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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Resolution enhancement in coherent x-ray diffraction imaging by overcoming instrumental noise.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We report that reference objects, strong scatterers neighboring weak phase objects, enhance the phase retrieval and spatial resolution in coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CDI). A CDI experiment with Au nano-particles exhibited that the reference objects amplified the signal-to-noise ratio in the diffraction intensity at large diffraction angles, which significantly enhanced the image resolution. The interference between the diffracted x-ray from reference objects and a specimen also improved the retrieval of the phase of the diffraction signal. The enhancement was applied to image NiO nano-particles and a mitochondrion and confirmed in a simulation with a bacteria phantom. We expect that the proposed method will be of great help in imaging weakly scattering soft matters using coherent x-ray sources including x-ray free electron lasers.
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Higher Frequency of Certain Cancers in LRRK2 G2019S Mutation Carriers With Parkinson Disease: A Pooled Analysis.
JAMA Neurol
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who harbor LRRK2 G2019S mutations may have increased risks of nonskin cancers. However, the results have been inconsistent across studies.
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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Infection Following Intravesical BCG Administration as Adjunctive Therapy For Bladder Cancer: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcome in a Single-Institution Series and Review of the Literature.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective intravesical immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. Although generally well tolerated, BCG-related infectious complications may occur following instillation. Much of the current knowledge about this complication comes from single case reports, with heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and no investigation on risk factors for its occurrence. We retrospectively analyzed 256 patients treated with intravesical BCG in our institution during a 6-year period, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months after the last instillation. We also conducted a comprehensive review and pooled analysis of additional cases reported in the literature since 1975. Eleven patients (4.3%) developed systemic BCG infection in our institution, with miliary tuberculosis as the most common form (6 cases). A 3-drug antituberculosis regimen was initiated in all but 1 patient, with a favorable outcome in 9/10 cases. There were no significant differences in the mean number of transurethral resections prior to the first instillation, the time interval between both procedures, the overall mean number of instillations, or the presence of underlying immunosuppression between patients with or without BCG infection. We included 282 patients in the pooled analysis (271 from the literature and 11 from our institution). Disseminated (34.4%), genitourinary (23.4%), and osteomuscular (19.9%) infections were the most common presentations of disease. Specimens for microbiologic diagnosis were obtained in 87.2% of cases, and the diagnostic performances for acid-fast staining, conventional culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays were 25.3%, 40.9%, and 41.8%, respectively. Most patients (82.5%) received antituberculosis therapy for a median of 6.0 (interquartile range: 4.0-9.0) months. Patients with disseminated infection more commonly received antituberculosis therapy and adjuvant corticosteroids, whereas those with reactive arthritis were frequently treated only with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (p?
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Functionalization of Krebs-Type Polyoxometalates with N,O-Chelating Ligands: A Systematic Study.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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The first organic derivatives of 3d-metal-disubstituted Krebs-type polyoxometalates have been synthesized under mild bench conditions via straightforward replacement of labile aqua ligands with N,O-chelating planar anions on either preformed or in situ-generated precursors. Nine hybrid clusters containing carboxylate derivatives of five- or six-membered aromatic N-heterocycles as antenna ligands have been obtained as pure crystalline phases and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses, infrared spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They all show the general formula [{M(II)L(H2O)}2(WO2)2(B-?-XW9O33)2](n-) and can be classified as follows: 1-SbM, where L = 1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (imc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn; 1-TeM, where L = imc, X = Te(IV), n = 10, and M(II) = Mn, Co; 2-SbNi, where L = 1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylate (pzc), X = Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Ni; and 3-SbM, where L = pyrazine-2-carboxylate (pyzc), X =Sb(III), n = 12, and M(II) = Co, Zn. The 3d-metal-disubstituted tungstotellurate(IV) skeleton of compounds 1-TeM is unprecedented in polyoxometalate chemistry. The stability of these hybrid Krebs-type species in aqueous solution has been confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy performed on the diamagnetic 1-SbZn and 3-SbZn derivatives. Our systematic study of the reactivity of disubtituted Krebs-type polyoxotungstates toward diazole-, pyridine-, and diazinecarboxylates demonstrates that organic derivatization is strongly dependent on the nature of the ligand, as follows: imc displays a "universal ligand" character, as functionalization takes place regardless of the external 3d metal and heteroatom; pzc and pyzc show selectivity toward specific 3d metals; pyridazine-3-carboxylate and pyrimidine-4-carboxylate promote partial decomposition of specific precursors, leading to [M(II)L2(H2O)2] complexes; and picolinate is inert under all conditions tested.
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Carbon Nanoparticles based Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Detecting Mercury Ions in Aqueous Media and Living Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A novel nanohybrid ratiometric fluorescence sensor is developed for selective detection of mercuric ions (Hg2+) and the application has been successfully demonstrated in HEPES buffer solution, lake water and living cells. The sensor is comprised of water soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and Rhodamine B (RhB) and exhibits their corresponding dual emissions peaked at 437 and 575 nm, respectively, under a single excitation wavelength (350 nm). The photoluminescence of the CNPs in the nanohybrid system can be completely quenched by Hg2+ through effective electron or energy transfer process due to synergetic strong electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand coordination between the surface functional group of CNPs and Hg2+, while that of the RhB remains constant. This results in an obviously distinguishable fluorescence color variation (from violet to orange) of the nanohybrid solution. This novel sensor can effectively identify Hg2+ from other metal ions with relatively low background interference even in a complex system such as lake water. The detection limit of this method is as low as 42 nM. Furthermore, the sensing technique is applicable to detect Hg2+ in living cells.
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Automatic region-of-interest segmentation and registration of dynamic contrast-enhanced images of colorectal tumors.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) images can be acquired at multiple time points and multiple slice locations of a tumor. Image segmentation and registration are important preprocessing steps that can improve subsequent analysis of DCE images by kinetic modeling. An automatic system for region-of-interest segmentation and registration of DCE images is presented. Tissue segmentation is performed using a combination of thresholding and morphological operations, and further refined using shape information from consecutive images. The segmented regions are subsequently registered based on a mutual information method that accounts for possible tissue movement between slices. The proposed segmentation and registration methods are applied on actual DCE CT datasets to illustrate feasibility of practical implementation in the clinic.
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Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation.
J Tradit Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, (3)H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), (3)H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro.
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Association between Polymorphisms of Interleukin-17A and Interleukin-17F Genes and Silicosis Susceptibility in Chinese Han People.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin17 (IL-17) gene(A-832G 7488A/G) and the susceptibility to silicosis, a risk factor for lung cancer.
