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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Retained periorbital and intracranial air-gun pellets causing sclopetaria and visual loss.
Saudi J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Three healthy males presented on separate occasions to the emergency room at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) after sustaining trauma by air-gun pellets. Clinical examination indicated sclopetaria in all the cases. The foreign bodies (air-gun pellets) were imbedded in different locations (subconjunctival, intraorbital, and intracranial). All cases resulted in a profound and permanent visual loss. The management of this traumatic injury is discussed and concurs with the published literature.
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Effects of fenugreek, garden cress, and black seed on theophylline pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Abstract Context: Herb-drug interactions are a serious problem especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, taking into consideration that herbal medicines are commonly used in various parts of the world. Objective: The present study investigates the effect of fenugreek, garden cress, and black seed on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in beagle dogs. Materials and methods: Beagle dogs received theophylline (200?mg) orally and blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0.33, 0.66, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 30?h). After a suitable washout period, each herb was given orally at doses of 25, 7.5, and 2.5?g, twice daily for 7 d. On the eighth day, theophylline was re-administrated orally and blood samples were collected. Plasma concentrations of theophylline were determined using HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental analysis. Results: Treatment with fenugreek (25?g, orally) lead to a decrease in Cmax and AUC0-t of theophylline of about 28% (p?
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Morphology, ontogenetic features and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of a new soil ciliate, Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Stichotrichia).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The morphology, ontogeny and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov., isolated from the slightly saline soil of a mangrove wetland in Zhanjiang, southern China, were investigated. The new species is characterized by having five to eight buccal cirri arranged in a row, three to five transverse cirri, four macronuclear nodules and two long frontoventral rows V and VI, which start from the frontal area and terminate close to the transverse cirri. The main ontogenetic features of the new species are as follows: (1) parental adoral zone of membranelles is completely inherited by the proter; (2) frontoventral and transverse cirri are formed in six-anlagen mode; (3) basically frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlagen II - V generate one transverse cirrus each at their posterior ends while anlage VI provides no transverse cirrus; (4) both marginal rows and dorsal kineties develop intrakinetally, no dorsal kinety fragment is formed; and (5) the macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass at the middle stage. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rRNA gene show that the new species groups with the clade containing B. variabilis, Parabistichella variabilis, Uroleptoides magnigranulosus and two species of Orthoamphisiella. Given the present state of knowledge, it is still too early to come to a final conclusion regarding the familial classification of Bistichella and further investigation of key taxa with additional molecular markers is required.
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Morphology and phylogeny of three karyorelictean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora), including two new species, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. and Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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This paper investigates the morphology and infraciliature of three karyorelictean ciliates, Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n., Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. and a rarely known form, Geleia acuta (Dragesco, 1960) Foissner, 1998, which were isolated from the intertidal zone of sandy beaches at Zhanjiang and Qingdao, China. Trachelocerca chinensis sp. n. is distinguished from its related forms by having 26-30 somatic kineties, a narrow glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of ca. 4-6 macronuclei and two micronuclei. Tracheloraphis dragescoi sp. n. can be recognized through its 14-22 somatic kineties, wide glabrous stripe and a single nuclear group composed of ca. 4 macronuclei. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences indicate that the two genera, Trachelocerca and Tracheloraphis, are closely related but neither of them appears to be a clearly monophyletic group. Nonetheless, the monophyly of Trachelocerca is not rejected by the approximately unbiased (AU) test (p=0.143>0.05), although that of Tracheloraphis is rejected (p=0.011<0.05). Geleia acuta, meanwhile, branched with G. fossata and falls in the Geleia clade.
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Pomegranate seed oil: Effect on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and elucidation of unsaturated fatty acids composition.
Nutr Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Background Seed oils are used as cosmetics or topical treatment for wounds, allergy, dandruff, and other purposes. Natural antioxidants from plants were recently reported to delay the onset or progress of various neurodegenerative conditions. Over one thousand cultivars of Punica granatum (Punicaceae) are known and some are traditionally used to treat various ailments. Aim The effect of pomegranate oil on 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP) induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) neuronal cells was analyzed in this study. Furthermore, the analysis of unsaturated fatty acid composition of the seed oil of pomegranate by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was done. Results GC-MS study showed the presence of 6,9-octadecadiynoic acid (C18:2(6,9)) as a major component (60%) as 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. The total extractable oil with light petroleum ether by Soxhlet from the dry seed of P. granatum was 4-6%. The oil analyzed for 48.90 ±?1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil, and demonstrated radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant activities in various in vitro assays like the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl, % IP = 35.2 ± 0.9%), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylene benzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid, % IP 2.2 ± 0.1%), and ?-carotene bleaching assay (% IP = 26 ± 3%), respectively, which could be due the possible role of one methylene interrupted diynoic acid system for its radical-scavenging/antioxidant properties of oil. The oil also reduced lipid peroxidation, suppressed reactive oxygen species, extracellular nitric oxide, lactate/pyruvate ratio, and lactase dehydrogenase generated by 3-NP- (100 mM) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, and enhanced the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants at 40 ?g of gallic acid equivalents. Conclusion The protective effect of pomegranate seed oil might be due to the ability of an oil to neutralize ROS or enhance the expression of antioxidant gene.
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Morphology, phylogeny and seasonal prevalence of Ceratomyxa arabica n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the gallbladder of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Pisces: Sparidae) from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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A new myxozoan species was recovered from the gallbladder of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus from the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia. The overall prevalence of infection was 28.6 % (32/112), with the highest prevalence 42.9 % (12/28) in winter and 10.7 % (3/28) as the lowest in autumn. The new species is described using its morphological characteristics and small subunit (SSU) rDNA. Spores of Ceratomyxa arabica n. sp. are stubby-shaped with unequal shell valves, 8 (7-9) ?m in length?×?12 (10-14) ?m in thickness. Polar capsules are sub-spherical, unequal, 3 (2.5-3.5)?×?2 (1.5-2.5) ?m. The polar filament has three turns and is slightly slanted towards the longitudinal axis of the capsules. The small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) sequence confirms that the present species is a member of the genus Ceratomyxa, being most closely related to Ceratomyxa cardinalis with a sequence similarity of 97.77 %.
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Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.
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The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh.
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Morphology and Phylogeny of Two Species of Loxodes (Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with Description of a New Subspecies, Loxodes striatus orientalis subsp. n.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The morphology and phylogeny of Loxodes vorax and L. striatus orientalis subsp. n. were investigated based on infraciliature and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence data. Loxodes striatus orientalis subsp. n. was separated from L. striatus striatus stat. n. by having fewer dikinetids in the intrabuccal kinety (35-55 vs. 50-70) and a variable number of macronuclei (2-4 vs. 2). In addition, the SSU rRNA gene sequence of the new subspecies differs in 13 and 11 nucleotides from that of two populations of the nominotypic subspecies. We also summarized the morphological differences between Loxodes and Remanella based on the data available. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Loxodes was monophyletic and nested within Remanella species. This study might, therefore, support the hypothesis that the freshwater genus Loxodes evolved from the marine genus Remanella.
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Taxonomy and phylogeny of two species of the genus Deviata (Protista, Ciliophora) from China, with description of a new soil form, Deviata parabacilliformis sp. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The morphology and morphogenesis of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Deviata parabacilliformis sp. nov., isolated from northern China, were investigated. D. parabacilliformis measures about 75-210×25-60 µm in vivo, with an elongate and flexible body. It possesses one right marginal row, two to four left marginal rows and three dorsal kineties. The main morphogenetic features of D. parabacilliformis are: (i) the oral primordium originates de novo; (ii) anlage IV of the opisthe originates from parental frontoventral row V, anlage V originates de novo, and anlage VI forms from frontoventral row VI; and (iii) anlage I of the proter originates from the anterior portion of the parental paroral, anlage II originates from the buccal cirrus, anlage III originates from the parabuccal cirri, anlage IV originates from parental frontoventral row IV and anlage V forms from the anterior of parental frontoventral row VI. The morphology of an edaphic population of another species of the genus Deviata, Deviata bacilliformis (Gelei 1954) Eigner 1995, was also investigated. This work also provides the first record of SSU rRNA gene sequences for species of the genus Deviata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that Deviata is not monophyletic, and its position is poorly resolved due to weak phylogenetic signal of the 18S marker in the Stichotrichida.
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Choleoeimeria salaselensis sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the gall bladder of the horned viper Cerastes gasperettii (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Saudi Arabia.
