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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Etiology of Bacteremia in Young Infants in Six Countries.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Neonatal illness is a leading cause of death worldwide; sepsis is one of the main contributors. The etiologies of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in developing countries have not been well characterized.
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Mechanism for prevention of infection in preterm neonates by topical emollients: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Topical applications of emollients such as sunflower seed oil and Aquaphor have been shown to reduce the incidence of bloodstream infections and mortality of preterm infants in resource-poor settings. The causal mechanism for prevention of infection through cutaneous portals of entry is not well understood.
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Estimation of the herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine against radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children under 2 years old in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Herd protection of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been associated with excessive decrease of invasive Hib diseases, i.e., pneumonia and meningitis, with increased national or regional Hib vaccine coverage. Only a few studies have examined herd protection at the individual level and even less evidence is available from Asia. We examined Hib vaccine herd protection against radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children less than 2 years old.
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Childhood anemia at high altitude: risk factors for poor outcomes in severe pneumonia.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in young children globally, and factors that affect tissue delivery of oxygen may affect outcomes of pneumonia. We studied whether altitude and anemia influence disease severity and outcomes in young children with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia.
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Scientific rationale for study design of community-based simplified antibiotic therapy trials in newborns and young infants with clinically diagnosed severe infections or fast breathing in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0-59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, 4 trials of simplified antibiotic therapy delivered in primary care clinics (Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) or at home (Bangladesh and Nigeria) are being conducted.
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Ongoing trials of simplified antibiotic regimens for the treatment of serious infections in young infants in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa: implications for policy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The current World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for treatment of severe infection in young infants is hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic therapy. Hospital care is generally not available outside large cities in low- and middle-income countries and even when available is not acceptable or affordable for many families. Previous research in Bangladesh and India demonstrated that treatment outside hospitals may be possible.
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Safety and efficacy of simplified antibiotic regimens for outpatient treatment of serious infection in neonates and young infants 0-59 days of age in Bangladesh: design of a randomized controlled trial.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Because access to care is limited in settings with high mortality, exclusive reliance on the current recommendation of 7-10 days of parenteral antibiotic treatment is a barrier to provision of adequate treatment of newborn infections.
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Early-onset neonatal sepsis in Dhaka, Bangladesh: risk associated with maternal bacterial colonisation and chorioamnionitis.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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To estimate the risk of early-onset neonatal sepsis among newborns of mothers with chorioamnionitis and/or bacterial colonisation in Dhaka.
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Impact of introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine into childhood immunization on meningitis in Bangladeshi infants.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Some Asian countries have been reluctant to adopt Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccination because of uncertainty over disease burden. We assessed the impact of introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization in Bangladesh on purulent and laboratory-confirmed H influenzae meningitis.
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Follow-up of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis to determine its long-term sequelae.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To measure physical and neurologic impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis on surviving children through short- and long-term follow-up.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
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Feature tracking measurement of dyssynchrony from cardiovascular magnetic resonance cine acquisitions: comparison with echocardiographic speckle tracking.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Analysis of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony may provide incremental prognostic information regarding cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response in addition to QRS width alone. Our objective was to quantify LV dyssynchrony using feature tracking post processing of routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine acquisitions (FT-CMR) in comparison to speckle tracking echocardiography.
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Optimization of Multiple Pathogen Detection Using the TaqMan Array Card: Application for a Population-Based Study of Neonatal Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Identification of etiology remains a significant challenge in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, particularly in resource-poor settings. Viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens, as well as parasites, play a role for many syndromes, and optimizing a single diagnostic system to detect a range of pathogens is challenging. The TaqMan Array Card (TAC) is a multiple-pathogen detection method that has previously been identified as a valuable technique for determining etiology of infections and holds promise for expanded use in clinical microbiology laboratories and surveillance studies. We selected TAC for use in the Aetiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia (ANISA) study for identifying etiologies of severe disease in neonates in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Here we report optimization of TAC to improve pathogen detection and overcome technical challenges associated with use of this technology in a large-scale surveillance study. Specifically, we increased the number of assay replicates, implemented a more robust RT-qPCR enzyme formulation, and adopted a more efficient method for extraction of total nucleic acid from blood specimens. We also report the development and analytical validation of ten new assays for use in the ANISA study. Based on these data, we revised the study-specific TACs for detection of 22 pathogens in NP/OP swabs and 12 pathogens in blood specimens as well as two control reactions (internal positive control and human nucleic acid control) for each specimen type. The cumulative improvements realized through these optimization studies will benefit ANISA and perhaps other studies utilizing multiple-pathogen detection approaches. These lessons may also contribute to the expansion of TAC technology to the clinical setting.