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Contribution of mutation load to the intrafamilial genetic heterogeneity in a large cohort of Spanish retinal dystrophies families.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Purpose:To deepen our knowledge on the basis of intrafamilial genetic heterogeneity of inherited retinal dystrophies (RD) to further discern the contribution of individual alleles to the pathology. Methods:Families with intrafamilial locus and/or allelic heterogeneity were selected from a cohort of 873 characterized out of 2468 unrelated RD families. Clinical examination included visual field assessments, electrophysiology, fundus examination and audiogram. Molecular characterization was performed using a combination of different methods: genotyping microarray, SSCP, dHPLC, HRM, MLPA, Sanger sequencing, whole-genome homozygosity mapping and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Results:Overall, intrafamilial genetic heterogeneity was encountered in a total of 8 pedigrees. There were 5 out of 873 families (~0.6%) with causative mutations in more than one gene (locus heterogeneity), involving the genes: (1) USH2A, RDH12 and TULP1; (2) PDE6B and a new candidate gene; (3) CERKL and CRB1, (4) BBS1 and C2orf71; (5) ABCA4 and CRB1. Typically, in these cases, each mutated gene was associated to different phenotypes. In the 3 other families (~0.35%), different mutations in the same gene (allelic heterogeneity) were found, including the frequent RD genes ABCA4 and CRB1. Conclusions:This systematic research estimates that the frequency of overall mutation load promoting RD intrafamilial heterogeneity in our cohort of Spanish families is almost 1%. The identification of the genetic mechanisms underlying RD locus and allelic heterogeneity is essential to discriminate the real contribution of the monoallelic mutations to the disease, especially in the NGS era. Moreover, it is decisive to provide an accurate genetic counselling and in disease treatment.
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Antidiabetic Effect of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus Involves Inhibition of the Sodium Glucose Cotransporter.
Drug Dev. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Preclinical Research Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF), the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (family Schisandraceae) is traditionally used as a tonic and antidiabetic agent in Asia. In this study, SCF was investigated for its effects on sodium glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 (SGLT 1 and 2) expressed in a COS-7 cell line for its specificity in inhibiting SGLT2, which is a novel mechanism to screen for potential antidiabetic agents. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation, we then tried to isolate and identify the active fraction(s)/component(s). The ethanol extract of SCF at a concentration of 1?mg/mL significantly inhibited 89% of SGLT1 and 73% of SGLT2 activities in a [(14) C]-?-methyl-d-glucopyranoside ([(14) C]-AMG) uptake assay. Fractionation of the ethanol extract yielded nine fractions, of which F8, at a concentration of 1?mg/mL, was specific in inhibiting SGLT 2 (42% inhibition, P?
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Antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of phenolic extract from Pleurotus tuber-regium.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer (PTR), both an edible and a medicinal mushroom also known as tiger milk mushroom, has experienced growing popularity and economic importance due to its flavor, nutritive value, and medicinal effects. In this study, the antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of a 60% ethanol extract (EE) obtained from the sclerotium of PTR were investigated. Typical phenolic compounds including protocatechuic, chlorogenic, syringic, ferulic, and folic acid were identified and quantified in EE by the HPLC-UV-ESI/MS analyses. EE possessed strong antioxidant activity and could dose-dependently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration and tube formation. qPCR results showed that VEGF-induced FGF, ANG-Tie, and MMP gene expression as well as VEGFR were down-regulated at the mRNA level after treated with EE, suggesting that multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis was involved. Furthermore, EE also inhibited the formation of subintestinal vessel plexus (SIVs) in zebrafish embryos in vivo. All of these suggested that EE of PTR could be the source of potential inhibitors to target angiogenesis.
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Crypto-rhombomeres of the mouse medulla oblongata, defined by molecular and morphological features.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The medulla oblongata is the caudal portion of the vertebrate hindbrain. It contains major ascending and descending fiber tracts as well as several motor and interneuron populations, including neural centers that regulate the visceral functions and the maintenance of bodily homeostasis. In the avian embryo, it has been proposed that the primordium of this region is subdivided into five segments or crypto-rhombomeres (r7-r11), which were defined according to either their parameric position relative to intersomitic boundaries (Cambronero and Puelles, in J Comp Neurol 427:522-545, 2000) or a stepped expression of Hox genes (Marín et al., in Dev Biol 323:230-247, 2008). In the present work, we examine the implied similar segmental organization of the mouse medulla oblongata. To this end, we analyze the expression pattern of Hox genes from groups 3 to 8, comparing them to the expression of given cytoarchitectonic and molecular markers, from mid-gestational to perinatal stages. As a result of this approach, we conclude that the mouse medulla oblongata is segmentally organized, similarly as in avian embryos. Longitudinal structures such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, the dorsal vagal motor nucleus, the hypoglossal motor nucleus, the descending trigeminal and vestibular columns, or the reticular formation appear subdivided into discrete segmental units. Additionally, our analysis identified an internal molecular organization of the migrated pontine nuclei that reflects a differential segmental origin of their neurons as assessed by Hox gene expression.
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Coronectomy of a lower third molar in combination with vital pulp therapy.
Eur J Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Coronectomy is a procedure that intentionally spares the vital root after removal of the crown of the lower third molar to avoid damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. Vital pulp therapy is one option for managing exposed pulp tissue to reduce the risk of pulpal inflammation or necrosis. Among various dental materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used for vital pulp therapy. Thus, this case report discusses a coronectomy procedure in combination with vital pulp therapy using MTA. This case also attempts to highlight the formation of tertiary dentin, evidence of successful vital pulp therapy.
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Phenotypic identification of subclones in multiple myeloma with different chemoresistant, cytogenetic and clonogenic potential.
Leukemia
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Knowledge about clonal diversity and selection is critical to understand multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis, chemoresistance and progression. If targeted therapy becomes reality, identification and monitoring of intraclonal plasma-cell (PC) heterogeneity would become increasingly demanded. Here, we investigated the kinetics of intraclonal heterogeneity among 116?MM patients using 23-marker multidimensional-flow-cytometry (MFC) and principal-component-analysis, at diagnosis and during minimal-residual-disease (MRD) monitoring. Distinct phenotypic subclones were observed in 35/116 (30%) newly-diagnosed MM patients. In 10/35 patients persistent MRD was detected after 9 induction cycles, and longitudinal comparison of patient-paired diagnostic vs. MRD samples unraveled phenotypic clonal tiding after therapy in half (5/10) of the patients. After demonstrating selection of distinct phenotypic subsets by therapeutic pressure, we investigated if distinct FACS-sorted PC subclones had different clonogenic and cytogenetic profiles. In half (5/10) of the patients analyzed, distinct phenotypic subclones showed different clonogenic potential when co-cultured with stromal cells, and in 6/11 cases distinct phenotypic subclones displayed unique cytogenetic profiles by iFISH, including selective del(17p13). Collectively, we unravel potential therapeutic selection of pre-existing diagnostic phenotypic subclones during MRD monitoring; because phenotypically distinct PCs may show different clonogenic and cytogenetic profiles, identification and follow-up of unique phenotypic-genetic myeloma PCs subclones may become relevant for tailored therapy.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 12 November 2014. doi:10.1038/leu.2014.321.
