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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Toward global prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the need for STI vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts.
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Promising alternative settings for HPV vaccination of US adolescents.
Expert Rev Vaccines
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Vaccination in alternative settings, defined here as being outside of traditional primary care, can help address the pressing public health problem of low human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among adolescents in the United States. Pharmacies are promising because they are highly accessible and have well established immunization practices. However, pharmacies currently face policy and reimbursement challenges. School-located mass vaccination programs are also promising because of their high reach and demonstrated success in providing other vaccines, but control by local policymakers and challenges in establishing community partnerships complicate widespread implementation. Health centers in schools are currently too few to greatly increase access to human papillomavirus vaccine. Specialty clinics have experience with vaccination, but the older age of their patient populations limits their reach. Future steps to making alternative settings a success include expanding their use of statewide vaccine registries and improving their coordination with primary care providers.
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Trends in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites aged 14 to 49 years--United States, 1988 to 2010.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. We sought to assess differences in HSV-2 seroprevalence among non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites and describe trends over time from 1988 to 2010.
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Sexually transmitted infections and womens sexual and reproductive health.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread globally and result in a large burden of sexual and reproductive health consequences that disproportionately affect women, including pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission. A new WHO publication, available online, outlines key points of action and new and future technologies for global STI prevention and control. Highlights from the WHO publication are described in the present article.
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Screening and treating Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: interpretation of findings from randomized controlled trials.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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We critically reviewed randomized controlled trials evaluating chlamydia screening to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and explored factors affecting interpretation and translation of trial data into public health prevention. Taken together, data from these trials offer evidence that chlamydia screening and treatment is an important and useful intervention to reduce the risk of PID among young women. However, the magnitude of benefit to be expected from screening may have been overestimated based on the earliest trials. It is likely that chlamydia screening programs have contributed to declines in PID incidence through shortening prevalent infections, although the magnitude of their contribution remains unclear. Program factors such as screening coverage as well as natural history factors such as risk of PID after repeat chlamydia infection can be important in determining the impact of chlamydia screening on PID incidence in a population. Uptake of chlamydia screening is currently suboptimal, and expansion of screening among young, sexually active women remains a priority. To reduce transmission and repeat infections, implementation of efficient strategies to treat partners of infected women is also essential. Results of ongoing randomized evaluations of the effect of screening on community-wide chlamydia prevalence and PID will also be valuable.
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Acceptability of school requirements for human papillomavirus vaccine.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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We characterized parental attitudes regarding school HPV vaccination requirements for adolescent girls. Study participants were 866 parents of 10–18 y-old girls in areas of North Carolina with elevated cervical cancer incidence. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by logistic regression. Approximately half (47%) of parents agreed that laws requiring HPV immunization for school attendance "are a good idea" when opt-out provisions were not mentioned. Far more agreed that "these laws are okay only if parents can opt out if they want to" (84%). Predictors of supporting requirements included believing HPV vaccine is highly effective against cervical cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI:1.7–.0) or is more beneficial if provided at an earlier age (OR = 16.1, 95% CI:8.4–1.0). Parents were less likely to agree with vaccine requirements being a good idea if they expressed concerns related to HPV vaccine safety (OR = 0.3, 95% CI:0.1–.5), its recent introduction (OR = 0.3, 95% CI:0.2–.6). Parental acceptance of school requirements appears to depend on perceived HPV vaccine safety and efficacy, understanding of the optimal age for vaccine administration, and inclusion of opt-out provisions.
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A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result.
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Longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in a high-risk geographic area.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is low among adolescent girls in the United States. We sought to identify longitudinal predictors of HPV vaccine initiation in populations at elevated risk for cervical cancer.
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Parent attitudes about school requirements for human papillomavirus vaccine in high-risk communities of Los Angeles, California.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization requirements for school entry could increase HPV vaccine uptake but are controversial. This study assessed parents attitudes about HPV immunization requirements.
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Mother-daughter communication about HPV vaccine.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Parent-child conversations about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may provide parents with the opportunity to talk with their daughters about sexual health. We sought to characterize mothers communication with their adolescent daughters about HPV vaccine.