Folia Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Oocyst morphology and endogenous developmental stages are described for Choleoeimeria salaselensis sp. n. from the gall bladder of 10 horned vipers, Cerastes gasperettii Leviton and Anderson, in Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ellipsoidal, 23 x 15 (22-25 x 14-17) microm, length/width ratio (L/W) 1.5 (1.4-1.6), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like), but lack a micropyle, polar granules and oocysts residuum. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8 x 5 (7-9 x 5-) microm, L/W 1.5 (1.4-1.6), and Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies are all absent, but a longitudinal suture, which divided the sporocysts into 2 plates, is present. Endogenous development is confined to epithelial cells in the bile duct and gall bladder; mature meronts were 11 x 7 microm, each with 10-16 merozoites, microgamonts were -12 microm wide, and macrogamonts were -16 microm wide with a prominent nucleus and wall-forming bodies. Given these two diagnostic features, sporocysts with a suture and composed of two plates and endogenous development limited to the biliary epithelium, we believe this coccidium is best classified as a member of Choleoeimeria Paperna et Landsberg, 1989. There are 5 known Eimeria species from vipers that have sporocysts somewhat similar in size to those of our new form, but all of them have much larger oocysts and larger sporocysts, some of which differ significantly in shape; there are not yet any Choleoeimeria species known from the Viperidae.
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The effect of Babesia divergens infection on the spleen of Mongolian gerbils.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites transmitted by ticks and affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally humans. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of B. divergens infected erythrocytes on spleen histopathology, cell cycle alteration, and the presence of oxidative stress. Mongolian gerbils were challenged with 5?×?10(6)??Babesia divergens infected erythrocytes. Parasitemia reached approximately 77% at day 5 postinfection. Infection also induced injury of the spleen. This was evidenced with (i) increases in cellular damage of the spleen, (ii) decrease in antioxidant capacity as indicated by decreased glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels, (iii) increased production of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide derived products (nitrite/nitrate), and (iv) increased lactic acid dehydrogenase activity and protein carbonyl content in the spleen. Infection interfered with normal cell cycle of the spleen cells at G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases. On the basis of the above results it can be hypothesized that B. divergens infected erythrocytes could alter the spleen histopathology and cause cell cycle alteration and induce oxidative stress in splenic tissue.
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STAT3 paradoxically stimulates ?-catenin expression but inhibits ?-catenin function.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Wnt signalling and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) are oncogenic signalling pathways which are deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we investigated the interaction of these two pathways. Firstly, we investigated biochemical interaction by inhibiting STAT3 and ?-catenin (through gene knock-down and dominant-negative TCF4 expression) in nine CRC cell lines. ?-catenin inhibition did not affect STAT3 levels, whereas STAT3 knock-down resulted in reduced ?-catenin mRNA and protein levels. The reduction in ?-catenin protein was not prevented by proteasome inhibition, and IL6-induced STAT3 activation resulted in increased ?-catenin mRNA. This suggests that STAT3 positively regulates ?-catenin (at a transcriptional level) and evaluation of 44 CRCs by immunostaining supported this by showing an association between nuclear STAT3 expression and nuclear ?-catenin (P = 0.022). We tested the functional interaction between STAT3 and Wnt signalling by knocking down STAT3 and ?-catenin individually and in combination. Knock-down of ?-catenin and STAT3 individually inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0. 001 for each) through G1 arrest. However, simultaneous knock-down of STAT3 and ?-catenin had a significantly weaker effect than knock-down of ?-catenin alone (P < 0.01). Knock-down of STAT3 and ?-catenin, individually and together, inhibited cell motility (P < 0.001) without evidence of interaction. We conclude that STAT3 regulates ?-catenin but ?-catenin does not regulate STAT3. The STAT3/?-catenin interaction is complex but may reduce the proliferative activity of ?-catenin possibly by taking ?-catenin protein beyond the optimal level. This may indicate biological differences in tumours where both STAT3 and ?-catenin are activated compared to those where only one is activated.
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The potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. fruit in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced hepatorenal toxicity in Wistar rats. Herein, cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (6.5?mg/kg bwt/day) was intraperitoneally injected for 5 days, and methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh) was pre-administered to a group of Cd-treated rats by an oral administration at a daily dose of 200?mg/kg bwt for 5 days. The findings revealed that CdCl2 injection induced significant decreases in kidney weight and kidney index. Cadmium intoxication increased the activities of liver enzymes and the bilirubin level, in addition to the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were increased in the serum. The pre-administration of MEPh alleviated hepatorenal toxicity in Cd-treated rats. Physalis was noted to play a good hepatorenal protective role, reducing lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and enhancing enzymatic activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule, glutathione, in hepatic and renal tissues of Cd-treated rats. Moreover, physalis treatment was able to reverse the histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues and also increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein in liver and kidney of rats. Overall, the results showed that MEPh can induce antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects and also exerts beneficial effects for the treatment of Cd-induced hepatorenal toxicity.
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Functional compounds from the integument of adult red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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This study deals with the analysis of the integument of the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus of both sexes using the GC-MS technique. The results of the study revealed many promising compounds. These include aspidofractinine-3-methanol (kopsinyl alcohol) which was found in the acetone extract of the sternum of females, and 3-buten-2-ol (32-B) which was found in the extracts of sternum and tergum of males. This compound the aggregation pheromone was secreted by males. Additionally, compounds with methoxy groups were found. These may be responsible for insects' resistance. This study, through separation and identification of these compounds, aims to open a new possibility for their future medical and therapeutic usage.
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Testosterone persistently dysregulates hepatic expression of Tlr6 and Tlr8 induced by Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Testosterone (T) is known to induce persistent susceptibility to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. Pathogens recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs), though potentially important against malaria, have not yet been examined for their T-sensitivity. Here, we investigate effects of T and P. chabaudi on mRNA expression and promoter DNA methylation of Tlr1-9 genes in the liver of female C57BL/6 mice. These are treated with T or vehicle for 3 weeks, and then treatment is discontinued for 12 weeks, before challenging with P. chabaudi for 8 days. Our data reveal that T induces a 9.1-fold downregulation of Tlr6 mRNA and 6.3-fold upregulation of Tlr8 mRNA. Blood-stage infections induce significant increases in mRNA expression of Tlr1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 varying between 2.5-fold and 21-fold in control mice. In T-pretreated mice, these Tlr genes are also significantly responsive to infections. However, the malaria-induced upregulations of the relative mRNA expressions of Tlr6 and Tlr8 are 5.6-fold higher and 6.5-fold lower in T-pretreated mice than in control mice. Infections induce a massive DNA down-methylation of the Tlr6 gene promoter in control mice, which is still more pronounced in T-pretreated mice, while significant changes are not detectable for the DNA methylation status of the Tlr8 promoter. Our data support the view that hepatic expression of Tlr6, but not that of Tlr8 is epigenetically controlled, and that the dysregulations of Tlr6 and Tlr8 critically contribute to T-induced persistent susceptibility to P. chabaudi malaria, possibly by dys-balancing responses of TLR6-mediated pathogen recognition and TLR8-mediated generation of anti-malaria "protective" autoimmunity.
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A 6-month "self-monitoring" lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to determine whether a self-monitoring, life-style modification program that includes increased sunlight exposure confer improvement in vitamin D status and health benefits among adult Saudi overweight and obese patients with varying glycemic status.
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Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.
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Interaction between cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy mothers and its impact on birth anthropometric measures.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To our knowledge, this study may be the first to examine the antagonistic role of selenium (Se) on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) and its impact on birth measures. Cd and Se levels were measured in umbilical-cord blood and the placentas of a subsample of 250 healthy mothers who participated between 2005 and 2006 in the project "Prenatal Exposure to Pollutants". The median Cd levels in cord and maternal blood and placental tissue were 0.78?g/l, 0.976?g/l and 0.037?g/g dry wt., respectively. The median levels of Se in cord serum and placental tissue were 65.68?g/l and 1.052?g/g dry wt., respectively. Se was more than 100-fold in molar excess over Cd in both cord serum and placental tissue. The median molar Cd/Se ratios in cord serum and placental tissue were 0.008 and 0.024, respectively, which were much lower than unity. This study suggests that both Cd and Se play a role in the mechanism of oxidative stress, but, the process underlying this mechanism remains unclear. Nevertheless, three biomarkers of oxidative stress had inconsistent relationships with Cd and/or Se in various matrices, perhaps due to potential untested confounders. Our results generally support an association between low in utero exposure to Cd and the anthropometric development of the fetus. Adjusted regression models indicated a negative association of cord blood Cd levels ?0.78?g/l with Apgar 5-min scores and birth height. Maternal Cd levels ?0.976?g/l were associated with a 5.94-fold increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births, which increased to 7.48-fold after excluding preterm births. Placenta weight decreased with increasing placental Cd levels ?0.037?g/g dry wt. (p=0.045), an association that became stronger after excluding preterm births or adjusting for birth weight. Cord Se levels ?65.68?g/l were positively associated with placenta weight (p=0.041) and thickness (p=0.031), an association that remained unchanged after excluding preterm births. Cord Se levels, however, were negatively associated with cephalization index, but only after excluding preterm births (p=0.017). Each birth measure was again modeled as a function of the Cd/Se ratios in cord blood and placenta tissue. Interestingly cord ratios ?0.008 were negatively associated with Apgar-5min score (p=0.047), birth weight (p=0.034) and placenta thickness (p=0.022). After excluding preterm births, only the association with placenta thickness remained significant (p=0.021), while birth weight (p=0.053) was marginally significant. In contrast, cephalization index increased with Cd/Se ratios ?0.008 (p=0.033), an association that became marginally significant after excluding preterm births (p=0.058). For placental Cd/Se ratios ?0.024, only placenta weight was reduced with (p=0.037) and without (p=0.009) the inclusion of preterm births. These findings do not support an antagonistic mechanism between Cd and Se. The role of oxidative mechanisms either induced by Cd exposure or alleviated by Se on these birth anthropometric measures was examined by principal component analysis. Se did not have a clear protective role against Cd-induced adverse effects despite its substantial excess over Cd, and its role in alleviating oxidative stress by reducing malondialdehyde levels. The results may suggest that the extent of the Se beneficial effects is not governed only by its concentration but also by the chemical forms of Se that interact with various proteins. Consequently, the speciation of Se in such studies is essential for understanding and predicting Se availability for absorption.