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Sex-specific association between nerve growth factor polymorphism and cardiac vagal modulation.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Substantial research has shown that anxiety disorders are associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, which is a known risk factor for cardiac vulnerability. A functional nerve growth factor (NGF) polymorphism (rs6330, c.104C > T, p.Ala35Val) has been associated with anxiety such that in males but not females, T-allele carriers exhibit higher levels of trait anxiety. Here we investigate whether the nonsynonymous NGF variant has an effect on cardiac autonomic control.
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Hypnotic effects of a novel anti-insomnia formula on drosophila insomnia model.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To assess the biological effects of the six-herb mixture Anti-Insomia Formula (AIF) extract using caffeine-induced insomnia Drosophila model and short-sleep mutants.
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Salt-Assisted High-Throughput Synthesis of Single- and Few-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Their Application in Organic Solar Cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Salt-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation is developed for the high-throughput synthesis of single- and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) 2D sheets. This environmentally friendly and simple approach improves the yield by more than one order of magnitude, while keeping the single crystalline feature of as-made TMD 2D sheets, which can replace PEDOT:PSS as the hole injection layer for organic solar cells.
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In vivo murine model of acquired resistance in myeloma reveals differential mechanisms for lenalidomide and pomalidomide in combination with dexamethasone.
Leukemia
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The development of resistance to therapy is unavoidable in the history of multiple myeloma patients. Therefore, the study of its characteristics and mechanisms is critical in the search for novel therapeutic approaches to overcome it. This effort is hampered by the absence of appropriate preclinical models, especially those mimicking acquired resistance. Here we present an in vivo model of acquired resistance based on the continuous treatment of mice bearing subcutaneous MM1S plasmacytomas. Xenografts acquired resistance to two generations of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs; lenalidomide and pomalidomide) in combination with dexamethasone, that was reversible after a wash-out period. Furthermore, lenalidomide-dexamethasone (LD) or pomalidomide-dexamethasone (PD) did not display cross-resistance, which could be due to the differential requirements of the key target Cereblon and its substrates Aiolos and Ikaros observed in cells resistant to each combination. Differential gene expression profiles of LD and PD could also explain the absence of cross-resistance. Onset of resistance to both combinations was accompanied by upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway and addition of selumetinib, a small-molecule MEK inhibitor, could resensitize resistant cells. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms of acquired resistance to LD and PD combinations and offer possible therapeutic approaches to addressing IMiD resistance in the clinic.Leukemia advance online publication, 2 September 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.238.
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Pro-angiogenic effects of Carthami Flos whole extract in human microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and in zebrafish in vivo.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Carthami Flos (CF) is a Chinese herb traditionally used for cardiovascular disease and bone injury in China with pharmacological effects on improving blood circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the angiogenic potential of CF whole extract (extracted by boiling with water, followed by ethanol) and the underlying mechanisms in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in vitro and in transgenic TG(fli1:EGFP)(y1)/+(AB) zebrafish with transgenic endothelial cells expressing EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) in vivo.
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Facile hydrothermal synthesis of CuFeO2 hexagonal platelets/rings and graphene composites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Delafossite CuFeO2 hexagonal platelets/rings and graphene composites were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The formation mechanism of CuFeO2 hexagonal platelets/rings follows the combined effects of both GO and NaOH. The obtained composites as anode materials display a good battery performance with high reversible capacity, good rate capability and cyclic stability.
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Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on dual-task cognitive and motor performance in isolated dystonia.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) but may worsen specific cognitive functions. The effect of STN DBS on cognitive function in dystonia patients is less clear. Previous reports indicate that bilateral STN stimulation in patients with PD amplifies the decrement in cognitive-motor dual-task performance seen when moving from a single-task to dual-task paradigm. We aimed to determine if the effect of bilateral STN DBS on dual-task performance in isolated patients with dystonia, who have less cognitive impairment and no dementia, is similar to that seen in PD.
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Effect of acupuncture treatment on vascular cognitive impairment without dementia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage vascular cognitive impairment. We will do a multicenter, 6-month, drug-controlled, nonblinded, randomized, parallel-group trial to determine whether acupuncture is effective for improving cognitive function and quality of life for patients with VCIND.
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Characteristics of stem cells derived from rat fascia: In vitro proliferative and multilineage potential assessment.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Fascia?derived stem cells (FDSCs) were previously isolated from the fascia of the gluteus maximus of the rat. However, the use of FDSCs as a cell source for musculoskeletal tissue engineering has not been compared with that of adipose?derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow?derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and self?renewal stem cell markers, proliferative capacity and multilineage differentiation potential of these stem cells in vitro. The MSC and embryonic stem cell (ESC) marker profiles were compared using flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Their proliferative capacities were compared using 5?bromo?2'?deoxyuridine and MTT assays. Their osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials were compared using standard staining assays and qPCR. The FDSCs possessed similar cell morphology and immunophenotypic profiles with BMSCs and ADSCs. FDSCs demonstrated a similar expression pattern of ESC markers with ADSCs, which has higher expression of sex determining region Y?box (Sox)2 and octamer?binding transcription factor 4, and lower expression of Krüppel?like factor 4, when compared with BMSCs. FDSCs exhibited higher proliferation under serum?deprived conditions (0.5% FBS growth medium), and attained higher expression levels of collagen type I, ? 2 and type II, ? 1 as well as Sox9 mRNA than ADSCs and BMSCs upon chondrogenic induction. An increased amount of proteoglycan deposition was also observed in the FDSC group. However, lower levels of adipogenic and osteogenic marker expression in FDSCs were detected compared with ADSCs and BMSCs upon adipogenic and osteogenic induction, respectively. FDSCs possessed high chondrogenic potential, low osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential and were responsive to the induction signals for collagen?rich fascial structure regeneration. Therefore, FDSCs may represent an improved alternative cell source to conventional ADSCs and BMSCs for musculoskeletal tissue repair and tissue engineering, particularly for collagen?rich structures with poor vasculature.
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The Enamel Protein Amelotin is a Promoter of Hydroxyapatite Mineralization.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P) S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary, but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Genomic prediction in biparental tropical maize populations in water-stressed and well-watered environments using low-density and GBS SNPs.