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Role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: experience from a tertiary centre in India.
Crit Pathw Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Role of biomarkers in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is paramount, as they aid in diagnosis and gauge prognosis of the disease. In this project, we sought to study the short-term outcome and clinical associates of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the setting of STEMI at a tertiary center in India.
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Validation of echocardiographic left atrial parameters in atrial fibrillation using the index beat of preceding cardiac cycles of equal duration.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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The clinical assessment of left atrial function during atrial fibrillation is challenging and often inaccurate because of the beat-to-beat variability in the cycle length. The aim of this study was to validate the use of an index beat, the beat following two preceding cardiac cycles of equal duration, for the measurement of left atrial functional indices, including area, volume, and expansion index. The index beat was compared with the conventional but time-consuming method of averaging multiple consecutive cardiac cycles.
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Newborn vitamin A supplementation does not affect nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Bangladeshi infants at age 3 months.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of S. pneumoniae (Spn) is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease and its transmission. We assessed the impact of vitamin A (VA) supplementation shortly after birth in reducing Spn colonization in early infancy in rural Bangladesh. We recruited 500 infants participating in a cluster-randomized trial that reported a 15% reduction in mortality following receipt of an oral dose of VA (52.25 ?mol) compared to placebo. NP specimens were collected at the age of 3 mo to study the effect of VA on the prevalence of culture-confirmed Spn. Analyses were conducted by intention to treat. Spn carriage prevalence did not differ between VA and placebo recipients [OR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.55-1.27); P = 0.390]. Spn carriage at the age of 3 mo was not lowered by VA given at birth. Results are similar to those from an Indian study in which impact on Spn carriage was assessed at the age of 4 mo [OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.48-1.10); P = 0.128]. The point estimate of the pooled effect size for the 2 studies is OR = 0.78 [(95% CI: 0.58-1.04); P = 0.095], which may imply a modest impact on carriage. If so, then the evidence thus far would suggest that Spn carriage reduction is unlikely to be a primary ancillary benefit of newborn VA supplementation.
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Biomarkers for diagnosis of neonatal infections: A systematic analysis of their potential as a point-of-care diagnostics.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Neonatal infections annually claim lives of 1.4 million neonates worldwide. Until now, there is no ideal diagnostic test for detecting sepsis and thus management of possible sepsis cases often depends on clinical algorithm leading to empirical treatment. This often results in unnecessary antibiotic use, which may lead to emergence of antibiotic resistance. Biomarkers have shown great promise in diagnosis of sepsis and guiding appropriate treatment of neonates. In this study, we conducted a literature review of existing biomarkers to analyze their status for use as a point-of-care diagnostic in developing countries.
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5 versus 10 days of treatment with ceftriaxone for bacterial meningitis in children: a double-blind randomised equivalence study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but the duration of treatment is not well established. We aimed to compare the efficacy of 5 and 10 days of parenteral ceftriaxone for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children.
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Outpatient treatment of children with severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in four countries: the MASS study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated home-based treatment of WHO-defined severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin was equivalent to hospital-based therapy and parenteral antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether this finding is generalizable across four countries.
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Impaired biventricular deformation in Marfan syndrome: a strain and strain rate study in adult unoperated patients.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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To investigate the presence of any regional myocardial deformation abnormalities in Marfan syndrome (MFS) and determine the benefits of using advanced echocardiography compared to conventional techniques.
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Global left atrial strain correlates with CHADS2 risk score in patients with atrial fibrillation.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between echocardiographic parameters and CHADS2 score in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Principles and clinical applications of strain imaging.