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Influence of smear layer treatment on resistance to root fracture in tooth restored with epoxy fiber post.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To evaluate the influence of complete smear layer removal by EDTA on the resistance of root fracture of tooth restored with fiber post. Twenty single rooted premolars with average root length 16 ± 1 mm were randomly divided into two groups of ten each. All teeth were obturated with guttapercha after root canal preparation, sectioned 4 mm above the cement-enamel junction. In group I, teeth root canals were etched with 37 % phosphoric acid, fiber post cemented with self adhesive resin cement. In group II, teeth radicular dentin was treated with 17 % EDTA, followed by fiber post cementation with dual cure resin cement. Coronal part of the teeth reestablished with posterior composite and NiCr full veneer coping along with 2 mm circumferential ferrule. Restored teeth were loaded with incremental force at 30° to the long axis of the root until fracture occurred. The data obtained was evaluated with paired sample T test to compare the fracture resistance between the test groups. Group I had the mean failure load of 1,883.70 N while group II had 1,622.80 N mean failure load. Paired sample T test showed statistically significant (p value = 0.033) failure load difference between the groups tested. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that: the complete removal of smear layer by EDTA found to have reduced the fracture strength of tooth roots restored with an epoxy fiber post.
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Morphological and molecular characterization of Parafurgasonia zhangi spec. nov. and Chilodonella acuta Kahl, 1931 (Protozoa, Ciliophora), from a soil habitat of Saudi Arabia.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The morphology and infraciliature of two soil ciliates, Parafurgasonia zhangi spec. nov. and Chilodonella acuta Kahl, 1931, collected from Saudi Arabia, were investigated by observations of both living cells and specimens after standard staining methods. P. zhangi differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: excretory pore quite near posterior end of paroral membrane, 16 or 17 somatic kineties with about 11 kinetids in each one on dorsal side, paroral membrane gently curved and composed of about 15 dikinetids, and hypostomial organelle composed of four or five files of kinetids with four monokinetids each. The diagnosis of Chilodonella acuta was renewed to include characteristics revealed by the silver impregnation method: cells in vivo measuring 33-45) × 18-26) µm, dorsal hump and tail-like podite present, two contractile vacuoles, seven left and five right kineties, 9-11 nematodesmal rods, and dorsal brush containing about 11 basal bodies. Phylogenetic analyses based on small-subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that P. zhangi was closer to species of the Colpodidiidae rather than the Furgasoniidae represented by Furgasonia blochmanni, and Chilodonella acuta clustered with its congener Chilodonella uncinata but was a well-outlined species of the genus.
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Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed.
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Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Three Cyrtophorid Ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from China, Including Two New Species, Chilodonella parauncinata sp. n. and Chlamydonella irregularis sp. n.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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This study investigated the morphology and molecular characteristics of three interesting free-living cyrtophorid ciliates, including two new species, isolated from China: Chilodonella parauncinata sp. n. can be identified by its elongated body shape, with a sharp protrusion in the left anterior part, cell size ca. 60 × 25 ?m in vivo, five right and 6-7 left kineties with kinetosomes densely arranged, and a curved cyrtos. Chlamydonella irregularis sp. n. differs from its congeners by the oval body shape, cell size 50-60 × 25-40 ?m in vivo, irregular shape of macronucleus, 30-40 club-shaped ventral protuberances, and 17 somatic kineties. Two isolates of Chlamydonella derouxi Song, 2003, collected from an intertidal area in Shandong and a mangrove wetland in Guangdong respectively, correspond well with two previous descriptions, but differ in comprising more basal bodies in left and right equatorial fragments and in having more finger-like protuberances on the ventral side. Phylogenetic analyses based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that C. parauncinata sp. n. clustered with Chilodonella uncinata, but was a well-outlined species of the genus, and C. irregularis sp. n. and C. derouxi grouped in the family Lynchellidae with their congeners to form the monophyletic genus Chlamydonella.
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Morphological and ultrastructural redescription of Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), type species of the genus, infecting the gall bladder of the marine cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata Risso (Chondrichthyes: Torpedinidae), from the Portugu
Folia Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890, the type species of Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890, is redescribed based on material found in the gall bladder of the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata Risso collected from the Portuguese Atlantic coast and its sporogonic development is described. Plasmodia and mature spores were floating free in the bile. Plasmodia are polysporic and highly polymorphic in shape and organization. Mature spores are spherical to subspherical with a pointed anterior end, measuring 12.3 +/- 0.5 microm in length and 9.0 +/- 0.5 microm in width. The spore wall is composed of two asymmetric shell valves, each bearing 4-5 elevated surface ridges. A bundle of 40-50 tapering caudal filaments extends from the basal portion of the shell valves. Four pyriform equal-sized polar capsules, measuring about 5.3 x 3.2 microm, are observed at the same level in the anterior pole of the spores, each containing a polar filament coiled in 8-9 (rarely 10) turns. Spore morphology, tissue tropism, host species and sequences of the SSU rRNA gene supported species identification. Since its discovery, this species has been dubiously reported from several cartilaginous hosts, namely due to the poor description of its features.
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Effects of Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on sildenafil disposition in beagle dogs.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbs namely Nigella sativa, Lepidium sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil in beagle dogs. The study design involved four treatments in a non-balanced crossover design. Sildenafil was given one tablet 100 mg orally to each dog and blood samples were obtained. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for 1 week. Blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals and sildenafil was analyzed by HPLC method. Oral administration of Nigella sativa resulted in reduction of AUC0-?, C max and t 1/2 as compared to the control. Treatment of Lepidium sativum resulted in a significant reduction in the C max and AUC. There were no significant differences between the rests of the pharmacokinetic parameters relative to those of the control. For Trigonella foenum-graecum, the effects were similar to those obtained in case of Lepidium sativum. It was concluded that concurrent use of investigated herbs alters the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil. Co-administration of investigated herbs should be cautious since their concomitant use might result in decrease in sildenafil bioavailability.
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Molecular and Morphometric Characteristics of Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) Infecting the Gallbladder of the Orange-spotted Grouper Epinephelus coioides from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Ceratomyxa hamour n. sp. was found to infect the gallbladder of the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides located off the Saudi Arabian coast of the Arabian Gulf. The infection was reported as a free-floating spore in the bile, and pseudoplasmodia were not observed. Mature spores were crescent-shaped and measured on average 7 ?m in length and 16 ?m in thickness. The polar capsule, meanwhile, had length to width measurements of 4 ?m and 3 ?m on average. A periodical survey was conducted throughout a sampling period between December 2012 and December 2013, with the results showing that the parasite was present throughout the year with a mean prevalence of 32.6%. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological and molecular differences from previously described species. Molecular analysis based on the partial sequence of the SSU rDNA gene, showed the highest similarity (97.8%) to Ceratomyxa buri, reported in the cultured yellow tail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan. Indeed, C. buri and the new species described here formed an individual cluster with a high degree of bootstrap support. This is the first reported species of genus Ceratomyxa from the Arabian Gulf fishes off Saudi Arabia.
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The morphological and molecular characterization of Myxobolus khaliji n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) from the double bar seabream Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål, 1775) in the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Myxobolus khaliji n. sp., a new myxosporean, is described from the intestinal wall of the double bar seabream Acanthopagrus bifasciatus, collected from the Arabian Gulf off the coast of Saudi Arabia. It is characterized by the presence of ellipsoidal or round plasmodia of 2-4 mm in diameter. Mature spores were subspherical to elliptical in the frontal view, with a slightly pointed anterior end and a bluntly rounded posterior end, and measured 8.1?±?0.4 (7.2-9.5) ?m long, 6.3?±?0.6 (5.1-7.4) ?m wide, and 9.2?±?0.7 (8.3-10.2) thick. Spore valves are relatively thin, sometimes with a prominent thick caudal appendage. Two equal elliptical polar capsules were situated in the plane of the suture line at the anterior end of the spores and occupied above half of the spore length. Polar capsules measured 5.5?±?0.7 (4.1-6.1) ?m long and 3.2?±?0.2 (2.1-4.2) ?m wide. Polar filaments, wound in three to four coils, were situated perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Combining the morphological characteristics, host specificity and geographical distribution, tissue tropism, and the molecular analysis of the partial sequence of the SSU ribosomal DNA gene, it was concluded that M. khaliji n. sp. was distinct from all previously described Myxobolus species. Phylogenetic analysis placed the present Myxobolus species in a marine Henneguya clade, which is a sister group of marine Myxobolus species. This is the first Myxobolus species with Henneguya-like spores from the marine environment to be found in the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Arabian Gulf.
