-seeking behaviour among patients with suspected TB at the population level.
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The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the age composition of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.
AIDS
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Antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage is rapidly expanding in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on the effect of ART on survival of HIV-infected people and HIV transmission, the age composition of the HIV epidemic in the region is expected to change in the coming decades. We quantify the change in the age composition of HIV-infected people in all countries in SSA.
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Efficacy of preerythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines can be assessed in small sporozoite challenge trials in human volunteers.
J. Infect. Dis.
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The development of a vaccine against malaria has public health priority. In a controlled setting, preliminary data on the efficacy of Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidates can be obtained by exposing immunized human volunteers to the bites of laboratory-reared P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes. Using empirical data, we show that these trials, with small numbers of volunteers, are sufficiently powered to detect protective biological effects induced by preerythrocytic and/or blood-stage candidate vaccines if parasitemia is measured daily by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Sporozoite challenge trials are thus a powerful tool for early selection of candidates that warrant efficacy of trials in the field.
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Risk factors for tuberculosis in contact investigations in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Infect Dis Rep
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Contact investigations around tuberculosis patients enable early detection of infection and disease, and prevention of secondary tuberculosis cases. We aim to identify risk factors for M. tuberculosis transmission to contacts of tuberculosis patients, based on unique data from routine contact investigations by the Public Health Service in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, collected between 2001 and 2006. Through logistic regression analysis, we determined the effect of various risk factors on the chance of finding a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection or overt tuberculosis case among contacts. A total of 1165 index patients with active tuberculosis were registered and at least one contact was investigated in 731, resulting in 21,540 contacts overall. Altogether, the contact investigations led to 91 cases of active tuberculosis. Of the 12,698 contacts eligible for screening by tuberculin skin test, 1091 (9%) were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infections. Risk factors were old age of the contact, old age of the index patient, and the relationship to the index. A larger fraction of infected close contacts was strongly associated with infections among more distant contacts. Our findings emphasize the importance of including these personal and interpersonal risk factors in decision making in contact investigations.
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Distribution and risk factors of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in mainland China.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
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Data from all reported cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The spatiotemporal distribution patterns of cases were characterized through spatial analysis. The impact of travel-related risk factors on invasion of the disease was analyzed using survival analysis, and climatic factors related to local transmission were identified using multilevel Poisson regression, both at the county level. The results showed that the epidemic spanned a large geographic area, with the most affected areas being in western China. Significant differences in incidence were found among age groups, with incidences peaking in school-age children. Overall, the epidemic spread from southeast to northwest. Proximity to airports and being intersected by national highways or freeways but not railways were variables associated with the presence of the disease in a county. Lower temperature and lower relative humidity were the climatic factors facilitating local transmission after correction for the effects of school summer vacation and public holidays, as well as population density and the density of medical facilities. These findings indicate that interventions focused on domestic travel, population density, and climatic factors could play a role in mitigating the public health impact of future influenza pandemics.
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Diagnostic work-up and loss of tuberculosis suspects in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
BMC Public Health
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Early and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical for successful TB control. To assist in the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends the use of a diagnostic algorithm. Our study evaluated the implementation of the national tuberculosis programmes diagnostic algorithm in routine health care settings in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. The diagnostic algorithm is based on the WHO TB diagnostic algorithm, which had already been implemented in the health facilities.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.