Indian Heart J
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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M-Mode echocardiography, 2-D grey scale imaging and standard Doppler that constitute conventional echocardiography has been used for over many decades now. Although these modalities form the backbone in routine clinical echocardiography, its inability to objectively quantify left ventricular function at regional and global levels as well as its loading and heart rate dependency make conventional echocardiography an incomplete tool in clinical situations. Tissue Doppler imaging (which includes myocardial velocity, displacement and strain) has been successfully used in a variety of clinical situations, from investigations of diastolic function to implantation of bi-ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy and even in preclinical diagnosis of genetic diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Strain imaging has been found to be superior to velocity in a variety of clinical conditions and enables us to quantify deformation as a measurable number in terms of regional myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate have to be assessed together since they provide complementary information somewhat analogous to ejection fraction and contraction. This article has tried to simplify its principles, understand its limitations and know its utility to ensure having a better knowledge of this promising tool before one starts to actively use it. In this review, focus has been made on the physical, technical and also clinical aspects of strain imaging. In the new world of multi-modality imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and nuclear perfusion scintigraphy (NPS) are the competitors of echocardiography, but it would be of interest to note that even these modalities are also adapting concepts of strain imaging (in CMR) and left ventricular synchronicity (in NPS). This only emphasizes the role of advanced echocardiography as a more economical and stand-alone modality visa vis the other two related technologies. The sooner we adapt to these advanced applications, stronger would be the ground to resolve technical and clinical issues. Strain imaging in its present form cannot win the game alone in this era of multi-modality imaging, but it is almost certain that with continued advancement, tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography based strain could play a pivotal role in a variety of clinical situations providing much needed incremental information.
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Left atrial reservoir function predicts atrial fibrillation recurrence after catheter ablation: a two-dimensional speckle strain study.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after catheter ablation (CA) are not fully defined. We hypothesized that 2D left atrial (LA) regional strain maps would help identify abnormal atrial substrate that increases susceptibility to AF recurrence post-CA.
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Role of higher excited electronic states on high harmonic generation in H2(+)--a time-independent Hermitian Floquet approach.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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We have theoretically studied the role of high-lying molecular electronic states on the high harmonic generation (HHG) in H(2)(+) within the framework of a time-independent Hermitian nonperturbative three-dimensional Floquet technique for continuous wave monochromatic lasers of intensities of 2.59 × 10(13), 4.0 × 10(13), and 5.6 × 10(13) W?cm(2), and wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. To evaluate the HHG spectra, the resonance Floquet quasienergy and the Fourier components of the Floquet state corresponding to the initial vibrational-rotational level v = 0, J = 0 have been computed by solving the time-independent close-coupled Schro?dinger equation following the Floquet method. The calculations include seven molecular electronic states in the basis set expansion of the Floquet state. The electronic states considered, apart from the two lowest 1s?(g) and 2p?(u) states, are 2p?(u), 2s?(g), 3p?(u), 3d?(g), and 4f?(u). All the concerned higher excited molecular electronic states asymptotically degenerate into the atomic state H(2 l) with l = 0, 1. The computations reveal signature of significant oscillations in the HHG spectra due to the interference effect of the higher molecular electronic states for all the considered laser intensities and wavelengths. We have attempted to explain, without invoking any ionization, the dynamics of HHG in H(2)(+) within the framework of electronic transitions due to the electric dipole moments and the nuclear motions on the field coupled ground, the first and the higher excited electronic states of this one-electron molecular ion.
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Assessment of aortic stiffness in marfan syndrome using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Extracellular matrix remodeling in the aortic wall results in increased aortic stiffness (AoS) in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Pulsed-wave velocity (PWV) constitutes the best indirect AoS measurement. We aimed to assess PWV in MFS patients using two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler echocardiography.
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Effect of aortic stiffness on left ventricular long-axis systolic function in adults with Marfan syndrome.
Hellenic J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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several studies have documented increased aortic stiffness in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies have also shown primary myocardial impairment in MFS. We investigated whether left ventricular (LV) function could be further impaired when acting against a stiff vascular system.
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Improving the sensitivity of blood culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae is jeopardized by low sensitivity of blood culture, autolysis and contamination with fast-growing organism(s). We performed an immunochromatographic (ICT) test for S. pneumoniae on chocolatized blood culture bottles and also sub-cultured contaminated bottles on a selective medium, thus identifying an additional eight and three cases, respectively, and improving the detection of pneumococcus by 23% (48% vs. 59%). Prescreening of culture bottles in a blinded fashion could rationalize the use of ICT with ~99% accuracy. These two approaches can aid microbiology laboratories in resource-poor countries to substantially improve rates of detection of S. pneumoniae.
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A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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We piloted a low-cost approach to measure the disease burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hib and Salmonella Typhi by leveraging the existing infrastructure of high performing microbiology laboratories at two large paediatric hospitals in Dhaka Bangladesh, and assessing the hospital utilization of the catchment population of these hospitals for different syndromes. S. Typhi was the most common bacterium identified in culture and accounted for an estimated 211 hospitalizations per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. Meningitis due to S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of mortality accounting for 8.0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines.
