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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
'You feel you've been bad, not ill': Sick doctors' experiences of interactions with the General Medical Council.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To explore the views of sick doctors on their experiences with the General Medical Council (GMC) and their perception of the impact of GMC involvement on return to work.
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Genomic analysis establishes correlation between growth and laryngeal neuropathy in Thoroughbreds.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is a bilateral mononeuropathy with an unknown pathogenesis that significantly affects performance in Thoroughbreds. A genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of RLN is suggested by the higher prevalence of the condition in offspring of RLN-affected than unaffected stallions. To better understand RLN pathogenesis and its genetic basis, we performed a genome-wide association (GWAS) of 282 RLN-affected and 268 control Thoroughbreds.
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Unconscious influences on decision making: neuroimaging and neuroevolutionary perspectives.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Newell and Shanks provide a useful critique on unconscious decision making. However, they do not consider an important set of functional brain imaging studies of unconscious processes. Here we review briefly the relevant brain imaging and psychobiological literature and its implications for understanding unconscious decision making.
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Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.
Metab Brain Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.
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Nonvisual multisensory impairment of body perception in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of neuropsychological studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Body image distortion is a central symptom of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Even if corporeal awareness is multisensory majority of AN studies mainly investigated visual misperception. We systematically reviewed AN studies that have investigated different nonvisual sensory inputs using an integrative multisensory approach to body perception. We also discussed the findings in the light of AN neuroimaging evidence.
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Provocation of symmetry/ordering symptoms in Anorexia nervosa: a functional neuroimaging study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anorexia nervosa (AN), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are often co-morbid; however, the aetiology of such co-morbidity has not been well investigated. This study examined brain activation in women with AN and in healthy control (HC) women during the provocation of symmetry/ordering-related anxiety. During provocation, patients with AN showed more anxiety compared to HCs, which was correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. Activation in the right parietal lobe and right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) in response to provocation was reduced in the AN group compared with the HC group. The reduced right parietal activation observed in the AN group is consistent with parietal lobe involvement in visuospatial cognition and with studies of OCD reporting an association between structural abnormalities in this region and the severity of 'ordering' symptoms. Reduced rPFC activation in response to symmetry/ordering provocation has similarities with some, but not all, data collected from patients with AN who were exposed to images of food and bodies. Furthermore, the combination of data from the AN and HC groups showed that rPFC activation during symptom provocation was inversely correlated with the severity of symmetry/ordering symptoms. These data suggest that individuals with AN have a diminished ability to cognitively deal with illness-associated symptoms of provocation. Furthermore, our data also suggest that symptom provocation can progressively overload attempts by the rPFC to exert cognitive control. These findings are discussed in the context of the current neurobiological models of AN.
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Increasing cognitive load reduces interference from masked appetitive and aversive but not neutral stimuli.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interactions between cognition and emotion are important for survival, often occurring in the absence of awareness. These interactions have been proposed to involve competition between cognition and emotion for attentional resources. Emotional stimuli have been reported to impair performance on cognitive tasks of low, but not high, load if stimuli are consciously perceived. This study explored whether this load-dependent interference effect occurred in response to subliminal emotional stimuli. Masked emotional (appetitive and aversive), but not neutral, stimuli interfered with performance accuracy but not response time on a cognitive task (n-back) at low (1-back), but not high (2-back) load. These results show that a load-dependent interference effect applies to masked emotional stimuli and that the effect generalises across stimulus categories with high motivational value. This supports models of selective attention that propose that cognition and emotion compete for attentional resources. More specifically, interference from masked emotional stimuli at low load suggests that attention is biased towards salient stimuli, while dissipation of interference under high load involves top-down regulation of attention. Our data also indicate that top-down goal-directed regulation of attention occurs in the absence of awareness and does not require metacognitive monitoring or evaluation of bias over behaviour, i.e., some degree of self-regulation occurs at a non-conscious level.
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BDNF polymorphisms are linked to poorer working memory performance, reduced cerebellar and hippocampal volumes and differences in prefrontal cortex in a Swedish elderly population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) links learning, memory and cognitive decline in elderly, but evidence linking BDNF allele variation, cognition and brain structural differences is lacking.