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Corneal spherical aberration in Saudi population.
Saudi J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To find out the mean corneal spherical aberration and its changes with age in Saudi population.
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Evaluation of skin permeation and analgesic activity effects of carbopol lornoxicam topical gels containing penetration enhancer.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation for improved skin penetration of lornoxicam (LOR) for enhancement of its analgesic activity. Moreover, the effect of different penetration enhancers on LOR was studied. The LOR gel formulations were prepared by using hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and carbopol. The carbopol gels in presence of propylene glycol (PG) and ethanol were developed. The formulated gels were characterized for pH, viscosity, and LOR release using Franz diffusion cells. Also, in vitro skin permeation of LOR was conducted. The effect of hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (HP ?-CD), beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD), Tween 80, and oleic acid on LOR permeation was evaluated. The optimized LOR gel formulation (LORF8) showed the highest flux (14.31 ?g/cm(2)/h) with ER of 18.34 when compared to LORF3. Incorporation of PG and HP ?-CD in gel formulation (LORF8) enhanced the permeation of LOR significantly. It was observed that LORF3 and LORF8 show similar analgesic activity compared to marketed LOR injection (Xefo). This work shows that LOR can be formulated into carbopol gel in presence of PG and HP ?-CD and may be promising in enhancing permeation.
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Development of species-specific primers for identification of Biomphalaria arabica, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Schistosoma mansoni is mediated through the intermediate host Biomphalaria arabica which lives in Saudi Arabia. Molecular characterization and identification of this intermediate host are important for epidemiological studies of schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to determine the molecular variations among the populations of B. arabica found in Southern part of Saudi Arabia, and to develop species-specific primers for identification of these snails as a first step in the development of multiplex PCR for simultaneously identifying the snails and diagnosing its infections in a single step. Five populations of Saudi B. arabica snails were collected from freshwater bodies. Three populations were collected from Asser and two populations were collected from AL-Baha. Genomic DNA was extracted from snails and was amplified using five different RAPD-PCR primers. The banding patterns of amplified materials by primers P1 and P5 were identical in all populations. However, the rest primers displayed intra-specific differences among populations with variable degrees. Largest sizes of RAPD-PCR products were cloned into TA cloning vector as a preparatory step for DNA sequence analysis. After sequencing, similarity searches of obtained DNA sequences revealed that there are no similar sequences submitted to genebank data bases and its associated banks. The results obtained will be helpful in the development of simultaneous identification of B. arabica snails and diagnosis of S. mansoni infection within it in a single step by an implementation of multiplex PCR.
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Antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from Jeddah coast of Red sea, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi J Biol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. However algae of the Red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. In this context Ulva reticulata, Caulerpa occidentalis, Cladophora socialis, Dictyota ciliolata, and Gracilaria dendroides isolated from Red sea coastal waters of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their potential for bioactivity. Extracts of the algae selected for the study were prepared using ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and water, and assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25322, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. It was found that chloroform was most effective followed by ethanol, petroleum ether and water for the preparation of algal extract with significant antibacterial activities, respectively. Results also indicated that the extracts of red alga G. dendroides were more efficient against the tested bacterial strains followed by green alga U. reticulata, and brown algae D. ciliolata. Chemical analyses showed that G. dendroides recorded the highest percentages of the total fats and total proteins, followed by U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Among the bioflavonoids determined Rutin, Quercetin and Kaempherol were present in high percentages in G. dendroides, U. reticulata, and D. ciliolate. Estimation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids revealed that palmitic acid was present in highest percentage in all the algal species analyzed. Amino acid analyses indicated the presence of free amino acids in moderate contents in all the species of algae. The results indicated scope for utilizing these algae as a source of antibacterial substances.
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Redescription of Haemogregarina garnhami (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the blood of Psammophis schokari (Serpentes: Colubridae) as Hepatozoon garnhami n. comb. based on molecular, morphometric and morphologic characters.
Acta Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Hepatozoon garnhami n. comb. was redescribed from Schokari sand snakes (Psammophis schokari) collected from Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 2 of 15 snakes examined. Based on the similar morphological and morphometric characteristics, the same host and a similar host habitat environment, it can be concluded for the first time that the present species is conspecific with Haemogregarina garnhami previously reported from Psammophis shokari aegyptius. To further characterize this parasite, the partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. The sequence analysis also showed that Haemogregarina garnhami should be reassigned into the genus Hepatozoon as Hepatozoon garnhami which has 99.5% (859/863 bp) sequence similarity to Hepatozoon ayorgbor, infecting the erythrocytes of Python regius in Ghana. Phylogenetic analysis showed that H. garnhami formed a mixed clade with Hepatozoon spp. from geckos, snakes and rodents and ophidian Hepatozoon spp. did not form a separated phylogenetic unit. Also, Psammophis schokari-infecting Hepatozoon contained several different genetic lineages. To our knowledge, the present work extends the geographic distribution of H. garnhami and is the first report of Hepatozoon infection in snakes from Saudi Arabia.
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Morphology and Phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a Parasite Infecting the Gills of the Fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 ?m in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 ?m in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 ?m in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 ?m in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 ?m long and 6.1 ± 0.4 ?m wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna.
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Morphology of Three Species of Amphileptus (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Pleurostomatida) from the South China Sea, with Note on Phylogeny of A. dragescoi sp. n.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Two new and one problematic species of pleurostomatids, Amphileptus dragescoi sp. n., A. wilberti sp. n., and A. marinus from coastal areas of the South China Sea, are described based on observations of live and protargol-impregnated specimens. Amphileptus dragescoi is different from its congeners by the presence of an apical group of extrusomes and the possession of 12-15 right and five left somatic kineties, two macronuclear nodules, and a single terminally positioned contractile vacuole. Amphileptus wilberti is diagnosed by oval or pyriform body, 15-19 right and seven or eight left somatic kineties, extrusomes arranged only in anterior portion of oral slit, usually three ventrally located contractile vacuoles, and two macronuclear nodules. Amphileptus marinus (Kahl, 1931) Song et al., 2004 is redescribed and its diagnosis is improved. One isolate which was misidentified as A. marinus by Song et al. (2004) is believed to represent an unknown form, named here as Amphileptus songi sp. n. Phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rDNA sequences indicate that the genus Amphileptus is paraphyletic, but its monophyly is not rejected by statistical tree topology tests.
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In vitro growth of the microsporidian Heterosporis saurida in the eel kidney EK-1 cell line.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Heterosporis saurida is an intracellular microsporidian that infects lizardfish Saurida undosquamis. Although some attempts have been introduced to clarify microsporidian host-pathogen interactions, development of novel strategies to combat fish diseases is still needed. Here we present an in vitro cultivation model for fish microsporidia based on an eel kidney cell line (EK-1), which is susceptible to infection by H. saurida. Spores were isolated from infected lizardfish and used to inoculate EK-1 cells. H. saurida were propagated in the eel kidney EK-1 cell line and detected by immunofluorescence. Developmental stages of H. saurida were seen in EK-1 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Identity of the parasite was confirmed by partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. Our cell culture model provides a valuable means to explore molecular and immunological events and will facilitate development of effective treatment strategies.
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Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger (Serpentes: Boidae) in Saudi Arabia.
Syst. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. is described from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger in Saudi Arabia. Oöcysts are tetrasporocystic, cylindroidal, 23 × 14 ?m, with a smooth bi-layered wall and length/width ratio of 1.5, without micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 8 × 6 ?m, with length/width ratio of 1.4, without Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies but with sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are banana-shaped measuring 10 × 1.5 ?m. The endogenous development was found to occur in the gallbladder epithelium and the extrahepatic bile ducts. Mature meronts are spheroidal, c.10 ?m wide, and suspected to produce 12-16 merozoites. Microgamonts are irregular in shape, 13 × 10 ?m, whereas macrogamonts are mostly subspheroidal, c.12 ?m wide, with a prominent centrally-located nucleus. Based on oöcyst morphology and the site of endogenous development (epithelium of the gallbladder and bile ducts) the new eimeriid coccidian was placed in the genus Choleoeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989.
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Morphology and phylogeny of Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae), infecting the gills of the marine fish Lutjanus jocu.