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A time-independent Hermitian Floquet approach for high harmonic generation in H(2)+ and HD+: effect of nonadiabatic interaction in HD+.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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We have theoretically investigated the high harmonic generation (HHG) in H(2)(+) and HD(+) using a time-independent Hermitian nonperturbative three-dimensional Floquet approach for continuous wave monochromatic lasers of intensities of 2.59x10(13), 4.0x10(13), and 5.6x10(13) W/cm(2), and wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. For the moderate intensities and the wavelengths used, the Keldysh parameter gamma > 1 and no tunnel ionization occurs. We have endeavored to explain the dynamics of HHG in H(2)(+) and HD(+) within the framework of transitions due to electronic as well as intrinsic (for HD(+)) dipole moments and the nuclear motion on the field coupled ground and the first excited electronic states of these single-electron molecular ions, without considering any ionization. To evaluate the HHG spectra, the resonance Floquet quasienergy and the Fourier components of the Floquet state corresponding to the initial vibrational-rotational level v = 0, J = 0 have been calculated by solving the time-independent close-coupled Schrödinger equation following the Floquet ansatz. For HD(+), we have taken into account the symmetry breaking effect of the nonadiabatic interaction or coupling [beyond the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) dynamics] in our calculations of the HHG spectra and have compared the results with the HHG spectra of HD(+) obtained with the BO approximation.
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Conjugate vaccines for enteric fever: proceedings of a meeting organized in New Delhi, India in 2009.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Enteric fever is responsible for significant morbidity in South Asia and high prevalence of severe disease is seen in children under two years of age. Effective typhoid vaccines are available, but they cannot be used for children under two years of age and also have some limitations in older age groups. Participants supported development of a Salmonella Typhi conjugate vaccine able to induce effective, long-lasting immunity in young children. The role of Salmonella Paratyphi A as a cause of enteric fever was discussed and consensus reached that a bivalent S. Typhi-S. Paratyphi A conjugate vaccine is highly desirable; however, considering disease epidemiology and the advanced status of vaccine development, rapid introduction of monovalent S. Typhi conjugate vaccine into vaccination programs of South Asia was recommended. Prevention should be emphasized, available vaccines used, and efforts toward improving sanitation continued. Success of the new vaccine will depend on several factors, including delivery costs and governmental ability to adopt and implement suitable immunization programs. To ensure good immunization coverage, the conjugate vaccine could be administered either to young infants, concomitantly with infant EPI vaccines, or to older infants, concomitantly with measles vaccine, currently given at 9 to 12 months. The need for new combination vaccines, containing both EPI and typhoid antigens, was discussed as a tool to increase coverage and reduce the number of injections and priority conflicts in a crowded infant vaccination schedule. However, stand-alone enteric fever conjugate vaccines would allow more flexibility to immunize different age groups and therefore should be rapidly developed.
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Cost-effectiveness of skin-barrier-enhancing emollients among preterm infants in Bangladesh.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of topical emollients, sunflower seed oil (SSO) and synthetic Aquaphor, versus no treatment, in preventing mortality among hospitalized preterm infants (< 33 weeks gestation) at a tertiary hospital in Bangladesh.
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Simplified dosing of gentamicin for treatment of sepsis in Bangladeshi neonates.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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Extended-interval dosing of gentamicin has several advantages over conventional multiple-daily dosing for the treatment of sepsis. The study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin for the treatment of neonatal sepsis in predetermined doses at 24- or 48-hour intervals, according to weight category, and to develop a simplified protocol for use in peripheral healthcare settings in developing countries. This prospective observational study was conducted among 59 neonates admitted to the Special Care Nursery at Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh, with suspected sepsis and treated with antibiotics, including gentamicin. Intravenous dosing of gentamicin according to weight category was: 10 mg every 48 hours if the infant weighed < 2,000 g (n = 23), 10 mg every 24 hours if the infant weighed 2,000-2,249 g (n = 12), or 13.5 mg every 24 hours if the infant weighed 2,500-3,000 g (n = 24). Peak and trough concentrations of gentamicin and the presence of signs of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity were determined. The mean +/- standard deviation peak concentration of gentamicin was 12.3 +/- 3.7 microg/mL in infants weighing < 2,000 g, 9.6 +/- 3.1 microg/mL in infants 2,000-2,249 g, and 10.0 +/- 3.4 microg/mL in infants 2,500-3,000 g. Initial peak concentration of gentamicin was > 12 microg/mL in 28.8% and initial trough concentration was > 2 microg/mL in 6.8% of the subjects. No signs of nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity were detected. Favourable pharmacokinetic parameters found with the simplified dosing regimen suggest that it is safe for the treatment of neonatal sepsis.