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Mediterranean diet habits in older individuals: Associations with cognitive functioning and brain volumes.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To examine the association between dietary habits, cognitive functioning and brain volumes in older individuals, data from 194 cognitively healthy individuals who participated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort were used. At age 70, participants kept diaries of their food intake for 1week. These records were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet (MeDi) score (comprising dietary habits traditionally found in Mediterranean countries, e.g. high intake of fruits and low intake of meat), with higher scores indicating more pronounced MeDi-like dietary habits. Five years later, participants cognitive capabilities were examined by the seven minute screening (7MS) (a cognitive test battery used by clinicians to screen for dementia), and their brain volumes were measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariate linear regression analyses were constructed to examine the association between the total MeDi score and cognitive functioning and brain volumes. In addition, possible associations between MeDis eight dietary features and cognitive functioning and brain volumes were investigated. From the eight dietary features included in the MeDi score, pertaining to a low consumption of meat and meat products was linked to a better performance on the 7MS test (P=0.001) and greater total brain volume (i.e. the sum of white and gray matter, P=0.03) when controlling for potential confounders (e.g. BMI) in the analysis. Integrating all dietary features into the total MeDi score explained less variance in cognitive functioning and brain volumes than its single dietary component meat intake. These observational findings suggest that keeping to a low meat intake could prove to be an impact-driven public health policy to support healthy cognitive aging, when confirmed by longitudinal studies. Further, they suggest that the MeDi score is a construct that may mask possible associations of single MeDi features with brain health domains in elderly populations.
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Functional neuroanatomy of body checking in people with anorexia nervosa.
Int J Eat Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The neural correlates of body checking perceptions in eating disorders have not yet been identified. This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study examined the neuroanatomy involved in altered perception and identification with body checking in female with anorexia nervosa (AN).
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Novel variants in the KIT and PAX3 genes in horses with white-spotted coat colour phenotypes.
Anim. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Variants in the EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 genes are known to cause white spotting phenotypes in horses, which can range from the common white markings up to completely white horses. In this study, we investigated these candidate genes in 169 horses with white spotting phenotypes not explained by the previously described variants. We identified a novel missense variant, PAX3:p.Pro32Arg, in Appaloosa horses with a splashed white phenotype in addition to their leopard complex spotting patterns. We also found three novel variants in the KIT gene. The splice site variant c.1346+1G>A occurred in a Swiss Warmblood horse with a pronounced depigmentation phenotype. The missense variant p.Tyr441Cys was present in several part-bred Arabians with sabino-like depigmentation phenotypes. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that the common and widely distributed KIT:p.Arg682His variant has a very subtle white-increasing effect, which is much less pronounced than the effect of the other described KIT variants. We termed the new KIT variants W18-W20 to provide a simple and unambiguous nomenclature for future genetic testing applications.
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Anorexia nervosa is linked to reduced brain structure in reward and somatosensory regions: a meta-analysis of VBM studies.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Structural imaging studies demonstrate brain tissue abnormalities in eating disorders, yet a quantitative analysis has not been done.
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Detection of two equine trisomies using SNP-CGH.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Chromosomal aberrations in the horse are known to cause congenital abnormalities, embryonic loss, and infertility. While diagnosed mainly by karyotyping and FISH in the horse, the use of SNP array comparative genome hybridization (SNP-CGH) is becoming increasingly common in human diagnostics. Normalized probe intensities and allelic ratios are used to detect changes in copy number genome-wide. Two horses with suspected chromosomal abnormalities and six horses with FISH-confirmed aberrant karyotypes were chosen for genotyping on the Equine SNP50 array. Karyotyping of the first horse indicated mosaicism for an additional small, acrocentric chromosome, although the identity of the chromosome was unclear. The second case displayed a similar phenotype to human disease caused by a gene deletion and so was chosen for SNP-CGH due to the ability to detect changes at higher resolutions than those achieved with conventional karyotyping. The results of SNP-CGH analysis for the six horses with known chromosomal aberrations agreed completely with previous karyotype and FISH analysis. The first undiagnosed case showed a pattern of altered allelic ratios without a noticeable shift in overall intensity for chromosome 27, consistent with a mosaic trisomy. The second case displayed a more drastic change in both values for chromosome 30, consistent with a complete trisomy. These results indicate that SNP-CGH is a viable method for detection of chromosomal aneuploidies in the horse.