Heredity (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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One of the most important applications of genomic selection in maize breeding is to predict and identify the best untested lines from biparental populations, when the training and validation sets are derived from the same cross. Nineteen tropical maize biparental populations evaluated in multienvironment trials were used in this study to assess prediction accuracy of different quantitative traits using low-density (~200 markers) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. An extension of the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor that incorporates genotype × environment (GE) interaction was used to predict genotypic values; cross-validation methods were applied to quantify prediction accuracy. Our results showed that: (1) low-density SNPs (~200 markers) were largely sufficient to get good prediction in biparental maize populations for simple traits with moderate-to-high heritability, but GBS outperformed low-density SNPs for complex traits and simple traits evaluated under stress conditions with low-to-moderate heritability; (2) heritability and genetic architecture of target traits affected prediction performance, prediction accuracy of complex traits (grain yield) were consistently lower than those of simple traits (anthesis date and plant height) and prediction accuracy under stress conditions was consistently lower and more variable than under well-watered conditions for all the target traits because of their poor heritability under stress conditions; and (3) the prediction accuracy of GE models was found to be superior to that of non-GE models for complex traits and marginal for simple traits.Heredity advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/hdy.2014.99.
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Reattachment of a fractured fragment with relined fiber post using indirect technique: a case report.
Restor Dent Endod
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Although fiber-reinforced posts have been widely used, they sometimes fail to obtain sufficient retention because of an extremely large canal space. To address this, several techniques have been introduced including relining of the fiber-reinforced posts. Here, we used a relined glass-fiber post to increase retention and fitness to the root canal in a crown reattachment case. The relining procedure was performed by using an indirect method on the working cast. This case also highlights the esthetic concerns regarding dehydration of the attached crown fragment.
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Prevalence of Rhodopsin mutations in autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in Spain: clinical and analytical review in 200 families.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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We aimed to determine the prevalence of mutations in the RHO gene in Spanish families with autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP), to assess genotype-phenotype correlations and to establish an accurate diagnostic algorithm after 23 years of data collection.
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Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens.
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Effects of REM sleep deprivation on sensorimotor gating and startle habituation in rats: role of social isolation in early development.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The present study examined the role of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on sensorimotor gating function in a developmentally rodent model of schizophrenic-spectrum disorders. Startle magnitude, prepulse inhibition (PPI) and startle habituation in an acoustic startle test were measured after 72-h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) in 14-week-old rats that were reared in one of the following conditions: control social interaction, 2-week isolation, and continuous isolation, since weaning. The results showed that REMSD significantly inhibited rats' PPI in socially controlled rats, and rats in two isolation groups appeared less sensitive to REMSD. After REMSD, startle habituation was significantly reduced in continuous-isolated rats but not in 2-week-isolated rats. These data indicate that REM sleep is essential for PPI; REMSD inhibits startle habituation in rats with continuous social isolation. In addition, social interaction, in early life or for the whole life, functions differently to the sensorimotor gating.
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The effects of add-on low-dose memantine on cytokine levels in bipolar II depression: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect, and an association between bipolar disorder and proinflammatory cytokine levels have been reported. Whether adding-on memantine would reduce cytokine levels and is more effective than valproic acid (VPA) alone in bipolar II disorder was investigated. A randomized, double-blind, controlled, 12-week study was conducted. Patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + memantine (5 mg/d) (n = 106) or VPA + placebo (n = 108). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Symptom severity, plasma tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1 levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to examine the therapeutic effect. Tumor necrosis factor ? levels were significantly lower in the VPA + memantine group than in the VPA + placebo group (P = 0.013). Posttreatment HDRS and YMRS scores decreased significantly in both groups, but not significant, nor was the other between-group cytokine level difference pretreatment and posttreatment. The HDRS score changes were significantly associated with IL-6 (P = 0.012) and IL-1 (P = 0.005) level changes and changes in YMRS score changes with TNF-? (P = 0.005) level changes. Treating bipolar II depression with VPA + memantine may improve the plasma TNF-? level. However, adding-on memantine may not improve clinical symptoms or cytokine levels other than TNF-?. Clinical symptoms may be correlated with certain cytokines.
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Cation-directed dimeric versus tetrameric assemblies of lanthanide-stabilized dilacunary Keggin tungstogermanates.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Reaction of mid- to late lanthanide ions with GeO2 and Na2WO4 in NaOAc buffer results in a library of [Ln2 (GeW10O38)](6-) clusters (Ln2), which consist of dilacunary Keggin fragments stabilized by the insertion of 4f atoms in the vacant sites and show the ability to undergo cation-directed self-assembly processes. In the presence of Na(+), two ?-Ln2 subunits assemble by means of Ln-O(WO5)-Ln bridges to form the chiral [Ln4(H2O)6(?-GeW10O38)2](12-) dimeric anions (??-Ln4, Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). When Cs(+) is present, two Ln4-like dimers further assemble into the [{Ln4(H2O)5(GeW10O38)2}2](24-) species (Ln8, Ln = Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). Two types of tetramers coexist in the solid state: One shows a full ??-Ln8 architecture, whereas the other one is a mixed ??-Ln8 assembly in which each ?-subunit is linked to its corresponding ?-Ln2 derivative. Regardless of differences in isomeric forms and the relative arrangement of Ln2 subunits, all anions display virtually identical {Ln4} cores as a common structural feature. A combination of ESI mass spectrometry and (183)W?NMR spectroscopy experiments indicates that Ln8 tetramers fragment into Ln4 dimers upon dissolution, which undergo partial dissociation into Ln2 monomers and slow dimer/monomer equilibration. This is most likely followed by ?-to-? isomerization of Ln2 clusters with consequent reassembly, as indicated by isolation of three additional ??-Ln4 derivatives. Magnetic and photoluminescence properties in the Na-??-Ln4 series are also discussed.
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Effects of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Hydration Accelerators on Osteoblastic Differentiation.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Despite good physical and biological properties, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has a long setting time. A hydration accelerator could decrease the setting time of MTA. This study assessed the biocompatibility of MTA mixed with hydration accelerators (calcium chloride and low-dose citric acid) and investigated the effect of these materials on osteoblast differentiation.
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Potent airway smooth muscle relaxant effect of cynatratoside B, a steroidal glycoside isolated from Cynanchum stauntonii.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The dried roots of Cynanchum stauntonii in having cough-relieving efficacy are commonly included in traditional antitussive formulas. The active components in a C. stauntonii root extract responsible for airway relaxation were isolated using an ex vivo bioassay-guided fractionation method, in which subfractions were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the contraction of isolated rat tracheal rings by isometric tension measurements. A steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside B (1), identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, was shown to have potent inhibition on acetylcholine- and carbachol-induced tracheal contractions. The present data provide scientific evidence to support the traditional use of C. stauntonii as an antitussive herbal medicine.
