Abstract Background: Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is beginning to attract attention as a possible target for cocaine abuse treatment because of its role in metabolizing cocaine. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to assess whether endogenous BChE levels are associated with the subjective effects of cocaine. Methods: Data from 28 participants in five inpatient cocaine self-administration studies were included in the present analysis. Four minutes after each smoked cocaine dose, participants rated their drug-related effects from 0-100 using a computerized self-report Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The main outcome measures were nine change-in-VAS ratings between a baseline placebo dose and a 25-mg smoked cocaine dose. Results: After controlling for age, sex, total years of cocaine use, total milligrams of cocaine administered before the 25-mg dose being analyzed, and baseline diastolic blood pressure, endogenous BChE was not significantly associated with any of the nine change-in-VAS ratings. Conclusion: Though BChE appears to be a possible target for cocaine abuse treatment, these data suggest that endogenous levels of BChE may not play a role in modifying the subjective effects of cocaine. Future larger studies of BChE in respect to the subjective effects produced by cocaine are needed to confirm or refute these findings.
Prophylactic HPV vaccines hold tremendous potential for reducing cervical and non-cervical HPV-related disease burden worldwide. To maximize on this potential, policy officials will need to carefully consider available evidence, existing uncertainties and the cost-effectiveness of mass HPV vaccination programs in the context of their respective nations and/or regions. Proper harmonization of primary prevention strategies with secondary prevention efforts will also be important. Decisions following such considerations may ultimately depend on programmatic objectives, infrastructure and available resources. Continued research and surveillance surrounding HPV vaccination will be essential for filling current knowledge gaps, and forcing ongoing reconsiderations of selected immunization strategies.
Home exercise can prevent falls in the general older community but its impact in people recently discharged from hospital is not known. The study aimed to investigate the effects of a home-based exercise program on falls and mobility among people recently discharged from hospital.
Sublingual formulations of buprenorphine (BUP) and BUP/naloxone have well-established pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and are safe and effective for treating opioid use disorder. Since approvals of these formulations, their clinical use has increased. Yet, questions have arisen as to how BUP binding to mu-opioid receptors (?ORs), the neurobiological target for this medication, relate to its clinical application. BUP produces dose- and time-related alterations of ?OR availability but some clinicians express concern about whether doses higher than those needed to prevent opioid withdrawal symptoms are warranted, and policymakers consider limiting reimbursement for certain BUP dosing regimens.
The rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment (CI) is twice that of a cognitively intact population, with almost two thirds of people with CI falling annually. Studies indicate that exercise involving balance and/or a home hazard reduction program are effective in preventing falls in cognitively intact older people. However the potential benefit of these interventions in reducing falls in people with CI has not been established.This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program can reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with CI. We will determine whether the intervention has beneficial effects on a range of physical and psychological outcome measures as well as quality of life of participants and their carers. A health economic analysis examining the cost and potential benefits of the program will also be undertaken.
The protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) gene, encoding a Th17-cell-selective kinase, was repeatedly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unknown. We replicated the association in Italians (409 cases, 723 controls), identifying a protective signal in the PRKCA promoter (P = 0.033), and a risk haplotype in intron 3 (P = 7.7 × 10(-4); meta-analysis with previously published data: P = 4.01 × 10(-8)). Expression experiments demonstrated that the protective signal is associated with alleles conferring higher PRKCA expression levels, well fitting our observation that MS patients have significantly lower PRKCA mRNA levels in blood. The risk haplotype was shown to be driven by a GGTG ins/del polymorphism influencing the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H-dependent inclusion/skipping of a PRKCA alternative exon 3*. Indeed, exon 3* can be present in two different versions in PRKCA mRNAs (out-of-frame 61 bp or in-frame 66 bp long), and is preferentially included in transcripts generated through a premature polyadenylation event. The GGTG insertion downregulates 3* inclusion and shifts splicing towards the 66 bp isoform. Both events reduce the nonsense-mediated mRNA-decay-induced degradation of exon 3*-containing mRNAs. Since we demonstrated that the protein isoform produced through premature polyadenylation aberrantly localizes to the plasma membrane and/or in cytoplasmic clusters, dysregulated PRKCA 3* inclusion may represent an additional mechanism relevant to MS susceptibility.
In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n?=?12) lived in the hospital for 8-9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24?mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16?mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4?mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100?mg, naloxone 4?mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8?mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse.
Electronic health records (EHRs) present an opportunity to access large stores of data for research, but mapping raw EHR data to clinical phenotypes is complex. We propose adding patient-reported data to the EHR to improve phenotyping performance and describe a retrospective cohort study demonstrating a test case in depressive disorder.