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Intracranial volume estimated with commonly used methods could introduce bias in studies including brain volume measurements.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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In brain volumetric studies, intracranial volume (ICV) is often used as an estimate of pre-morbid brain size as well as to compensate for inter-subject variations in head size. However, if the estimated ICV is biased by for example gender or atrophy, it could introduce errors in study results. To evaluate how two commonly used methods for ICV estimation perform, computer assisted reference segmentations were created and evaluated. Segmentations were created for 399 MRI volumes from 75-year-old subjects, with 53 of these subjects having an additional scan and segmentation created at age 80. ICV estimates from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM, version 8) and Freesurfer (FS, version 5.1.0) were compared to the reference segmentations, and bias related to skull size (approximated with the segmentation measure), gender or atrophy were tested for. The possible ICV related effect on associations between normalized hippocampal volume and factors gender, education and cognition was evaluated by normalizing hippocampal volume with different ICV measures. Excellent agreement was seen for inter- (r=0.999) and intra- (r=0.999) operator reference segmentations. Both SPM and FS overestimated ICV. SPM showed bias associated with gender and atrophy while FS showed bias dependent on skull size. All methods showed good correlation between time points in the longitudinal data (reference: 0.998, SPM: 0.962, FS: 0.995). Hippocampal volume showed different associations with cognition and gender depending on which ICV measure was used for hippocampal volume normalization. These results show that the choice of method used for ICV estimation can bias results in studies including brain volume measurements.
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Doctors and dentists with mental ill health and addictions: outcomes of treatment from the Practitioner Health Programme.
J Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The Practitioner Health Programme (PHP) was developed to provide expert assessment and support to practitioners (doctors and dentists) with mental and physical health problems affecting their ability to work.
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Evidence for a retroviral insertion in TRPM1 as the cause of congenital stationary night blindness and leopard complex spotting in the horse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Leopard complex spotting is a group of white spotting patterns in horses caused by an incompletely dominant gene (LP) where homozygotes (LP/LP) are also affected with congenital stationary night blindness. Previous studies implicated Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel, Subfamily M, Member 1 (TRPM1) as the best candidate gene for both CSNB and LP. RNA-Seq data pinpointed a 1378 bp insertion in intron 1 of TRPM1 as the potential cause. This insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an endogenous retrovirus, was completely associated with LP, testing 511 horses (?(2)=1022.00, p<0.0005), and CSNB, testing 43 horses (?(2)=43, p<0.0005). The LTR was shown to disrupt TRPM1 transcription by premature poly-adenylation. Furthermore, while deleterious transposable element insertions should be quickly selected against the identification of this insertion in three ancient DNA samples suggests it has been maintained in the horse gene pool for at least 17,000 years. This study represents the first description of an LTR insertion being associated with both a pigmentation phenotype and an eye disorder.
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Increased prefrontal and parahippocampal activation with reduced dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortex activation to food images in obesity: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the twenty-first century. A wealth of neuroimaging data suggest that weight gain might be related to aberrant brain function, particularly in prefrontal cortical regions modulating mesolimbic addictive responses to food. Nevertheless, food addiction is currently a model hotly debated. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data, examining the most common functional differences between normal-weight and obese participants in response to food stimuli.
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Diurnal rhythm of circulating nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/visfatin/PBEF): impact of sleep loss and relation to glucose metabolism.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Animal studies indicate that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase [Nampt/visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)] contributes to the circadian fine-tuning of metabolic turnover. However, it is unknown whether circulating Nampt concentrations, which are elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity, display a diurnal rhythm in humans.
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Brain insulin signaling and Alzheimers disease: current evidence and future directions.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Insulin receptors in the brain are found in high densities in the hippocampus, a region that is fundamentally involved in the acquisition, consolidation, and recollection of new information. Using the intranasal method, which effectively bypasses the blood-brain barrier to deliver and target insulin directly from the nose to the brain, a series of experiments involving healthy humans has shown that increased central nervous system (CNS) insulin action enhances learning and memory processes associated with the hippocampus. Since Alzheimers disease (AD) is linked to CNS insulin resistance, decreased expression of insulin and insulin receptor genes and attenuated permeation of blood-borne insulin across the blood-brain barrier, impaired brain insulin signaling could partially account for the cognitive deficits associated with this disease. Considering that insulin mitigates hippocampal synapse vulnerability to amyloid beta and inhibits the phosphorylation of tau, pharmacological strategies bolstering brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal insulin, could have significant therapeutic potential to deter AD pathogenesis.