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Uptake of 2009 H1N1 vaccine among adolescent females.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The public health response to the threat of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus during the 2009-2010 influenza season was extensive. To better understand the lower than expected vaccine uptake, we aimed to characterize correlates of 2009 H1N1 vaccination among adolescent females in the U.S. and examine accessibility of the vaccine to parents.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in high-risk communities.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2011
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We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among adolescent girls, parents intentions to vaccinate daughters, and barriers and facilitators of vaccination in a population at elevated risk for cervical cancer.
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Mothers support for voluntary provision of HPV vaccine in schools.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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HPV vaccination rates among adolescents in the United States lag behind some other developed countries, many of which routinely offer the vaccine in schools. We sought to assess mothers willingness to have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. A national sample of mothers of adolescent females ages 11-14 completed our internet survey (response rate=66%). The final sample (n=496) excluded mothers who did not intend to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine in the next year. Overall, 67% of mothers who intended to vaccinate their daughters or had vaccinated their daughters reported being willing to have their daughters receive HPV vaccine at school. Mothers were more willing to allow their daughters to receive HPV vaccine in schools if they had not yet initiated the vaccine series for their daughters or resided in the Midwest or West (all p<.05). The two concerns about voluntary school-based provision of HPV vaccine that mothers most frequently cited were that their daughters doctors should keep track of her shots (64%) and that they wished to be present when their daughters were vaccinated (40%). Our study suggests that most mothers who support adolescent vaccination for HPV find school-based HPV vaccination an acceptable option. Ensuring communication of immunization records with doctors and allowing parents to be present during immunization may increase parental support.
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Correlates of receiving recommended adolescent vaccines among adolescent females in North Carolina.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Immunization is a successful and cost-effective method for preventing disease, yet many adolescents do not receive recommended vaccines. We assessed correlates of uptake of three vaccines (tetanus booster, meningococcal, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccines) recommended for adolescent females. Methods. We examined cross-sectional data from 647 parents of 11-20 year-old females from North Carolina who completed the Carolina HPV Immunization Measurement and Evaluation (CHIME) Project follow-up survey in late 2008. Analyses used ordinal and binary logistic regression.
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Human papillomavirus vaccination practices: a survey of US physicians 18 months after licensure.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2010
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The objectives of this study were to assess, in a nationally representative network of pediatricians and family physicians, (1) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination practices, (2) perceived barriers to vaccination, and (3) factors associated with whether physicians strongly recommended HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old female patients.
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Summary: The natural history and immunobiology of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and implications for Chlamydia control.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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In 2008, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting to foster a dialogue among basic scientists, clinical researchers, and epidemiologists studying genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objectives of the meeting were to determine key questions related to C. trachomatis natural history and immunobiology, with implications for control programs;to review existing data on these key questions; and to delineate research needs to address remaining gaps in knowledge. The 9 articles in this supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases describe salient findings presented at the 2008 meeting, and this commentary summarizes and synthesizes these articles and discusses implications for chlamydia control efforts and future research priorities.
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Screening and treatment to prevent sequelae in women with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection: how much do we know?
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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An important question for chlamydia control programs is the extent to which finding and treating prevalent, asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection reduces reproductive sequelae in infected women.
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Risk of sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the most common reportable disease in the United States, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Although C. trachomatis is identified among many women who receive a diagnosis of PID, the incidence and timing of PID and long-term sequelae from an untreated chlamydial infection have not been fully determined. This article examines evidence reviewed as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting; 24 reports were included. We found no prospective studies directly assessing risk of long-term reproductive sequelae, such as infertility, after untreated C. trachomatis infection. Several studies assessed PID diagnosis after untreated chlamydial infection, but rates varied widely, making it difficult to determine an overall estimate. In high-risk settings, 2%-5% of untreated women developed PID within the approximately 2-week period between testing positive for C. trachomatis and returning for treatment. However, the rate of PID progression in the general, asymptomatic population followed up for longer periods appeared to be low. According to the largest studies, after symptomatic PID of any cause has occurred, up to 18% of women may develop infertility. In several studies, repeated chlamydial infection was associated with PID and other reproductive sequelae, although it was difficult to determine whether the risk per infection increased with each recurrent episode. The present review critically evaluates this body of literature and suggests future research directions. Specifically, prospective studies assessing rates of symptomatic PID, subclinical tubal damage, and long-term reproductive sequelae after C. trachomatis infection; better tools to measure PID and tubal damage; and studies on the natural history of repeated chlamydial infections are needed.