Multiple reports indicate that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are associated with lepidic-pattern lung adenocarcinoma and that KRAS mutations are associated with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. We sought to investigate the association between EGFR and KRAS mutations and specific morphologic characteristics, such as predominant histologic subtype and mucinous features. Clinical data for 864 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma that underwent molecular testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations were collected. Histologic subtyping was performed according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification, with attention given to signet-ring cell feature and extracellular mucin. EGFR mutations were detected using a polymerase chain reaction-based sizing assay, KRAS mutations were detected using Sanger sequencing, and ALK expression was detected using immunohistochemistry. Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma was associated with KRAS mutation (P<0.001). Among invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas with KRAS mutation, a pure mucinous pattern was more common than a mixed mucinous/nonmucinous pattern (P=0.002). Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma was associated with KRAS transition mutations (G?A) but not transversion mutations (G?T or G?C) compared with nonmucinous tumors (P=0.009). The lepidic-predominant group was associated with EGFR mutation compared with nonlepidic-predominant tumors (P=0.011). Extracellular mucin was associated with KRAS mutation (P<0.001), whereas signet-ring cell feature was not associated with EGFR or KRAS mutation (P=0.517). ALK expression was associated with signet-ring cell feature (P=0.001) but not with extracellular mucin (P=0.089). Our study shows that histologic patterns of mucin in lung adenocarcinoma-including invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma and extracellular mucin-are associated with KRAS mutation.
This study investigated pregnant opioid-dependent women undergoing maintenance therapy, applying a multidisciplinary, case-management approach at the Addiction Clinic of the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. It aimed at characterizing the patients' basic demographic and clinical parameters and evaluating their overall quality of life (QoL) prepartum and postpartum. Three hundred ninety women were treated between 1994 and 2009 with buprenorphine (n = 77), methadone (n = 184), or slow-release oral morphine (SROM) (n = 129) on an outpatient basis throughout their pregnancy and postpartum period. All patients were subject to standardized prepartum and postpartum medical and psychiatric assessments, including QoL assessments using a German adaptation of the Lancashire QoL Profile (Berliner Lebensqualitaetsprofil), and regular supervised urine toxicologies. No medication group differences were revealed regarding basic demographic or clinical data. Mean maintenance doses (SD) at time of delivery were as follows: 64 mg (36 mg) methadone, 10 mg (6 mg) buprenorphine, 455 mg (207 mg) SROM. However, buprenorphine-medicated women showed significantly less concomitant benzodiazepine consumption than methadone- or SROM-maintained women (p = 0.005), and significantly less concomitant opioid consumption than methadone-maintained women (p = 0.033) during the last trimester. Overall QoL was good prepartum and postpartum in all measured domains except "finances" and "prospect of staying in the same housing situation," and no differences were observed in QoL among the three medication groups (p = 0.177). QoL improved significantly after delivery in most of the domains (p < 0.001). Although opioid-dependent pregnant women face high-risk pregnancies and show variability in addiction severity, they report good QoL independent of the medication administered. These results show that individually tailored treatment interventions are effective for this patient population and suggest a QoL improvement after delivery.
Month of birth has been associated in some studies with the susceptibility to develop Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, only few studies have evaluated whether birth timing also affects disease progression.
Abuse of buprenorphine (BUP) by the intravenous (IV) route has been documented in several studies, and reports of intranasal (IN) abuse are increasing. However, no studies have directly compared the effects of BUP when it is administered intranasally and intravenously. The present secondary analysis used data from two separate studies to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of IV and IN buprenorphine. One study evaluated IV buprenorphine (N=13) and the other evaluated IN buprenorphine (N=12). Participants were maintained on 2 mg sublingual (SL) BUP and tested with each intranasal or intravenous buprenorphine test dose (0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg, and 16 mg). During morning laboratory sessions, participants received money (US $20) and sample doses of IN or IV BUP, and then completed subjective effects questionnaires. Later that day, they completed a self-administration task to receive 10% portions of the drug and/or money they previously sampled. In general, positive subjective ratings for both IV and IN BUP were significantly greater than placebo, with IV BUP having a greater effect than IN BUP. All active BUP doses (IV and IN) maintained significantly higher progressive ratio breakpoint values than placebo, but breakpoint values for IV BUP were greater than for IN BUP. Buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, valued for its ability to reduce the positive subjective effects of other opioids. Nevertheless, the present data demonstrate that in participants maintained on a low dose of SL BUP, the medication itself has abuse liability when used intravenously or intranasally.