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Functional annotation of proteomic data from chicken heterophils and macrophages induced by carbon nanotube exposure.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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With the expanding applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedicine and agriculture, questions about the toxicity and biocompatibility of CNT in humans and domestic animals are becoming matters of serious concern. This study used proteomic methods to profile gene expression in chicken macrophages and heterophils in response to CNT exposure. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 12 proteins in macrophages and 15 in heterophils, with differential expression patterns in response to CNT co-incubation (0, 1, 10, and 100 µg/mL of CNT for 6 h) (p < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins are associated with protein interactions, cellular metabolic processes, and cell mobility, suggesting activation of innate immune functions. Western blot analysis with heat shock protein 70, high mobility group protein, and peptidylprolyl isomerase A confirmed the alterations of the profiled proteins. The functional annotations were further confirmed by effective cell migration, promoted interleukin-1? secretion, and more cell death in both macrophages and heterophils exposed to CNT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that CNT exposure affects protein expression, leading to activation of macrophages and heterophils, resulting in altered cytoskeleton remodeling, cell migration, and cytokine production, and thereby mediates tissue immune responses.
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Pharmacologic inhibition of bone resorption prevents cancer-induced osteolysis but enhances soft tissue metastasis in a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily, which binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) and inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. Systemic administration of recombinant OPG was previously shown to inhibit tumor growth in bone and to prevent cancer-induced osteolysis. In this study, we examined the effect of OPG, when produced locally by breast cancer cells located within bone, using a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer. MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cells, tagged with a luciferase reporter gene construct and engineered to overexpress full-length human OPG, were transplanted directly into the tibial marrow cavity of nude mice. Overexpression of OPG by breast cancer cells protected the bone from breast cancer-induced osteolysis and diminished intra-osseous tumor growth but had no effect on extra-skeletal tumor growth. This effect was associated with a significant reduction in the number of osteoclasts that lined the bone surface, resulting in a net increase in bone volume. Despite limiting breast cancer-mediated bone loss, OPG overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption by OPG when secreted locally by tumors in bone may affect the behaviour of cancer cells within the bone microenvironment and their likelihood of spreading and establishing metastasis elsewhere in the body.
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In vivo and in vitro anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of Coriolus versicolor aqueous extract on mouse mammary 4T1 carcinoma.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Coriolus versicolor (CV), a medicinal mushroom widely consumed in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be effective in stimulation of immune system and inhibition of tumor growth. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of CV aqueous extract in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and in 4T1-tumor bearing mouse model. Our results showed that CV aqueous extract (0.125-2 mg/ml) did not inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation while the non-cytotoxic dose of CV extract (1-2 mg/ml) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion (p<0.05). Besides, the enzyme activities and protein levels of MMP-9 were suppressed by CV extract significantly. Animal studies showed that CV aqueous extract (1 g/kg, orally-fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 36%, and decreased the lung metastasis by 70.8% against untreated control. Besides, micro-CT analysis of the tumor-bearing mice tibias indicated that CV extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction as the bone volume was significantly increased. On the other hand, CV aqueous extract treatments resulted in remarkable immunomodulatory effects, which was reflected by the augmentation of IL-2, 6, 12, TNF-? and IFN-? productions from the spleen lymphocytes of CV-treated tumor-bearing mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated for the first time that the CV aqueous extract exhibited anti-tumor, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation effects in metastatic breast cancer mouse model, and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction. These findings provided scientific evidences for the clinical application of CV aqueous extract in breast cancer patients.
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Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions.
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Caregiver burden in epilepsy: determinants and impact.
Epilepsy Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Aim. Caregiver burden (CB) in epilepsy constitutes an understudied area. Here we attempt to identify the magnitude of this burden, the factors associated with it, and its impact to caregiver quality of life (QOL). Methods. 48 persons with epilepsy (PWE) underwent video-EEG monitoring and their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, psychiatric, cognitive, sleep, QOL, and burden information. Results. On regression analysis, higher number of antiepileptic drugs, poorer patient neuropsychological performance, lower patient QOL score, and lower caregiver education level were associated with higher CB. Time allocated to patient care approximated but did not attain statistical significance. A moderate inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL physical component summary score and a stronger inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL mental component summary score were seen. Conclusion. In a selected cohort of PWE undergoing video-EEG monitoring, we identified modest degree of CB, comparable to that reported in the literature for other chronic neurological conditions. It is associated with specific patient and caregiver characteristics and has a negative effect on caregiver QOL.
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trans-Di-aqua-bis-(pyridazine-3-carboxyl-ato-?(2) N (2),O)copper(II).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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In the title compound, [Cu(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)2], the Cu(II) ion, located on an inversion center, exhibits an octa-hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is defined by two trans-related N,O-bidentate pyridazine-3-carboxyl-ate ligands and the axial positions are occupied by two water mol-ecules. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by O-H?O hydrogen bonds between the water mol-ecules and the noncoordinating carboxyl-ate O atoms, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are stacked along the a axis by further O-H?O hydrogen bonds between the water mol-ecules and the coordinating carboxyl-ate O atoms. Weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds are also observed between the pyridazine rings and the water mol-ecules and between the pyridazine rings and the non-coordinating carboxyl-ate O atoms.
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Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract inhibits both the metastasis and osteolytic components of mammary cancer 4T1 lesions in mice.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Green tea (Camellia sinensis, CS), a kind of Chinese tea commonly consumed as a healthy beverage, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities, including antioxidation, antiobesity and anticancer. Our study aims to investigate the antitumor, antimetastasis and antiosteolytic effects of CS aqueous extract both in vitro and in vivo using metastasis-specific mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. Our results showed that treatment of 4T1 cells with CS aqueous extract resulted in significant inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation. CS extract induced 4T1 apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as assessed by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining and caspase-3 activity. Western blot analysis showed that CS increased the expression of Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio and activated caspase-8 and caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. CS also inhibited 4T1 cell migration and invasion at 0.06-0.125 mg/ml. In addition, CS extract (0.6 g/kg, orally fed daily for 4 weeks) was effective in decreasing the tumor weight by 34.8% in female BALB/c mice against water treatment control (100%). Apart from the antitumor effect, CS extract significantly decreased lung and liver metastasis in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors by 54.5% and 72.6%, respectively. Furthermore, micro-computed tomography and in vitro osteoclast staining analysis suggested that CS extract was effective in bone protection against breast cancer-induced bone destruction. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the CS aqueous extract, which closely mimics green tea beverage, has potent antitumor and antimetastasis effects in breast cancer and could protect the bone from breast cancer-induced bone destruction.