Eur. J. Protistol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Henneguya jocu n. sp. (Myxosporea, Myxobolidae) is described from the gill lamellae of the marine teleost fish Lutjanus jocu, with a focus on ultrastructural and molecular features. This myxosporean forms subspherical cysts up to ?260 ?m × 130 ?m long, and develops asynchronously. Mature myxospores ellipsoidal with a bifurcated caudal process. Myxospore length 10.9 ± 0.4 ?m (n=50); width, 8.2 ± 0.3 ?m (n=50); and thickness, 2.9 ± 0.5 ?m (n=50). Two equal caudal processes, 34.1±1.0 ?m long (n=50); and total myxospore length, 45.2 ± 1.0 ?m (n=50). Two symmetric valves surround two ellipsoidal polar capsules, 5.0 ± 0.3 × 1.4 ± 0.2 ?m (n=20), each containing an isofilar polar filament forming 4-5 coils along the inner wall of these structures, as well as a binucleated sporoplasm presenting a spherical vacuole and several globular sporoplasmosomes. Both the morphological data and molecular analysis of the SSU rDNA gene identify this parasite as a new species of the genus Henneguya. Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony analyses further indicate that the parasite clusters within others marine Myxobolidae species, forming a group alongside other Henneguya species described from marine hosts.
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Effect of Curcuma longa on CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Effect of Curcuma longa rhizome powder and its ethanolic extract on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 metabolic activity was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes and clinically in healthy human subjects. Dextromethorphan (DEX) was used as common probe for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. Metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 was evaluated through in vitro study; where microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of Curcuma extract. In clinical study phase-I, six healthy human subjects received a single dose (30 mg) of DEX syrup, and in phase-II DEX syrup was administered with Curcuma powder. The enzyme CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 mediated O- and N-demethylation of dextromethorphan into dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Curcuma extract significantly inhibited the formation of DOR and 3-MM, in a dose-dependent and linear fashion. The 100 ?g/ml dose of curcuma extract produced highest inhibition, which was about 70 % for DOR and 80 % for 3-MM. Curcuma significantly increases the urine metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR but the change in DEX/3-MM ratio was statistically insignificant. Present findings suggested that curcuma significantly inhibits the activity of CYP2D6 in in vitro as well as in vivo; which indicates that curcuma has potential to interact with CYP2D6 substrates.
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Management of liver trauma in Kuwait.
Med Princ Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of non-operative management (NOM) for blunt liver trauma by establishing a protocol and a prospective Liver Trauma Registry in Kuwait.
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Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.
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Seasonal fluctuation and histopathology of Henneguya ghaffari (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infection in the gills of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in the River Nile: a new locality record.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Henneguya ghaffari Ali (Dis Aquat Org 38:225-230, 1999), which was originally described in Lake Wadi El-Rayan in the western desert of Egypt, has been discovered in the gills of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, sourced from the River Nile at Beni-Suef governorate. The species identification was based on the spore morphometry. Of 180 Nile perch, 68 were found to be naturally infected with H. ghaffari (37.7%). A significant seasonal fluctuation in the prevalence was discerned, with the maximum rate occurring in the winter (68.8%) and the minimum rate in the summer (8.8%). The plasmodia of the parasite were evident as white rods, occupying almost a third of the gill filament and with mean dimensions of 0.7 × 0.2 mm. Histological investigations revealed that the present plasmodia were potentially compatible with the intrafilamental type. Infection with H. ghaffari initiated epithelial hyperplasia and curling and atrophy of the respiratory lamellae, which underpin its deleterious effect on the host by decreasing the functional respiratory surface of the gills. The present study concluded that infection with H. ghaffari originated in the River Nile before moving to the new ecosystem of Lake Wadi El-Rayan through drainage water.
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Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main "antipodal" functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with "self" and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of "protective" autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system.
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Inflammatory and bone turnover markers in relation to PTH and vitamin D status among Saudi postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process which can be influenced by factors that could cause or contribute to osteoporosis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1?, Il-6, IL-8 and TNF-?) have been implicated in the regulation of bone cells and play a critical role in bone remodeling. They act both directly and indirectly to increase bone resorption, and/or inhibit bone formation. The aim of the study is to determine whether pro-inflammatory cytokines correlate with bone turnover markers (BTM) in a cohort of Saudi post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis and which BTMs will correlate with PTH and Vitamin D for use in osteoporosis diagnosis. The study is composed of 100 post-menopausal patients and 100 controls aged 50 years and above. Serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory and BTMs as well as PTH and vitamin D were determined by ELISA, Luminex and electrochemiluminescence. Serum calcium, phosphorus, glucose, and lipid profile were measured by using a chemical analyzer. There was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PTH, CTx, and glucose. A significantly lower vitamin D and osteocalcin levels were observed in subjects with osteoporosis than those without. No significant differences were recorded in the circulating lipid profile between groups. The present study proved that the pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate the bone loss in postmenopausal women.
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Performance of the high-sensitivity troponin assay in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-analysis.
CMAJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays have been adopted by many clinical centres worldwide; however, clinicians are uncertain how to interpret the results. We sought to assess the utility of these assays in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (MI).
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Hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by Naja haje crude venom.
J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Snake venoms are synthesized and stored in venom glands. Most venoms are complex mixtures of several proteins, peptides, enzymes, toxins and non-protein components. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat liver cells provoked by Naja haje crude injection (LD50) after four hours.
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Morphological reports on two Dexiotricha species (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with a note on the phylogenetic position of the genus.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Two Dexiotricha species (D. elliptica and D. cf. granulosa) isolated from soil in northwest of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and freshwater in Shanghai, eastern China, respectively, were investigated using standard methods. The species Loxocephalus ellipticus Kahl, 1931 was combined to the genus Dexiotricha and was characterized mainly by having constantly 16 somatic kineties, three post oral kineties with the middle one shortened, contractile vacuole sub-caudally located with excretory pore near posterior end of somatic kinety 2 and single caudal cilia. An organism of Dexiotricha granulosa-like having a sub-caudally located contractile vacuole and fewer somatic kineties was designated as D. cf. granulosa. The small subunit rRNA gene (SSU-rDNA) sequences of these two species were characterized and their phylogenetic position based on SSU-rDNA sequences were revealed by means of Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed Dexiotricha as a monophyletic genus and its assignment to the order Loxocephalida. However, its family assignment is still unsupported.
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Genotype-phenotype analysis of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in six families from Saudi Arabia.
Clin. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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We sought to explore the genotype-phenotype of Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) patients in Saudi Arabia. We have also assessed the plausible effect of consanguinity into the pathology of JLNS. Six families with at least one JLNS-affected member attended our clinic between 2011 and 2013. Retrospective and prospective clinical data were collected and genetic investigation was performed. Pathogenic mutations in the KCNQ1 gene were detected in all JLNS patients. The homozygous mutations detected were Leu273Phe, Asp202Asn, Ile567Thr, and c.1486_1487delCT and compound heterozygous mutations were c.820_ 830del and c.1251+1G>T. All living JLNS patients except one had a QTc of >500?ms and a history of recurrent syncope. ?-Blockers abolished the cardiac-related events in all patients except two siblings with homozygous Ile567Thr mutation. Four of the six mutations were originally reported in autosomal dominant long QT syndrome (LQTS) patients. Eighty percent of the heterozygote mutation carriers showed prolongation of QTc, but majority of these reported no symptoms attributable to arrhythmias. Mutations detected in this study will be advantageous in tribe and region-specific cascade screening of LQTS in Saudi Arabia.
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The Potential Role of Azadirachta indica Treatment on Cisplatin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Female Rats.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2013
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Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem, family: Meliaceae) is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. In this study we investigated the protective effect of methanolic neem leaves extract (MNLE; 500?mg/Kg bwt) on rats treated with cisplatin (CDDP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Adult rats were randomly divided into four groups. CDDP was given to rats by intraperitoneal injection, while MNLE was given by oral gavage for 5 days after the CDDP injection. The injury and oxidative stress caused by CDDP on the liver and the effect of MNLE were evaluated by measuring (a) histological changes, (b) tissue biochemical oxidant and antioxidant parameters, and (c) investigating apoptosis markers immunohistochemically and by real time PCR. After treatment with MNLE, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by cisplatin were improved. Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were significantly decreased; the antioxidant system, namely, glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly elevated. In conclusion, MNLE may have a potential role when combined with cisplatin in chemotherapy to alleviate cisplatin-induced damage and oxidative stress in liver.