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Community-based cross-sectional seroprevalence study of hepatitis A in Bangladesh.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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To elucidate the age-distribution of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence across different socioeconomic status (SES) categories in Bangladesh which, despite scarce data, is generally deemed to have high endemicity.
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Biventricular and atrial diastolic function assessment using conventional echocardiography and tissue-Doppler imaging in adults with Marfan syndrome.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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Previous studies provided evidence about left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS). However, in the literature, data on right ventricular and bi-atrial diastolic function are limited. We aimed to investigate whether, in the absence of significant valvular disease, diastolic dysfunction is present not only in both ventricles but also in the atrial cavities.
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Study of left ventricular rotation and torsion in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by speckle tracking echocardiography.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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The mechanics of the complex left ventricular (LV) myocardial fiber architecture may accurately be assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). The role of STE to assess LV mechanical dysfunction in the setting of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI) is still poorly studied.
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Causes of early childhood deaths in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Data on causes of early childhood death from low-income urban areas are limited. The nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 estimates 65 children died per 1,000 live births. We investigated rates and causes of under-five deaths in an urban community near two large pediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh and evaluated the impact of different recall periods. We conducted a survey in 2006 for 6971 households and a follow up survey in 2007 among eligible remaining households or replacement households. The initial survey collected information for all children under five years old who died in the previous year; the follow up survey on child deaths in the preceding five years. We compared mortality rates based on 1-year recall to the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year. The initial survey identified 58 deaths among children <5 years in the preceding year. The follow up survey identified a mean 53 deaths per year in the preceding five years (SD+/-7.3). Under-five mortality rate was 34 and neonatal mortality was 15 per thousand live births during 2006-2007. The leading cause of under-five death was respiratory infections (22%). The mortality rates among children under 4 years old for the two time periods (most recent 1-year recall and the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year) were similar (36 versus 32). The child mortality in urban Dhaka was substantially lower than the national rate. Mortality rates were not affected by recall periods between 1 and 5 years.
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Nosocomial sepsis risk score for preterm infants in low-resource settings.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality for neonates in developing countries; however, little research has focused on clinical predictors of nosocomial infection of preterm neonates in the low-resource setting. We sought to validate the only existing feasible score introduced by Singh et al. in 2003 and to create an improved score. In a secondary analysis of daily evaluations of 497 neonates
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Determining gestational age in a low-resource setting: validity of last menstrual period.
J Health Popul Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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The validity of three methods (last menstrual period [LPM], Ballard and Dubowitz scores) for assessment of gestational age for premature infants in a low-resource setting was assessed, using antenatal ultrasound as the gold standard. It was hypothesized that LMP and other methods would perform similarly in determining postnatal gestational age. Concordance analysis was applied to data on 355 neonates of <33 weeks gestational age enrolled in a topical skin-therapy trial in a tertiary-care childrens hospital in Bangladesh. The concordance coefficient for LMP, Ballard, and Dubowitz was 0.878, 0.914, and 0.886 respectively. LMP and Ballard underestimated gestational age by one day (+/-11) and 2.9 days (+/-7.8) respectively while Dubowitz overestimated gestational age by 3.9 days (+/-7.1) compared to ultrasound finding. LMP in a low-resource setting was a more reliable measure of gestational age than previously thought for estimation of postnatal gestational age of preterm infants. Ballard and Dubowitz scores are slightly more reliable but require more technical skills to perform. Additional prospective trials are warranted to examine LMP against antenatal ultrasound for primary assessment of neonatal gestational age in other low-resource settings.
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Risk factors for sclerema neonatorum in preterm neonates in Bangladesh.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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This study presents a retrospective analysis of risk factors for sclerema neonatorum in preterm neonates in Bangladesh.
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Quantification of low-dose dobutamine stress using speckle tracking echocardiography in coronary artery disease.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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We sought to evaluate the utility of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for detecting left ventricular (LV) mechanical abnormalities during low-dose (20 microg) dobutamine stress (DSE).
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Validation of community health workers assessment of neonatal illness in rural Bangladesh.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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To estimate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of a clinical algorithm as used by community health workers (CHWs) to detect and classify neonatal illness during routine household visits in rural Bangladesh.