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Structural characterization and immunomodulatory effect of a polysaccharide HCP-2 from Houttuynia cordata.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Immunomodulation of natural polysaccharides has been the hot topic of research in recent years. In order to explore the immunomodulatory effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb., the water extract was studied and a polysaccharide HCP-2 with molecular weight of 60,000 Da was isolated by chromatography using DEAE Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 HR columns. The structure characterization of HCP-2 was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), acidic hydrolysis, PMP derivation, HPLC analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR). HCP-2 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide with a linear chain of 1,4-linked ?-D-galacturonic acid residues in which part of the 6-carboxyl groups were methyl esterified and part of 2-hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The bioactivity assays showed that HCP-2 could increase the secretions of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), macrophage inhibitory protein-1? (MIP-1?), macrophage inhibitory protein-1? (MIP-1?), and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which play critical roles in the innate immune system and shape the adaptive immunity. Our results implied that HCP-2 could be an immune enhancer.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.
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Physical properties and biological/odontogenic effects of an experimentally developed fast-setting ?-tricalcium phosphate-based pulp capping material.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Recently, fast-setting ?-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP) cement was developed for use in the pulp capping process. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical properties and biological effects of ?-TCP cement in comparison with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).
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Heterogeneity in primary dystonia: lessons from THAP1, GNAL, and TOR1A in Amish-Mennonites.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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A founder mutation in the Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) gene causing primary dystonia was originally described in the Amish-Mennonites. However, there may be both genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of dystonia in this population that may also inform studies in other ethnic groups. Genotyping for THAP1 and for guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), ?-activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type (GNAL) mutations and genotype-phenotype comparisons were performed for 76 individuals of Amish-Mennonites heritage with primary dystonia. Twenty-seven individuals had mutations in THAP1-most with the founder indel mutation-but two had different THAP1 mutations, 8 had mutations in GNAL, and 1 had a de novo GAG deletion in torsin 1A (TOR1A) (dystonia 1 [DYT1]). In the primary analysis comparing THAP1 carriers versus all non-THAP1, non-GNAL, non-TOR1A individuals, age at onset was lower in THAP1 carriers (mean age ± standard deviation, 15.5 ± 9.2 years [range, 5-38 years] vs. 39.2 ± 17.7 years [range, 1-70 years]; P < 0.001), and THAP1 carriers were more likely to have onset of dystonia in an arm (44.4% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.02) and to have arm involvement (88.9% vs. 22.5%; P < 0.01), leg involvement (51.9% vs. 10.0%; P = 0.01), and jaw/tongue involvement (33.3% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.02) involvement at their final examination. Carriers were less likely to have dystonia restricted to a single site (11.11% in carriers vs. 65.9% in noncarriers; P < 0.01) and were less likely to have dystonia onset in cervical regions (25.9% of THAP1 carriers vs. 52.5% of noncarriers; P = 0.04). Primary dystonia in the Amish-Mennonites is genetically diverse and includes not only the THAP1 indel founder mutation but also different mutations in THAP1 and GNAL as well as the TOR1A GAG deletion. Phenotype, particularly age at onset combined with final distribution, may be highly specific for the genetic etiology.
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Heart rate variability in unmedicated patients with bipolar disorder in the manic phase.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been proposed in bipolar disorder. To date, there has been no adequate study that has investigated resting HRV in unmedicated patients with bipolar disorder in the manic state.
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Anti-dermatophytic activity of bakuchiol: in vitro mechanistic studies and in vivo tinea pedis-inhibiting activity in a guinea pig model.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Bakuchiol was an active antifungal compound isolated from Psoraleae Fructus by means of bioassay-guided fractionation in our previous study. The present work aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic effect of bakuchiol in Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced tinea pedis. After exposure to bakuchiol at 0.25-fold, 0.5-fold and 1-fold of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (3.91 ?g/ml) for 24h, the fungal conidia of T. mentagrophytes demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in membrane permeability. Moreover, bakuchiol at 1-fold MIC elicited a 187% elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in fungal cells after a 3-h incubation. However, bakuchiol did not induce DNA fragmentation. In a guinea pig model of tinea pedis, bakuchiol at 1%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentration in aqueous cream could significantly reduce the fungal burden of infected feet (p<0.01-0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that bakuchiol is effective in relieving tinea pedis and in inhibiting the growth of the dermatophyte T. mentagrophytes by increasing fungal membrane permeability and ROS generation, but not via induction of DNA fragmentation.
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Acupuncture at local and distal points for chronic shoulder pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Chronic shoulder pain (CSP) is the third most common type of musculoskeletal pain. It has a major impact on health-related quality of life. In Chinese medicine, CSP is considered one of the conditions most amenable to treatment with acupuncture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of local acupoints in combination with distal acupoints in pain relief and shoulder function improvement in CSP patients.
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Effects of 3 endodontic bioactive cements on osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Because a root-end filling material comes into contact with the surrounding cells or tissues, understanding the cell-material interfacial activity is important. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of 3 endodontic bioactive cements (MTA [Dentsply, Tulsa, OK], Bioaggregate [BA; Innovative Bioceramix, Vancouver, BC, Canada], and Biodentine [BD; Septodont, St Maur des Fosses, France]) and to investigate the effect of cements on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
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N-acetylcysteine alleviated silica-induced lung fibrosis in rats by down-regulation of ROS and mitochondrial apoptosis signaling.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a normal metabolic product of cellular respiration, but too much ROS can induce cell apoptosis. Here, we used N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to inhibit ROS activity to explore the effects of NAC on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and provide evidence for study on the mechanism of silicosis. 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-220 g were randomly divided into three groups with eight rats in each group. Silicosis model group and NAC group were adopted non-tracheal exposure method of disposable intrapulmonary injection of 50 g/L, silica suspension 1 mL to establish animal silicosis model, NAC group treated with 600 mg/kg NAC by gavage from the right day of modeling, all animals were sacrificed after 28 days. The level of ROS contents and mitochondrial transmembrane potential changes of AM, the mRNA expression level of type I and type III procollagen, cytochrome C, cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-9 and caspase-3 were detected. The severity of pathological changes and pulmonary fibrosis were observed by pathologic specimens. It was showed that ROS contents and MTP changes were lower in the NAC group compared with the silicosis model group, other indexes were lower in the NAC group than the model group, but higher than those of the control group, the degree of lung fibrotic lesions observed from the pathological slices showed the same trend. These data indicated that NAC can reduce ROS content of AM in silica exposure rats, the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway can also be inhibited, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis alleviated as a result.