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Taxonomy, morphology and phylogeny of three new oligotrich ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia) from southern China.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Oligotrich ciliates are common members of marine microplankton. However, their biodiversity is not well documented. In this study, the morphology and phylogenetic positions of three new oligotrich species, Spirostrombidium apourceolare spec. nov., Spirostrombidium subtropicum spec. nov. and Parallelostrombidium conicum spec. nov., collected from coastal habitats of southern China, were investigated. Spirostrombidium apourceolare is characterized by the girdle kinety which encircles the cell twice as two dextrally oriented whorls with some undulations and by the presence of several macronuclear nodules. Spirostrombidium subtropicum is recognized by the girdle kinety encircling the cell as two dextrally oriented whorls and extrusomes arranged in a stripe along the girdle kinety. Parallelostrombidium conicum differs from its congeners by the obconic body shape and the posterior portion of the girdle kinety extending downwards on the left ventral side to reach the posterior pole. In small-subunit rRNA gene trees, S. subtropicum clusters with Omegastrombidium elegans and Varistrombidium kielum, and Parallelostrombidium conicum is sister to the clade containing Novistrombidium sinicum, Novistrombidium orientale and Parallelostrombidium sp.
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Dietary selenium affects intestinal development of Eimeria papillata in mice.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2013
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Here, we investigated the effect of the trace element selenium (Se) on course and outcome of Eimeria-paplllata-induced coccidiosis in mice. Male mice were fed on Se-adequate (0.15 ppm), Se-deficient, and Se-high diets (1.0 ppm) for 6 weeks. Mice were orally infected with 1,000 oocysts. The prepatent period lasts for 3 days, but the course of infections varied. At Se-adequate diet, the maximum fecal output of oocysts amounted to 68,300 ooccysts/g feces on day 5 p.i.. However, fecal shedding of oocysts was accelerated in mice on Se-deficient diet and occurred already on day 4 p.i.. By contrast, maximal shedding is impaired in mice on high-Se diet, which takes place on day 5 p.i., but with a decreased output of only 7,300 oocysts/g feces. Light microscopy reveals that all developmental stages are affected: meronts, micro- and macrogamonts, and developing oocysts are increased in comparison with mice fed on selenium-adequate diet. At high Se, the number of parasitic stages in the jejunum is substantially higher than at Se-deficient diet. Se does not affect the number of jejunal Alcian blue-stained goblet cells. Se deficiency increased the number of apoptotic cells in the jejunum. Substantially increased histological injury scores reveal more injuries in jejunum tissue infected by E. papillata. Our data indicate that high dietary Se exerts potential anticoccidial activity. This may be taken advantage of in control measures towards Eimeriosis as a feed additive, potentially alleviating the need for concomitantly utilized anti-coccidial drugs in the feed.
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A new species of Choleoeimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the lizard, Scincus hemprichii (Sauria: Scincidae).
Folia Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Four out of twenty (20%) specimens of the lizard Scincus hemprichii Wiegmann, collected in Saudi Arabia were infected with a previously undescribed species of Choleoeimeria. Oocysts of Choleoeimeria jazanensis sp. n. are cylindroidal, 26 x 15 microm, with a smooth bilayered wall and a shape index of 1.7. Oocyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Sporocysts are subspherical, 10 x 7 microm, with a shape index of 1.3. The Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, 10 x 3 microm, with one refractile body and enclosed the fine granulated sporocyst residuum. The endogenous development is confined to the gall bladder epithelium, with infected cells being displaced from the epithelium layer towards lumen. Mature meronts are subspherical and estimates to produce 9-12 merozoites. Microgamonts are spherical in shape with diameter of 13 microm. Macrogamonts are subspherical with a prominent nucleus in centre and wall-forming bodies at periphery.
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Mercury (Hg) and oxidative stress status in healthy mothers and its effect on birth anthropometric measures.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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This study was conducted to: (a) investigate the antagonistic interaction between selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in mothers and their newborns, (b) delineate the role of oxidative mechanisms induced by Hg exposure and (c) examine the protective effect of Se on Hg-induced oxidative stress and birth outcomes. Levels of Hg and Se were measured in umbilical cord blood and the placentas of 250 healthy mothers who participated in a study between 2006 and 2006 assessing prenatal exposure various pollutants. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in cord and maternal blood and of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in urine were measured for assessing oxidative stress. Tail moment (TM) in the comet assay, as a biomarker of DNA damage was measured in samples of cord and maternal blood. The mean Se levels in umbilical cord blood (67.618±12.897?g/l) were lower than those reported in many countries, but none of the newborns had Se levels <20?g/l (the threshold limit of Keshan disease). More than 80% of the newborns, though, had Se levels below the 80?g/l needed for maximum glutathione peroxidase activity. Even though 18.6% of the newborns had levels of Hg ?5.8?g/l (the reference dose of the Environmental Protection Agency), no relationship was observed with the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The mean placental Hg levels (0.056±0.075?g/g dry wt.) were higher than those reported for newborns with abnormal fetal development. Our study also documented significant placental transfer of Hg and Se to the fetus. The Hg/Se molar ratio in both cord blood and placental tissue was well below 1. The average amount of Se in both matrices was approximately 50-fold in molar excess over Hg. The molar excess of Se in the umbilical cord (0.843?mol/l), however, was lower than in placental tissues (13.098?mol/kg dry wt.). In further support of the relationships of Hg and Se on oxidative stress, we observed significantly lower levels of maternal MDA associated with Se levels in both cord blood and placental tissues and significantly higher TM levels associated with placental Hg in both newborns and their mothers. In contrast, Se/Hg molar ratios in placental tissues were positively associated with MDA and negatively with TM. The disproportion between Hg and Se might be influenced by the length of Hg exposure that in turn might affect Se bioavailability. Each birth anthropometric outcome was modeled as a function of Hg, Se and their interactions. After an adjustment for confounding variables, Hg in cord blood had a significantly positive rather than the expected negative association with crown-heel length. Placental Hg was associated with reduced birth height. Both associations were independent of prematurity. The status of Se in newborns was positively associated with crown-heel length and placental weight, with and without preterm births, and with birth weight, but only without preterm births. In contrast, a lower cephalization index was correlated with Se levels in cord blood, which may be an indicator of a detrimental effect on health. Our study, however, revealed associations between significantly lower levels of placental Se and several birth anthropometric measures (head circumference, birth weight and birth height) but the significance disappeared after excluding preterm births. Regression analyses generally indicated either significant or marginally significant Hg-Se antagonistic interactions that may have moderated the toxic effect of Hg on head circumference and birth weight. This finding may be due to chance or residual confounding and so may not be clinically relevant, but it may also suggest that Hg, Se and Hg-Se interactions are important factors for understanding Hg-induced adverse birth outcomes. Additional research will be necessary to evaluate the biological impact of combined metals in the assessment of fetal growth and development.
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Morphological and phylogenetic description of a new xenoma-inducing microsporidian, Microsporidium aurata nov. sp., parasite of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata from the Red Sea.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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A new species of Microsporidia found in the marine teleost Sparus aurata collected from Hurghada coasts along the Red Sea, Egypt was described based on light and ultrastructural studies. Twenty three (30.6%) out of 75 of the examined fish were parasitized with a microsporidian parasite. Numerous macroscopic whitish cysts embedded in the peritoneal cavity were observed to infect many organs of the body including muscles, connective tissues, and the intestinal epithelium. The infection was developed as tumor-like masses of often up to 5 mm in diameter inducing an enormous hypertrophy to the infected organs. Fresh spores appeared mostly ovoid to pyriform in shape reaching a size of 1.7 ± 0.5 (1.5-2.5)??m × 1.3 ± 0.4 (1-2) ?m; they possessed a large vacuole at the posterior end. These spores were located within a sporophorous vesicle which was bound by a thick amorphous wall. The ultrastructural features support the placement of the present species within the genus Microsporidium. The developmental stages were enclosed within a xenoma structure that was bounded by a double-layered cyst wall. The life cycle of the microsporidian pathogen described herein included four stages: proliferation (merogony), sporogony, sporoblast, spores, and liberation. Mature spores appeared electron dense, uninucleate, and were ellipsoidal in shape. At the anterior end of the spore, the anchoring disk was found in a central position. There was a definite number (5-11) of turns of the polar tube. A 538-bp region of the SSU rDNA gene of the studied species was sequenced (GenBank accession number: KF0220444). Multiple sequence alignment calculated a high degree of similarity (>92%) with six microsporidian species. The most closely related sequence was provided by the GenBank entry AF151529 for Microsporidium prosopium isolated from Hyperoplus lanceolatus differing in 67 nucleotide positions in its SSU rDNA with the highest percentage of identity (97.2%) and the lowest divergence value (0.20). Variations in the morphology of the spores and developmental stages between the two species revealed that the two species are different. The site of infection in the host and description of the onset of parasite development are strong criteria for the placement of the microsporidian parasite of the fish S. aurata within the genus Microsporidium as a new species, and we propose to name it Microsporidium aurata nov. sp.
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Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting.
