A 5-year-old male ferret presented with an enlarged canalicular testis in the left inguinal region. Microscopically, the enlarged testis consisted of a diffuse intimately admixed proliferation of c-kit-positive germ cell-like and Wilms tumor-1 protein-positive Sertoli cell-like components, but no Call-Exner body was detected. In addition, the compact proliferation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-intense positive interstitial cells was identified in a separate peripheral area of the mass. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor with a concurrent interstitial cell tumor.
We evaluated the potential of poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with d-octaarginine, which is a typical cell-penetrating peptide, as a carrier for mucosal vaccine delivery. Mice were nasally inoculated four times every seventh day with PBS containing ovalbumin with or without the d-octaarginine-linked polymer. The polymer enhanced the production of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secreted immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the serum and the nasal cavity, respectively. Ovalbumin internalized into nasal epithelial cells appeared to stimulate IgA production. Ovalbumin transferred to systemic circulation possibly enhanced IgG production. An equivalent dose of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which was used as a positive control, was superior to the polymer in enhancing antibody production; however, dose escalation of the polymer overcame this disadvantage. A similar immunization profile was also observed when ovalbumin was replaced with influenza virus HA vaccines. The polymer induced a vaccine-specific immune response identical to that induced by CTB, irrespective of the antibody type, when its dose was 10 times that of CTB. Our cell-penetrating peptide-linked polymer is a potential candidate for antigen carriers that induce humoral immunity on the mucosal surface and in systemic circulation when nasally coadministered with antigens.
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