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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete Genome Sequences of Two Escherichia coli O145:H28 Outbreak Strains of Food Origin.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Escherichia coli O145:H28 strain RM12581 was isolated from bagged romaine lettuce during a 2010 U.S. lettuce-associated outbreak. E. coli O145:H28 strain RM12761 was isolated from ice cream during a 2007 ice cream-associated outbreak in Belgium. Here we report the complete genome sequences and annotation of both strains.
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Comparative genomics of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O145:H28 demonstrates a common evolutionary lineage with Escherichia coli O157:H7.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Although serotype O157:H7 is the predominant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC that cause severe foodborne illness, including hemolytic uremic syndrome have increased worldwide. In fact, non-O157 serotypes are now estimated to cause over half of all the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cases, and outbreaks of non-O157 EHEC infections are frequently associated with serotypes O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Currently, there are no complete genomes for O145 in public databases.
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Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl(4).
World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl(4) with biochemical, histopathological evaluations.
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Protective effect of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 on CCl?-induced liver injury in rats.
Sci Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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This study provides an information about the mechanisms of liver injury induced by CCl(4), and determines the influence of administration of L-carnitine or/and CoQ10 as prophylactic agents against CCl(4) deteriorative effect. The study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats divided into eight groups, 10 animals each, as follows: four normal groups (control, treated with L-carnitine, treated with CoQ10, and treated with a combination of Lcarnitine and CoQ10) and four liver injury groups treated with CCl(4) (control, treated with L-carnitine, treated with CoQ10, and treated with a combination of L-carnitine and CoQ10). Liver injury was induced by s.c. injection of a single dose of CCl(4) (1 ml/kg). L-carnitine (50 mg/kg/day) was given i.p. for four successive days 24 hours before CCl(4) injection, and CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) was given as a single i.p. dose 24 hours before CCl(4) injection. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after CCl(4) injection, blood samples were withdrawn and liver tissue samples were homogenized. The levels of the following parameters were determined: hepatic reduced glutathione, serum ALT and AST, hepatic lipid peroxides, hepatic vitamin C, hepatic and serum total protein, serum albumin, serum sialic acid, serum nitrite, and serum and hepatic total LDH activities and LDH isoenzymes. The obtained data revealed that CCl(4) injection produced a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content, vitamin C, total protein and albumin levels. However, there was a significant increase in serum ALT and AST activities, lipid peroxides, sialic acid, nitric oxide, serum and hepatic total LDH activities. On the other hand, groups treated with L-carnitine or/and CoQ10 prior to CCl(4) injection showed an improvement in most parameters when compared with cirrhotic control group. It has been concluded that L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 have a pronounced prophylactic effect against liver damage induced by halogenated alkanes such as carbon tetrachloride.
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Bioimmunological responses to Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola gigantica worm homogenates either with or without saponin.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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In this study, we evaluated the biochemical, immunological, histopathological and antischistosomal activities of Schistosoma mansoni or Fasciola gigantica worm homogenates mixed either with or without saponin that was extracted from Atriplex nummularia.
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Phylogenetic analysis of the NEEP21/calcyon/P19 family of endocytic proteins: evidence for functional evolution in the vertebrate CNS.
J. Mol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Endocytosis and vesicle trafficking are required for optimal neural transmission. Yet, little is currently known about the evolution of neuronal proteins regulating these processes. Here, we report the first phylogenetic study of NEEP21, calcyon, and P19, a family of neuronal proteins implicated in synaptic receptor endocytosis and recycling, as well as in membrane protein trafficking in the somatodendritic and axonal compartments of differentiated neurons. Database searches identified orthologs for P19 and NEEP21 in bony fish, but not urochordate or invertebrate phyla. Calcyon orthologs were only retrieved from mammalian databases and distant relatives from teleost fish. In situ localization of the P19 zebrafish ortholog, and extant progenitor of the gene family, revealed a CNS specific expression pattern. Based on non-synonymous nucleotide substitution rates, the calcyon genes appear to be under less intense negative selective pressure. Indeed, a functional group II WW domain binding motif was detected in primate and human calcyon, but not in non-primate orthologs. Sequencing of the calcyon gene from 80 human subjects revealed a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism that abrogated group II WW domain protein binding. Altogether, our data indicate the NEEP21/calcyon/P19 gene family emerged, and underwent two rounds of gene duplication relatively late in metazoan evolution (but early in vertebrate evolution at the latest). As functional studies suggest NEEP21 and calcyon play related, but distinct roles in regulating vesicle trafficking at synapses, and in neurons in general, we propose the family arose in chordates to support a more diverse range of synaptic and behavioral responses.
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Dietary supplementation of some antioxidants against hypoxia.