Recent Pat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug-delivery systems composed of both solid and liquid lipids as a core matrix. It was shown that NLCs reveal some advantages for drug therapy over conventional carriers, including increased solubility, the ability to enhance storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, reduced adverse effect, prolonged half-life, and tissue-targeted delivery. NLCs have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This review describes recent developments in drug delivery using NLCs strategies. The structures, preparation techniques, and physicochemical characterization of NLCs are systematically elucidated in this review. The potential of NLCs to be used for different administration routes is highlighted. Special attention is paid to parenteral injection and topical delivery since these are the most common routes for investigating NLCs. Relevant issues for the introduction of NLCs to market, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, are discussed. The related patents of NLCs for drug delivery are also reviewed. Finally, the future development and current obstacles needing to be resolved are elucidated.
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Malarial Infection of Female BWF1 Lupus Mice Alters the Redox State in Kidney and Liver Tissues and Confers Protection against Lupus Nephritis.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by an imbalanced redox state and increased apoptosis. Tropical infections, particularly malaria, may confer protection against SLE. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of SLE. We have measured changes in the levels of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in both kidney and liver tissues of female BWF1 lupus mice, an experimental model of SLE, after infection with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. We observed a decrease in NO, H2O2, and MDA levels in kidney tissues after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. Similarly, the levels of NO and H2O2 were significantly decreased in the liver tissues of lupus mice after infection with live malaria. Conversely, GSH levels were obviously increased in both kidney and liver tissues after infection of lupus mice with either live or gamma-irradiated malaria. Liver and kidney functions were significantly altered after infection of lupus mice with live malaria. We further investigated the ultrastructural changes and detected the number of apoptotic cells in kidney and liver tissues in situ by electron microscopy and TUNEL assays. Our data reveal that infection of lupus mice with malaria confers protection against lupus nephritis.
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Morphology and morphogenesis of Apoholosticha sinica n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with consideration of its systematic position among urostylids.
Eur. J. Protistol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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This paper investigates the morphology, morphogenesis and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Apoholosticha sinica n. g., n. sp., isolated from mangrove wetland in Shenzhen, southern China. The new genus Apoholosticha is characterized by its bipartite adoral zone, clearly differentiated frontal cirri arranged in a bicorona, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only, one marginal cirral row on each side, presence of frontoterminal and transverse cirri, and the lack of a buccal cirrus and caudal cirri. The type species, Apoholosticha sinica n. sp. is diagnosed by the elongated body shape and two kinds of cortical granules. Its main morphogenetic features are similar to that of Pseudokeronopsis except for (1) no buccal cirrus is formed and (2) its macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass during cell division. Phylogenetic analyses for the new taxon indicate that Apoholosticha n. g. is most closely related to Nothoholosticha and Heterokeronopsis, and falls into the family Pseudokeronopsidae within the core Urostylida clade. In addition, a species that had been misidentified in previous literature is here recognized and assigned to the new genus as Apoholosticha sepetibensis (Wanick and Silva-Neto, 2004) n. comb. (basionym: Pseudokeronopsis sepetibensis Wanick and Silva-Neto, 2004).
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Effect of non-pharmacologic vitamin D status correction on circulating bone markers in healthy overweight and obese Saudis.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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While moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, skeletal effects associated with this deficiency are not common in this population. In this interventional study we measured the effects of improving vitamin D status on bone biochemical markers in overweight and obese adult Saudis. A total of 47 volunteers (21 males, 26 females) out of the initial 95 subjects were given verbal advice to expose themselves to sunlight for 5-30 min twice weekly and were encouraged to increase their intake of vitamin D-rich foods. Serum 25(OH)D, osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTx), were measured at baseline and after one year. A significant decrease in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was observed (44% to 27%) after one year follow-up (p = 0.025). Also, a parallel significant increase in osteocalcin and a decrease in CTX and osteoprotegerin were observed. The results suggest that a modest increase in vitamin D levels among overweight and obese subjects through the promotion of lifestyle changes for one year have marginal effects in bone turnover markers as well as obesity itself.
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C-terminal tensin-like gene functions as an oncogene and promotes cell motility in pancreatic cancer.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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C-terminal tensin-like gene (CTEN, also known as TNS4) localizes to focal adhesions and is reported to function as an oncogene in colonic, breast, lung, and gastric cancers. Its role in pancreatic cancer is unknown and was thus investigated in this study.
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Vitamin D supplementation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 on different therapeutic regimens: a one-year prospective study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Little or no research has determined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in conjunction with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) patients. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in a cohort of Saudi DMT2 population on diet, insulin and/or different oral hypoglycemic agents and compare them with a non-DMT2 control cohort.
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Genome-wide screening identifies Plasmodium chabaudi-induced modifications of DNA methylation status of Tlr1 and Tlr6 gene promoters in liver, but not spleen, of female C57BL/6 mice.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Epigenetic reprogramming of host genes via DNA methylation is increasingly recognized as critical for the outcome of diverse infectious diseases, but information for malaria is not yet available. Here, we investigate the effect of blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi on the DNA methylation status of host gene promoters on a genome-wide scale using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and Nimblegen microarrays containing 2,000 bp oligonucleotide features that were split into -1,500 to -500 bp Ups promoters and -500 to +500 bp Cor promoters, relative to the transcription site, for evaluation of differential DNA methylation. Gene expression was analyzed by Agilent and Affymetrix microarray technology. Challenging of female C57BL/6 mice with 10(6) P. chabaudi-infected erythrocytes resulted in a self-healing outcome of infections with peak parasitemia on day 8 p.i. These infections induced organ-specific modifications of DNA methylation of gene promoters. Among the 17,354 features on Nimblegen arrays, only seven gene promoters were identified to be hypermethylated in the spleen, whereas the liver exhibited 109 hyper- and 67 hypomethylated promoters at peak parasitemia in comparison with non-infected mice. Among the identified genes with differentially methylated Cor-promoters, only the 7 genes Pigr, Ncf1, Klkb1, Emr1, Ndufb11, and Tlr6 in the liver and Apol6 in the spleen were detected to have significantly changed their expression. Remarkably, the Cor promoter of the toll-like receptor Tlr6 became hypomethylated and Tlr6 expression increased by 3.4-fold during infection. Concomitantly, the Ups promoter of the Tlr1 was hypermethylated, but Tlr1 expression also increased by 11.3-fold. TLR6 and TLR1 are known as auxillary receptors to form heterodimers with TLR2 in plasma membranes of macrophages, which recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), as, e.g., intact 3-acyl and sn-2-lyso-acyl glycosylphosphatidylinositols of P. falciparum, respectively. Our data suggest therefore that malaria-induced epigenetic fine-tuning of Tlr6 and Tlr1 through DNA methylation of their gene promoters in the liver is critically important for initial recognition of PAMPs and, thus, for the final self-healing outcome of blood-stage infections with P. chabaudi malaria.
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Synthesis, characterization and DFT calculation of 4-fluorophenyl substituted tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III) complexes.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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New 4-fluorophenyl substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol and 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol, were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The aluminum complexes of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF) and of 5,7-bis(4-fluorophenyl)quinolin-8-ol (AlQF2) exhibit strong fluorescence emission centered at 525 nm and 530 nm respectively. The quantum yield of both complexes were enhanced compared to the parent tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum(III) complex. Electronic structures and photophysical properties of the new complexes were investigated theoretically by ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Geometries of the ground state (S0) and the first excited state (S1) of the new complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) functional and configuration interaction singles (CIS) method respectively. The aryl substituents were found to contribute significantly to the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). We have observed that in both cases the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy decreases while the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital is slightly increased. The most significant increase was observed for AlQF2.
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Lepidium Sativum but not Nigella Sativa Affects Carbamazepine Disposition in an Animal Model.
Drug Metab Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Efficacy and safety profile of a drug may be affected when concomitantly used with herbal medicines. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of some commonly used herbal products viz. Nigella sativa (Black seed) and Lepidium sativum (Garden cress) on the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ), a narrow therapeutic index drug, in an animal model. In a control group, five rabbits received 40 mg/kg of CBZ orally and blood samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hrs) from a marginal ear vein. After a suitable washout period, an aqueous saline suspension of Nigella sativa (200 mg/kg) or Lepidium sativum (150 mg/kg) was given orally for eight days to the rabbits. On day eight, CBZ (40 mg/kg) was re-administrated orally and blood samples were collected using the same sampling scheme. Drug levels in plasma were determined by liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. No significant difference was observed in the maximum concentration (Cmax), area under concentration curve (AUC), half-life (T1/2), clearance (Cl/F) and volume of distribution (Vz/F) of CBZ following Nigella sativa treatment. Whereas, increased Cmax, absorption rate measured by the time to Cmax (Tmax), and prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life (T1/2) were observed after the co-administration with Lepidium sativum. Findings of the present study suggest that concurrent use of Lepidium sativum alters the pharmacokinetics of CBZ in an animal model. Further confirmation of these results in humans will warrant changes in CBZ dose and/or frequency before co-administration with these herbal medicines.