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A Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) promotes hindlimb ischemia-induced neovascularization and wound healing of diabetic rats.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Diabetic foot ulcer is closely associated with peripheral vascular disease. Enhancement of tissue oxidative stress, reduction of nitric oxide (NO) and angiogenic growth factors, and abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity are pathophysiological factors in post-ischemic neovascularization and diabetic wound healing. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula, NF3, showed significant wound healing effects on diabetic foot ulcer rats. A novel rat diabetic foot ulcer with hindlimb ischemia model was established in order to strengthen our claims on the diabetic wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization effects of NF3. Our results demonstrate that NF3 can significantly reduce the wound area of the diabetic foot ulcer rat with hindlimb ischemia by 21.6% (p<0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that NF3 could boost circulating EPC levels for local wound vessel incorporation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that NF3 could significantly augment blood vessel density, VEGF and eNOS expression, and attenuate tissue oxidative stress of ischemic muscles (p<0.001). NF3 significantly stimulated MMP activity involved in angiogenesis. Our study shows, for the first time, the beneficial effects of NF3 in wound healing and post-ischemic neovascularization in diabetes.
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Healing after horizontal root fractures: 3 cases with 2-year follow-up.
Restor Dent Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Among dental traumas, horizontal root fractures are relatively uncommon injuries. Proper initial management and periodical evaluation is essential for the successful treatment of a root-fractured tooth. If pulpal necrosis develops, endodontic treatment is indicated, exclusively for the coronal fragment. Fragment diastases exert a great influence on healing at the fracture line and on pulpal necrosis. An adequately treated root-fractured tooth has a good prognosis. This case report describes the treatment and 2-yr follow up of 3 maxillary central incisors, first with horizontal root fracture, second with horizontal root fracture and avulsion, and third with horizontal root fracture and lateral luxation. All three cases were treated with mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot, Dentsply). During 2 yr of follow-up evaluation, the root-fractured teeth of the present patients were well retained in the arch, showing periodontal healing, even after endodontic treatment.
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Odontogenic effect of a fast-setting pozzolan-based pulp capping material.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used as a pulp capping material. Recently, a MTA-derived fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea) was introduced in the endodontic field. Our aim in this study was to investigate the odontogenic effects of this cement in vitro and in vivo.
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DRD3 variation associates with early-onset heroin dependence, but not specific personality traits.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Dopamine D3 receptor-mediated pathways are involved in the mechanism of addiction, and genetic factors play a role in the vulnerability to heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether the corresponding gene, DRD3, is associated with the development of heroin dependence and specific personality traits in HD patients. Eight polymorphisms in DRD3 were analyzed in 1067 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (566 heroin dependence patients and 501 controls). All participants were screened using the same assessment tool and all patients met the criteria for heroin dependence. A Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality traits in 276 heroin dependence patients. In addition, heroin dependence patients were divided into 4 clinical subgroups based on age-of-onset and family history of substance abuse, to reduce the clinical heterogeneity. The rs6280 and rs9825563 variants showed association with the development of early-onset heroin dependence. The GTA haplotype frequency in the block (rs324029, rs6280, rs9825563) was significantly associated with early-onset heroin dependence (p=0.003). However, these significant associations were weaker after Bonferroni's correction. In addition, these DRD3 polymorphisms did not influence novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores in HD patients. DRD3 is possibly a genetic factor in the development of early-onset heroin dependence, but is not associated with specific personality traits in these patients among the Han Chinese population.
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Nasal cavity metastasis of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The nasal cavity is an uncommon site for metastasis to develop and thus metastases arising from breast cancer are rarely observed. We report a case of a 61-year-old female with two-year history of breast cancer who presented with a nasal cavity that was diagnosed as metastatic breast carcinoma by histopathological analysis of the nasal cavity specimen.
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Differential Effects of the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on Anti-IgE Induced Human Mast Cell Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mast cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mechanism involving crosslinking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI), mast cells are also activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are at the center of innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the response of LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line) to anti-IgE was altered in the presence of the TLR2 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN) and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys)4 (Pam3CSK4). Pretreatment of PGN and Pam3CSK4 inhibited anti-IgE induced calcium mobilization and degranulation without down-regulation of Fc?RI expression. Pam3CSK4 but not PGN acted in synergy with anti-IgE for IL-8 release when the TLR2 agonist was added simultaneously with anti-IgE. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes implicated in mast cell signaling revealed that the synergistic release of IL-8 induced by Pam3CSK4 and anti-IgE involved ERK and calcineurin signaling cascades. The differential modulations of anti-IgE induced mast cell activation by PGN and Pam3CSK4 suggest that dimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 produced different modulating actions on Fc?RI mediated human mast cell activation.
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Lp-PLA2 levels in HIV-infected patients.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV-infected patients show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) appears to be an independent predictor of CVD. We aimed to study associations between Lp-PLA2 plasma levels and other risk factors for CVD in HIV patients.
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Inhibition of Fumonisin B1 Cytotoxicity by Nanosilicate Platelets during Mouse Embryo Development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosilicate platelets (NSP), the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT), is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD). In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1) in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.
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Gender-specific association of the SLC6A4 and DRD2 gene variants in bipolar disorder.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Findings on the association between the risk for developing bipolar disorder and the functions of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) and dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants are contradictory. One explanation for this is that a gender difference may exist for genetic contributions. We compared the gender-related main effects and the gene-to-gene interaction between serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and DRD2 in adult male and female patients with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorder. Patients with BP-I (n = 400) and BP-II (n = 493), and healthy controls (n = 442) were recruited from Taiwans Han Chinese population. The genotypes of the 5-HTTLPR and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant gender-specific association of the DRD2 A1/A1 and the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/L G , and L G /LG (S+) (p = 0.01) genotypes in men with BP-I (p = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively) and BP-II (p = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively), but not in women. A significant interaction for the DRD2 A1/A1 and 5-HTTLPR S+ polymorphisms was also found only in men with BP-I and BP-II (p = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). We provide preliminary evidence for a gender-specific effect of the SLC6A4 and DRD2 gene variants for the risk of BP-I and of BP-II. We also found gender-specific interaction between 5-HTTLPR and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms in patients with bipolar disorder.
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Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.
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Ordered Ag/Si nanowires array: wide-range surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for reproducible biomolecule detection.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) systems utilizing the interparticle nanogaps as hot spots have demonstrated ultrasensitive single-molecule detection with excellent selectivity yet the electric fields are too confined in the small nanogaps to enable reproducible biomolecule detections. Here, guided by finite-difference-time-domain simulation, we report hexagonal-packed silver-coated silicon nanowire (Ag/SiNW) arrays as a nanogap-free SERS system with wide-range electric fields and controlled interwire separation. Significantly, the system achieves a SERS detection of long double-strand DNA of 25-50 nm in length with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 14% for measurements of above 4000 spots over an area of 200 × 200 ?m(2). The high reproducibility in the SERS detection is attributed to (1) the large interwire spacing of 150 nm that allows access and excitation of large biomolecules; and (2) 600 nm wide-range electric field generated by propagating surface plasmons along the surface of continuous Ag coating on a SiNW. Moreover, a reproducible multiplex SERS measurement is also demonstrated with RSDs of 7-16% with an enhancement factor of ~10(6). The above results show that the ordered Ag/SiNW array system may serve as an excellent SERS platform for practical chemical and biological detection.