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Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume.
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Doctors vulnerable to psychological distress and addictions: treatment from the Practitioner Health Programme.
J Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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The Practitioner Health Programme (PHP) is a service set up to provide expert assessment and support to health professionals with mental and physical health problems affecting their ability to work.
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The role of acceptance in chronic fatigue syndrome.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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In this paper we consider the role that acceptance plays in fatigue and physical and social functioning. We predicted that lack of acceptance would be positively correlated with fatigue and impairment in functioning; that there would be a significant relationship between perfectionism and acceptance; and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) would increase acceptance.
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Differential neural responses to food images in women with bulimia versus anorexia nervosa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Previous fMRI studies show that women with eating disorders (ED) have differential neural activation to viewing food images. However, despite clinical differences in their responses to food, differential neural activation to thinking about eating food, between women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) is not known.
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Review of literature on the mental health of doctors: are specialist services needed?
J Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Mental ill health is common among doctors. Fast, efficient diagnosis and treatment are needed as mentally ill doctors pose a safety risk to the public, yet they are often reluctant to seek help.
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The fat mass and obesity gene is linked to reduced verbal fluency in overweight and obese elderly men.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Humans carrying the prevalent rs9939609 A allele of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are more susceptible to developing obesity than noncarries. Recently, polymorphisms in the FTO gene of elderly subjects have also been linked to a reduced volume in the frontal lobe as well as increased risk for incident Alzheimer disease. However, so far there is no evidence directly linking the FTO gene to functional cognitive processes. Here we examined whether the FTO rs9939609 A allele is associated with verbal fluency performance in 355 elderly men at the age of 82 years who have no clinically apparent cognitive impairment. Retrieval of verbal memory is a good surrogate measure reflecting frontal lobe functioning. Here we found that obese and overweight but not normal weight FTO A allele carriers showed a lower performance on verbal fluency than non-carriers (homozygous for rs9939609 T allele). This effect was not observed for a measure of general cognitive performance (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination score), thereby indicating that the FTO gene primarily affects frontal lobe-dependent cognitive processes in elderly men.
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Detailed analysis of variants in FTO in association with body composition in a cohort of 70-year-olds suggests a weakened effect among elderly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene has previously been associated with higher BMI levels in children and young adults. In contrast, this association was not found in elderly men. BMI is a measure of overweight in relation to the individuals height, but offers no insight into the regional body fat composition or distribution.
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Neural correlates of body dissatisfaction in anorexia nervosa.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Body dissatisfaction is an important precipitating and maintenance factor in anorexia nervosa (AN) and behavioral studies suggest that a cognitive-affective component and a perceptual component (perceptual disturbance of ones own body) are both important in this pathophysiology. However, the functional neuroanatomy of body dissatisfaction in AN is largely unknown. This study has investigated self-other body-shape comparison to establish neural correlates of body dissatisfaction in patients with AN. 17 women with AN and 18 age and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while comparing themselves with images of slim idealized female bodies (active condition) or viewing images of interior home designs (control condition). Participants were asked to compare their body shape or room design with those presented. Patients with AN (in comparison to the HC group) showed greater anxiety to the self-other body-shape comparison, and they were less satisfied with their current body shape. In the patient group (in comparison to the HC group) the self-other body-shape comparison induced more activation of the right sensorimotor brain regions (insula, premotor cortex) and less activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Insula hyperactivation along with ACC hypoactivation may be critical for altered interoceptive awareness to body self-comparison and/or for altered implicit motivation to thin-idealized body images in AN patients.
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Whole-genome SNP association in the horse: identification of a deletion in myosin Va responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A) and myosin Va (MYO5A). Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of cognitive bias to food stimuli in people with disordered eating behaviour.