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Ultrastructural description of Ceratomyxa microlepis sp. nov. (phylum Myxozoa): a parasite infecting the gall bladder of Hemiodus microlepis, a freshwater teleost from the Amazon River.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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A new ceratomyxid parasite was examined for taxonomic identification, upon being found infecting the gall bladder of Hemiodus microlepis (Teleostei: Hemiodontidae), a freshwater teleost collected from the Amazon River, Brazil. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed elongated crescent-shaped spores constituted by two asymmetrical shell valves united along a straight sutural line, each possessing a lateral projection. The spores body measured 5.2 ± 0.4 µm (n = 25) in length and 35.5 ± 0.9 µm (n = 25) in total thickness. The lateral projections were asymmetric, one measuring 18.1 ± 0.5 µm (n = 25) in thickness and the other measuring 17.5 ± 0.5 µm (n = 25) in thickness. Two equal-sized subspherical polar capsules measuring 2.2 ± 0.3 µm in diameter were located at the same level, each possessing a polar filament with 5-6 coils. The sporoplasm was binucleate. Considering the morphometric data analyzed from the microscopic observations, as well as the host species and its geographical location, this paper describes a new myxosporean species, herein named Ceratomyxa microlepis sp. nov.; therefore representing the first description of a freshwater ceratomyxid from the South American region.
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Fine structure of the Plasmodia and Myxospore of Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. (Myxozoa) found in the gallbladder of Gobioides broussonnetii (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the lower Amazon river.
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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A fish infecting myxosporean Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. is described in the gallbladder of the Amazonian dragon fish Gobioides broussonnetii. Irregular disporous plasmodia (up to ~30 ?m in diameter) with long branched and anastomosed pseudopodia were found attached to the gallbladder wall. Mature ellipsoid myxospores occurring floating in the bile measured 6.8 (6.5-7.0) ?m (n = 30) long, 7.2 (6.9-7.5) ?m (n = 15) wide, and 13.1 (12.8-13.5) (n = 25) thick. They had smooth thin valves elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the straight central transverse sutural line. The two ellipsoidal polar capsules (PC) opened some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides, each measuring 4.6 (4.3-4.8) ?m (n = 15) long and 2.5 (2.1-2.7) ?m (n = 20) wide. Distance between PC 3.5 (3.1-3.8) ?m (n = 15) in apical view. The polar filament was isofilar and consisted of a single coil with five or six turns. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological differences from the three previously described species. This is the first reported species of genus Ellipsomyxa from among the South American fauna.
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Induced metabolic disturbance and growth depression in rabbits infected with Eimeria coecicola.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Eimeria coecicola causes intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits and, thereby, enormous economic losses in rabbit farms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intestinal coccidial infection, E. coecicola on metabolic status and growth of rabbits. Animals were allocated into two groups with eight rabbits each; one group was orally inoculated with saline and served as control while the other group was orally inoculated with 5?×?10(4) sporulated oocysts. On day 7 postinfection, fecal expulsion of E. coecicola oocysts is maximal (1.2?×?10(6) oocyst/g feces) and rabbits have lost approximately 23% of their weight. Infection induced a severe depletion in plasma growth hormone level. In addition, the energy metabolic status was significantly (P???0.05) altered by the infection as, both blood glucose and total lipid levels were significantly elevated with mutual depletion in carbohydrate stores in liver sections. Also, the thyroid-stimulating hormone and cortisol concentrations were raised as a consequence of the infection. Moreover, protein status was affected by the infection as both liver and plasma total proteins were significantly decreased with concurrent disturbance in the blood protein electrophoretic pattern and duplication of blood urea nitrogen concentration. Finally, the infection induced plasma electrolyte imbalance as indicated by a significant decrease in sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, ferrous, and selenium ions. Our data suggested that the intestinal coccidial infection of rabbits with E. coecicola has serious effects on rabbit growth and metabolism and could disrupt endocrine and electrolyte homeostasis.
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Mutations in LRPAP1 are associated with severe myopia in humans.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Myopia is an extremely common eye disorder but the pathogenesis of its isolated form, which accounts for the overwhelming majority of cases, remains poorly understood. There is strong evidence for genetic predisposition to myopia, but determining myopia genetic risk factors has been difficult to achieve. We have identified Mendelian forms of myopia in four consanguineous families and implemented exome/autozygome analysis to identify homozygous truncating variants in LRPAP1 and CTSH as the likely causal mutations. LRPAP1 encodes a chaperone of LRP1, which is known to influence TGF-? activity. Interestingly, we observed marked deficiency of LRP1 and upregulation of TGF-? in cells from affected individuals, the latter being consistent with available data on the role of TGF-? in the remodeling of the sclera in myopia and the high frequency of myopia in individuals with Marfan syndrome who characteristically have upregulation of TGF-? signaling. CTSH, on the other hand, encodes a protease and we show that deficiency of the murine ortholog results in markedly abnormal globes consistent with the observed human phenotype. Our data highlight a role for LRPAP1 and CTSH in myopia genetics and demonstrate the power of Mendelian forms in illuminating new molecular mechanisms that may be relevant to common phenotypes.
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Birth outcome measures and maternal exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) in Saudi Arabian population.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the association between exposure to heavy metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) during pregnancy and birth outcomes in 1578 women aged 16-50 years who delivered in Al-Kharj hospital, Saudi Arabia, in 2005 and 2006. The levels of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in umbilical cord blood, maternal blood and the placenta. Outcome variables were anthropometric measures taken at birth, along with the risk of being small-for-gestational age (SGA). We selected the 10th percentile as the cutoff for dichotomizing measures of birth outcome. Cadmium, despite its partial passage through the placenta had the most prominent effect on several measures of birth outcome. After adjustment for potential confounders, logistic regression models revealed that crown-heel length (p=0.034), the Apgar 5-minute score (p=0.004), birth weight (p=0.015) and SGA (p=0.049) were influenced by cadmium in the umbilical cord blood. Significant decreases in crown-heel length (p=0.007) and placental thickness (p=0.022) were seen with higher levels of cadmium in maternal blood. As placental cadmium increased, cord length increased (p=0.012) and placental thickness decreased (p=0.032). Only lead levels in maternal blood influenced placental thickness (p=0.011). Mercury in both umbilical cord and maternal blood was marginally associated with placental thickness and placental weight, respectively. Conversely, placental mercury levels significantly influenced head circumference (p=0.017), the Apgar 5-minute score (p=0.01) and cord length (p=0.026). The predictions of these models were further assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curves (ROCs), which were modest (larger than 0.5 and smaller than 0.7). The independence of gestational age or preterm births on the observed effect of metals on some measures of birth outcome, suggested detrimental effects of exposure on fetal development. The magnitude of the estimated effects might not necessarily be of clinical significance for infants but may have a considerable public-health relevance given the high prevalence of exposure to heavy metals. Further research should be conducted to confirm these findings and to evaluate their long-term risks, if any.
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Morphology of two marine euplotids (Ciliophora: Euplotida), Aspidisca fusca and A. hexeris, with notes on their small subunit rRNA gene sequences.
Eur. J. Protistol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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We investigate the living morphology, infraciliature, and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two poorly known marine euplotids, Aspidisca fuscaKahl, 1928 and A. hexerisQuennerstedt, 1869, isolated from intertidal sewage outfall, northern China and sandy sediments, southern China, respectively. Improved diagnoses and morphometric data are provided for both species. Aspidisca fusca is characterized by having a peristomial spur, seven frontoventral cirri in a "polystyla-arrangement", and two oval macronuclear nodules. Aspidisca hexeris can be recognized by having an elliptical body shape, a peristomial spur, seven membranelles in the anterior portion of adoral zone and 11-13 in the posterior part, as well as seven frontoventral cirri arranged in two oblique rows. In addition, the presence and degree of projections along the left margin of A. hexeris are highly variable among populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA gene sequence data support the validity of both A. hexeris and A. fusca as distinct species, and indicate that A. fusca is most closely related to A. aculeata and A. steini, whereas A. hexeris shows a close relationship with A. magna.
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Redescription of Eimeria zarudnyi Alyousif & Al-Shawa, 2003 as Choleoeimeria zarudnyi n. comb. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).
Syst. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Coprological examination of the worm lizard Diplometopon zarudnyi Nikolskii revealed the presence of oöcysts of Choleoeimeria zarudnyi (Alyousif & Al-Shawa, 2003) n. comb. in five (17%) of the 30 lizards examined. Sporulated oöcysts were found in the faeces and the gallbladder contents. These are tetrasporocystic, ellipsoidal, 25-32 × 18-25 (mean 27 × 22) ?m, with a smooth bi-layered wall. The dizoic sporocysts are ovoidal, 10-13 × 6-9 (mean 11 × 7) ?m, with a granulated sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are banana-shaped with an average size of 13 × 3 ?m. Endogenous stages (meronts, gamonts and gametes) are confined to the gallbladder epithelium and the infected cells were hypertrophied. Based on the morphological features of the exogenous stages and the endogenous development of the present parasite, its generic affiliation is revised and Eimeria zarudnyi Alyousif & Al-Shawa, 2003 is transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria.
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