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[Autophagy in lung tissue of rats exposed to silica dust].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To investigate the autophagy of effector cells in lung tissue at different time points when rats were exposed to free SiO2 dust.
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Three-dimensional Sn-graphene anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Tin (Sn) has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high energy density, abundance, and environmentally benign nature. However, the problems of fast capacity fading at prolonged cycling and poor rate capacity hinder its practical use. Herein, we report the development of a novel architecture of Sn nanoparticle-decorated three-dimensional (3D) foothill-like graphene as an anode in LIBs. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the 3D Sn-graphene anode delivered a reversible capacity of 466 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 879 mA g(-1) (1 C) after over 4000 cycles and 794 mA h g(-1) at 293 mA g(-1) (1/3 C) after 400 cycles. The capacity at 1/3 C is over 200% that of conventional graphite anodes, suggesting that the 3D Sn-graphene structure enables a significant improvement in the overall performance of a LIB in aspects of capacity, cycle life, and rate capacity.
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Dhrs3 protein attenuates retinoic acid signaling and is required for early embryonic patterning.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is an important morphogen involved in many developmental processes, including neural differentiation, body axis formation, and organogenesis. During early embryonic development, atRA is synthesized from all-trans-retinal (atRAL) in an irreversible reaction mainly catalyzed by retinal dehydrogenase 2 (aldh1a2), whereas atRAL is converted from all-trans-retinol via reversible oxidation by retinol dehydrogenases, members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. atRA is degraded by cytochrome P450, family 26 (cyp26). We have previously identified a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3 (dhrs3), which showed differential expression patterns in Xenopus embryos. We show here that the expression of dhrs3 was induced by atRA treatment and overexpression of Xenopus nodal related 1 (xnr1) in animal cap assay. Overexpression of dhrs3 enhanced the phenotype of excessive cyp26a1. In embryos overexpressing aldh1a2 or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (rdh10) in the presence of their respective substrates, Dhrs3 counteracted the action of Aldh1a2 or Rdh10, indicating that retinoic acid signaling is attenuated. Knockdown of Dhrs3 by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in a phenotype of shortened anteroposterior axis, reduced head structure, and perturbed somitogenesis, which were also found in embryos treated with an excess of atRA. Examination of the expression of brachyury, not, goosecoid, and papc indicated that convergent extension movement was defective in Dhrs3 morphants. Taken together, these studies suggest that dhrs3 participates in atRA metabolism by reducing atRAL levels and is required for proper anteroposterior axis formation, neuroectoderm patterning, and somitogenesis.
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Washout resistance of fast-setting pozzolan cement under various root canal irrigants.
Restor Dent Endod
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Fast-setting pozzolan cement (Endocem, Maruchi) was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various root canal irrigants on the washout of Endocem in comparison to the previously marketed mineral trioxide aggregate (ProRoot; Dentsply) in a furcal perforation model.
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Graphene encapsulated and SiC reinforced silicon nanowires as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Anode materials play a key role in the performance, in particular the capacity and lifetime, of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Silicon has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material due to its high specific capacity, but pulverization during cycling and formation of an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase limit its cycle life. Herein, we show that anodes consisting of an active silicon nanowire (Si NW), which is surrounded by a uniform graphene shell and comprises silicon carbide nanocrystals, are capable of serving over 500 cycles in half cells at a high lithium storage capacity of 1650 mA h g(-1). In the anodes, the graphene shell provides a highly-conductive path and prevents direct exposure of Si NWs to electrolytes while the SiC nanocrystals may act as a rigid backbone to retain the integrity of the Si NW in its great deformation process caused by repetitive charging-discharging reactions, resulting in a stable cyclability.
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trans-Di-aqua-bis-(pyridazine-3-carboxyl-ato-?(2) N (2),O)cobalt(II) dihydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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The title compound, [Co(C5H3N2O2)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, contains a Co(II) ion on an inversion center, exhibiting an octa-hedral coordination geometry. The equatorial plane is formed by two trans-related N,O-bidentate pyridazine-3-carboxyl-ate ligands and the axial positions are occupied by two water mol-ecules. The Co(II) complex mol-ecules are stacked in a column along the a-axis direction by an O-H?N hydrogen bond between the non-coordinating pyridazine N atom and the coordinating water mol-ecule. These columns are further connected into a layer parallel to the ac plane by additional hydrogen bonds involving the coordinating and non-coordinating water mol-ecules, and the non-coordinating carboxyl-ate O atom. The crystal packing is completed by inter-layer weak C-H?O inter-actions.
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The Aqueous Extract of Rhizome of Gastrodia elata Protected Drosophila and PC12 Cells against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE) aqueous extract on beta-amyloid(A ? )-induced toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Drosophila mutants with A ? -induced neurodegeneration in pan-neuron and ommatidia were used to determine the efficacy of GE. The antiapoptotic and antioxidative mechanisms of GE were also studied in A ? -treated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that GE (5?mg/g Drosophila media)-treated Drosophila possessed a longer lifespan, better locomotor function, and less-degenerated ommatidia when compared with the A ? -expressing control (all P < 0.05). In vitro studies illustrated that GE increased the cell viability of A ? -treated PC12 cells in dose-dependent manner, probably through attenuation of A ? -induced oxidative and apoptotic stress. GE also significantly upregulated the enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, leading to the decrease of reactive oxidation species production and apoptotic marker caspase-3 activity. In conclusion, our current data presented the first evidence that the aqueous extract of GE was capable of reducing the A ? -induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila, possibly through inhibition of apoptosis and reduction of oxidative stress. GE aqueous extract could be developed as a promising herbal agent for neuroprotection and novel adjuvant therapies for Alzheimers disease.
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Decreased cardiac vagal control in drug-naïve patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Decreased cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been proposed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the results are mixed. Analyses with larger sample sizes and better methodology are needed.
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Molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis effect of active sub-fraction from root of Rehmannia glutinosa by zebrafish sprout angiogenesis-guided fractionation.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The root of Rehmannia glutinosa (Rehmanniae Radix (RR)) is clinically used as a wound-healing agent in traditional Chinese medicine. Angiogenesis acts crucially in the pathogenesis of chronic wound healing. The present study investigated the angiogenesis effect and its underlying mechanism of RR through zebrafish sprout angiogenesis guided-fractionation.
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