Clin Psychol Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Maladaptive cognitions about food, weight and shape bias attention, memory and judgment and may be linked to disordered eating behaviour. This paper reviews information processing of food stimuli (words, pictures) in people with eating disorders (ED).
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the baseline concentrations and physiologic responses of gut hormones to food in eating disorders.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Disturbances in gastrointestinal hormones have been widely identified in persons with eating disorders (EDs) and have been implicated in their clinical pathologies.
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Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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Obesity is emerging as the most significant health concern of the 21st century. Although this is attributable in part to changes in our environment-including the increased prevalence of energy-dense food-it also appears that several lifestyle factors may increase our vulnerability to this calorie-rich landscape. Epidemiologic studies have begun to show links between adiposity and behaviors such as television watching, alcohol intake, and sleep deprivation. However, these studies leave unclear the direction of this association. In addition, studies that investigated the acute impact of these factors on food intake have reported a wide variety of effect sizes, from highly positive to slightly negative.
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Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.
PLoS ONE
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Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS) that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.
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Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids is linked to gray matter volume and cognitive function in elderly.
Age (Dordr)
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In the present study, we tested whether elderly with a high dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would have higher cognitive test scores and greater brain volume than those with low dietary intake of these fatty acids. Data were obtained from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort. The dietary intake of EPA and DHA was determined by a 7-day food protocol in 252 cognitively healthy elderly (122 females) at the age of 70 years. At age 75, participants global cognitive function was examined, and their brain volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three different multivariate linear regression models were applied to test our hypothesis: model A (adjusted for gender and age), model B (additionally controlled for lifestyle factors, e.g., education), and model C (further controlled for cardiometabolic factors, e.g., systolic blood pressure). We found that the self-reported 7-day dietary intake of EPA and DHA at the age of 70 years was positively associated with global gray matter volume (P?
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A debate on current eating disorder diagnoses in light of neurobiological findings: is it time for a spectrum model?
BMC Psychiatry
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Sixty percent of eating disorders do not meet criteria for anorexia- or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version 4 (DSM-IV). Instead they are diagnosed as eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Discrepancies between criteria and clinical reality currently hampering eating disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV will be addressed by the forthcoming DSM-V. However, future diagnoses for eating disorders will rely on current advances in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics for classification of symptoms that will ultimately improve treatment.
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Association between physical activity and brain health in older adults.
Neurobiol. Aging
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In the present cross-sectional study, we examined physical activity (PA) and its possible association with cognitive skills and brain structure in 331 cognitively healthy elderly. Based on the number of self-reported light and hard activities for at least 30 minutes per week, participants were assigned to 4 groups representing different levels of PA. The cognitive skills were assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination score, a verbal fluency task, and the Trail-making test as a measure of visuospatial orientation ability. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that greater PA was associated with a shorter time to complete the Trail-making test, and higher levels of verbal fluency. Further, the level of self-reported PA was positively correlated with brain volume, white matter, as well as a parietal lobe gray matter volume, situated bilaterally at the precuneus. These present cross-sectional results indicate that PA is a lifestyle factor that is linked to brain structure and function in late life.
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Mutations in MITF and PAX3 cause "splashed white" and other white spotting phenotypes in horses.
PLoS Genet.
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During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The "splashed white" pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes.
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Thinking about eating food activates visual cortex with reduced bilateral cerebellar activation in females with anorexia nervosa: an fMRI study.
PLoS ONE
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Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown.
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Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa.
Conscious Cogn
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Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN.
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Impaired insulin sensitivity as indexed by the HOMA score is associated with deficits in verbal fluency and temporal lobe gray matter volume in the elderly.
Diabetes Care
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Impaired insulin sensitivity is linked to cognitive deficits and reduced brain size. However, it is not yet known whether insulin sensitivity involves regional changes in gray matter volume. Against this background, we examined the association between insulin sensitivity, cognitive performance, and regional gray matter volume in 285 cognitively healthy elderly men and women aged 75 years from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.
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Acute sleep deprivation enhances the brains response to hedonic food stimuli: an fMRI study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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There is growing recognition that a large number of individuals living in Western society are chronically sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in food consumption and appetite. However, the brain regions that are most susceptible to sleep deprivation-induced changes when processing food stimuli are unknown.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.