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Use of multiple surveillance modalities to assess the epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in Bangladesh.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Measuring the broad impact of pneumococcal disease requires multiple surveillance modalities. Four major data sources elucidate the burden of pneumococcal disease in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey has identified pneumonia as the leading cause of childhood death. By extrapolation of mortality rates in the survey to the Bangladesh population, it has been estimated that approximately 90,000 children >1 month and <5 years of age die of pneumonia every year in Bangladesh. Through hospital-based surveillance, a wide range of pneumococcal serotypes leading to hospitalization and pneumonia have been identified as a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Urban community-based surveillance has demonstrated that invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is common in the community. Rural community-based surveillance has demonstrated that serious IPD is common in rural areas. Together, these data provide a strong scientific case for the importance of pneumococcal disease prevention to child health in Bangladesh and, therefore, the potential benefit of an effective vaccine.
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Neurodevelopmental sequelae in pneumococcal meningitis cases in Bangladesh: a comprehensive follow-up study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Evaluation of the long-term impact of pneumococcal meningitis on surviving children and their families is critical to fully comprehending the burden of pneumococcal disease and to facilitating an evidence-based decision for the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine. This study was an investigation of the short- and long-term impacts of pneumococcal meningitis among Bangladeshi children.
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Multihospital surveillance of pneumonia burden among children aged <5 years hospitalized for pneumonia in Bangladesh.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Pneumonia contributes substantially to childhood mortality in Bangladesh. We conducted a study to characterize the disease severity and risk factors for mortality among children hospitalized for pneumonia in Bangladesh.
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Surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease among hospitalized children in Bangladesh: antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Vaccines offer the prospect of primary disease prevention of pneumococcal disease in childhood. For introduction of such vaccines in developing countries, information about disease epidemiology is necessary.
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Enhanced diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis with use of the Binax NOW immunochromatographic test of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen: a multisite study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis in developing countries is needed, to improve clinical care and to optimize disease-prevention strategies. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and latex agglutination testing are currently the standard diagnostic methods but lack sensitivity.
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Invasive pneumococcal disease among children in rural Bangladesh: results from a population-based surveillance.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is recognized as a global priority public health problem, and conjugate vaccines have been shown to prevent vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. However, better estimates of the disease burden and reliable population-based data on serotype composition are needed for vaccine development and implementation in developing countries.
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Detection and serotyping of lyophilized nonculturable pneumococcal isolates.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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One hundred fifty-two nonculturable lyophilized carriage pneumococcal isolates from a vaccine trial were subjected to PCR for serotyping, and 149 (98%) were successfully classified as vaccine or nonvaccine types, which were similar to viable isolates. The methodology will be useful for analysis of this and other studies where stored pneumococcal isolates fail to grow.
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Prognostic value of left atrial expansion index and exercise-induced change in atrial natriuretic peptide as long-term predictors of atrial fibrillation recurrence.
Europace
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We propose to assess the value of exercise-induced change in N-terminal-pro atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and left atrial expansion index (LAEI) in predicting AFR after cardioversion and their effect on AF-free survival.
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Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cord cleansing on the bacteriologic profile of the newborn umbilical stump in rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Randomized trials from South Asia indicate umbilical cord chlorhexidine cleansing reduces mortality and omphalitis. No community-based data are available on bacteriological profile of the cord, early neonatal colonization dynamics, or impact of cord cleansing on colonizing organisms. Such data could clarify the design of scaled chlorhexidine interventions.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-2 childhood meningitis in Bangladesh: a newly recognized pneumococcal infection threat.
PLoS ONE
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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis in countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeting commonly occurring serotypes are not routinely used. However, effectiveness of PCV would be jeopardized by emergence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by serotypes which are not included in PCV. Systematic hospital based surveillance in Bangladesh was established and progressively improved to determine the pathogens causing childhood sepsis and meningitis. This also provided the foundation for determining the spectrum of serotypes causing IPD. This article reports an unprecedented upsurge of serotype 2, an uncommon pneumococcal serotype, without any known intervention.
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Value of two-dimensional speckle tracking and real time three-dimensional echocardiography for the identification of subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients referred for routine echocardiography.
Echocardiography
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While speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) can be used to study longitudinal, circumferential, and radial function, real time 3D echocardiography (3DE) generates dynamic time-volume curves, offering a wide array of new parameters for characterizing mechanical and volumetric properties of the left ventricle (LV). Our aim was to investigate the merit of these new techniques to separate normal from abnormal echocardiograms as well as to identify subclinical disease in reportedly normal subjects.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.