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Statewide HPV vaccine initiation among adolescent females in North Carolina.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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Cervical cancer incidence in the United States may be greatly reduced through widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We estimated the statewide level of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in North Carolina and identified correlates of vaccine initiation.
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HPV vaccine for adolescent males: acceptability to parents post-vaccine licensure.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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We examined mothers willingness to get their adolescent sons HPV vaccine. In December 2009, 2 months after approval of HPV vaccine for males, we surveyed a national sample of mothers with sons aged 9-18 (n=406). More mothers were definitely or probably willing to get their sons HPV vaccine if the vaccine were free (47%) than if it cost $400 out of pocket (11%). The importance of HPV vaccine possibly protecting their sons future female partners from HPV-related disease was the strongest correlate of willingness. These findings are important to increasing acceptability to parents of HPV vaccine for their sons.
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Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among female adolescents aged 14 to 19 in the United States.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2009
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Most young women initiate sexual activity during adolescence; risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) accompanies this initiation. In this study we estimated the prevalence of the most common STIs among a representative sample of female adolescents in the United States.
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A pooled analysis of the effect of condoms in preventing HSV-2 acquisition.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The degree of effectiveness of condom use in preventing the transmission of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a large pooled analysis.
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How much will it hurt? HPV vaccine side effects and influence on completion of the three-dose regimen.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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We examined the prevalence of reported pain following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and whether it differed from that for other adolescent vaccines or affected completion of the HPV vaccine regimen. In 2008, we conducted cross-sectional surveys with parents of adolescent girls aged 11-20 living in areas of North Carolina with elevated cervical cancer rates who had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine. Pain from HPV vaccination, while commonly reported by parents, was less frequent compared to other adolescent vaccines and did not appear to affect vaccine regimen completion. These findings may be important to increase HPV vaccination coverage.
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Availability of human papillomavirus vaccine at medical practices in an area with elevated rates of cervical cancer.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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To assess availability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine at medical practices in an area with elevated cervical cancer rates.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine initiation in an area with elevated rates of cervical cancer.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescent girls living in communities with elevated cervical cancer rates.
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Disparities in how parents are learning about the human papillomavirus vaccine.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Differential access to basic health information may contribute to persistent cervical cancer disparities. We examined whether human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness, HPV knowledge, and use of information sources about the vaccine differ by sociodemographic characteristics associated with cervical cancer.
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Parents health beliefs and HPV vaccination of their adolescent daughters.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Though many studies have documented correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability, our study is one of the first to examine correlates of vaccine initiation. The current study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescent girls in high risk communities and whether correlates varied by race and urban/rural status. In 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 889 parents of adolescent girls aged 10-18 living in areas of North Carolina, USA with high cervical cancer rates. We analyzed data using logistic regression. Health Belief Model constructs were associated with HPV vaccine initiation in multivariate analyses, including doctors recommendation to get HPV vaccine, perceived barriers to obtaining HPV vaccine, and perceived potential vaccine harms. While exploratory stratified analyses suggested that many of the same parent beliefs were important correlates of HPV vaccine initiation regardless of racial group or urban/rural status, a few differences did exist. These potentially modifiable beliefs offer well-defined targets for future interventions designed to increase HPV vaccine coverage. However, the beliefs relative importance may differ between racial groups and regions.
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Provider perceptions of barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination in a high-risk community.
Vaccine
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Maximizing HPV vaccine uptake among those at highest risk for cervical cancer is critical. We explored healthcare provider perspectives on factors influencing HPV vaccination among adolescent girls in a community with high cervical cancer rates.
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Human papillomavirus vaccine discussions: an opportunity for mothers to talk with their daughters about sexual health.
Sex Transm Dis
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Mother-daughter communication about sex is associated with healthier behavior during adolescence. We sought to characterize mothers communication with their daughters about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and the potential for these discussions to provide an opportunity for talking about sexual health.
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Case-crossover analysis of condom use and herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition.
Sex Transm Dis
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Although growing evidence suggests that condoms offer moderate protection against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), inability to control for unknown or unmeasured confounders associated with sexual activity may reduce the accuracy of the estimates. The case-crossover design offers increased control of individual-level confounders, and was thus used with the aim of producing a more accurate estimate of the effect of condom use on HSV-2 acquisition.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.