To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated D, which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated A and B, each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated C, on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, K, of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform L of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.
Infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes in the genus Steinernema harbor symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp., in a discrete structure located in the anterior portion of the intestine known as the bacterial receptacle (formerly known as the bacterial or intestinal vesicle). The receptacle itself is a structured environment in which the bacteria are spatially restricted. Inside this receptacle, bacterial symbionts are protected from the environment and grow to fill the receptacle. Until now, no comparative study across different Steinernema spp. has been undertaken to investigate if morphological variation in this structure exists at the interspecific level. In this study, we examined the bacterial receptacles of 25 Steinernema spp. representatives of the currently accepted five evolutionary clades. Our observations confirmed the bacterial receptacle is a modification of the two most anterior cells of the ventricular portion of the intestine. Size of the bacterial receptacle varied across the examined species. Steinernema monticolum (clade II) had the largest receptacle of all examined species (average: 46×17 ?m) and S. rarum (no clade affiliation) was noted as the species with the smallest observed receptacle (average: 8×5 ?m). At the morphological level, species can be grouped into two categories based on the presence or absence of vesicle within the receptacle. The receptacles of all examined species harbored an intravesicular structure (IVS) with variable morphology. All examined taxa members of the feltiae (clade III) and intermedium (clade II) clades were characterized by having a vesicle. This structure was also observed in S. diaprepesi (clade V), S. riobrave (clade IV) and S. monticolum (clade I).
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