World J. Gastroenterol.
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The present study aims to clarify the protective effect of supplementation with some antioxidants, such as idebenone (200 mg/kg, ip), melatonin (10 mg/kg, ip) and arginine (200 mg/kg, ip) and their combination, on liver function (T. protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase), energetic parameters (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, inorganic phosphate, total adenylate, adenylate energy charge and potential phosphate). The effect on glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes (glucose, glycogen, glycogen phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase against hypoxia) was also studied. The drugs were administered 24 and 1 h prior sodium nitrite intoxication. All biochemical parameters were estimated 1 h after sodium nitrite injection. Injection of sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, sc) produced a significant disturbance in all biochemical parameters of liver function, energetic parameters and glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes. Hepatic damage was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver as compared to controls. The marked changes in hepatic cells induced by sodium nitrite were completely abolished by pretreatment with the drug combination, suggesting potential protection against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia. It could be concluded that a combination of both idebenone and melatonin or idebenone and arginine provides potential protection against sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia by improving biochemical parameters and preserving liver histology.
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Genomic comparison of Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolates from 2009 and 2011 reveals plasmid, and prophage heterogeneity, including shiga toxin encoding phage stx2.
PLoS ONE
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In May of 2011, an enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain that had acquired a Shiga toxin 2-converting phage caused a large outbreak of bloody diarrhea in Europe which was notable for its high prevalence of hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. Several studies have described the genomic inventory and phylogenies of strains associated with the outbreak and a collection of historical E. coli O104:H4 isolates using draft genome assemblies. We present the complete, closed genome sequences of an isolate from the 2011 outbreak (2011C-3493) and two isolates from cases of bloody diarrhea that occurred in the Republic of Georgia in 2009 (2009EL-2050 and 2009EL-2071). Comparative genome analysis indicates that, while the Georgian strains are the nearest neighbors to the 2011 outbreak isolates sequenced to date, structural and nucleotide-level differences are evident in the Stx2 phage genomes, the mer/tet antibiotic resistance island, and in the prophage and plasmid profiles of the strains, including a previously undescribed plasmid with homology to the pMT virulence plasmid of Yersinia pestis. In addition, multiphenotype analysis showed that 2009EL-2071 possessed higher resistance to polymyxin and membrane-disrupting agents. Finally, we show evidence by electron microscopy of the presence of a common phage morphotype among the European and Georgian strains and a second phage morphotype among the Georgian strains. The presence of at least two stx2 phage genotypes in host genetic backgrounds that may derive from a recent common ancestor of the 2011 outbreak isolates indicates that the emergence of stx2 phage-containing E. coli O104:H4 strains probably occurred more than once, or that the current outbreak isolates may be the result of a recent transfer of a new stx2 phage element into a pre-existing stx2-positive genetic background.
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Capturing single cell genomes of active polysaccharide degraders: an unexpected contribution of Verrucomicrobia.
PLoS ONE
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Microbial hydrolysis of polysaccharides is critical to ecosystem functioning and is of great interest in diverse biotechnological applications, such as biofuel production and bioremediation. Here we demonstrate the use of a new, efficient approach to recover genomes of active polysaccharide degraders from natural, complex microbial assemblages, using a combination of fluorescently labeled substrates, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and single cell genomics. We employed this approach to analyze freshwater and coastal bacterioplankton for degraders of laminarin and xylan, two of the most abundant storage and structural polysaccharides in nature. Our results suggest that a few phylotypes of Verrucomicrobia make a considerable contribution to polysaccharide degradation, although they constituted only a minor fraction of the total microbial community. Genomic sequencing of five cells, representing the most predominant, polysaccharide-active Verrucomicrobia phylotype, revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding a wide spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, sulfatases, peptidases, carbohydrate lyases and esterases, confirming that these organisms were well equipped for the hydrolysis of diverse polysaccharides. Remarkably, this enrichment was on average higher than in the sequenced representatives of Bacteroidetes, which are frequently regarded as highly efficient biopolymer degraders. These findings shed light on the ecological roles of uncultured Verrucomicrobia and suggest specific taxa as promising bioprospecting targets. The employed method offers a powerful tool to rapidly identify and recover discrete genomes of active players in polysaccharide degradation, without the need for cultivation.
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Evaluation of the immunological effect of beta alanyl-l-histidine against Schistosoma mansoni antigens in rabbits.
J Infect Dev Ctries
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The influence of vaccination on healthy (non-infected) rabbits treated with Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens, cercariae, and worms as prophylactic agents against infection, and the benefit of beta alanyl-l-histidine treatment against Schistosoma mansoni infection were investigated.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.