Patients with early-stage lung cancer have a high risk of recurrence despite multimodality therapy. KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas are the largest genetically defined subgroup, representing 25% of patients. GI-4000 is a heat-killed recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-derived vaccine expressing mutant KRAS proteins. The present phase II study assessed the feasibility, immunogenicity, and safety of the GI-4000 vaccine in patients with early-stage, KRAS-mutant lung cancer.
Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multifactorial disease of environmental and genetic origin. In a previous large multicenter genome wide study, common genetic variation in the Kinesin-Associated Protein 3 (KIFAP3) gene (rs1541160) was reported to have a significant effect on survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. However, this could not be replicated in 3 smaller independent cohorts. We conducted a large multicenter multivariate survival analysis (n = 2362) on the effect of genetic variation in rs1541160. The previously reported beneficial genotype did not show a significant improvement in survival in this patient group.
Inconsistent effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dyslipidaemia in genome-wide association studies, in 310 participants randomised to treatment with placebo or 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) (1.51:1) in a 12-month parallel controlled trial. Effects of risk alleles were assessed as trait-specific genetic predisposition scores (GPS) and singly. GPS were positively associated with baseline concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) and negatively with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The TG-GPS was associated with 0.210 mmol/L higher TG per risk allele (P < 0.0001), but no effects of single TG SNPs were significant at baseline. After treatment with EPA and DHA, TG-GPS was associated with 0.023 mmol/L lower TG per risk allele (P = 0.72). No interactions between GPS and treatment were significant; however, FADS1 SNP rs174546 C/T interaction with treatment was a significant determinant of plasma TG concentration (P = 0.047, n = 267). Concentration differed between genotype groups after the 1.8 g/day dose (P = 0.026), decreasing by 3.5 (95 % CI -15.1 to 8.2) % in non-carriers of the risk T-allele (n = 30) and by 21.6 (95 % CI -32.1 to -11.2) % in carriers (n = 37), who showed a highly significant difference between treatments (P = 0.007). Carriers of the FADS1 rs174546 risk allele could benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in normalising plasma TG.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease triggered by environmental and genetic agents, and clinically characterized by bout onset (BOMS) or progressive onset (PrMS). We collected clinical and familial aggregation data in a cohort of 518 Italian PrMS patients, and compared with 400 BOMS cases. An increased prevalence of MS in first-degree relatives of Italian PrMS was found. Familial aggregation is not influenced by probands' clinical course, and there is no disease course concordance within MS families. These data are useful in counseling MS patients affected with different clinical courses of the disease.
Blood pressure is a heritable determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with blood pressure, including rs1378942 in the c-Src tyrosine kinase (CSK) gene. Fish oil supplementation provides inconsistent protection from CVD, which may reflect genetic variation. We investigated the effect of rs1378942 genotype interaction with fish oil dosage on blood pressure measurements in the MARINA (Modulation of Atherosclerosis Risk by Increasing doses of N-3 fatty Acids) study, a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial in 367 participants randomly assigned to receive treatment with 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA (20:5n-3)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA (22:6n-3)] (1.51:1) or an olive oil placebo for 12 mo. A total of 310 participants were genotyped. There were no significant associations with blood pressure measures at baseline; however, the interaction between genotype and treatment was a significant determinant of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P = 0.010), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (P = 0.037), and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) (P = 0.014). After the 1.8 g/d dose, noncarriers of the rs1378942 variant allele showed significantly lower SBP (P = 0.010), DBP (P = 0.016), and MABP (P = 0.032) at follow-up, adjusted for baseline values, than did carriers. We found no evidence of SNP genotype association with endothelial function (brachial artery diameter and flow-mediated dilatation), arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and digital volume pulse), and resting heart rate. A high intake of EPA and DHA could help protect noncarriers but not carriers of the risk allele. Dietary recommendations to reduce blood pressure in the general population may not necessarily benefit those most at risk. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN66664610.
Methanol extracts and alkaloid fractions of different parts of four plant species belonging to Solanaceae family and used in Mexican traditional medicine were investigated for their total phenolic contents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Currently, no available pathological or molecular measures of tumor angiogenesis predict response to antiangiogenic therapies used in clinical practice. Recognizing that tumor endothelial cells (EC) and EC activation and survival signaling are the direct targets of these therapies, we sought to develop an automated platform for quantifying activity of critical signaling pathways and other biological events in EC of patient tumors by histopathology. Computer image analysis of EC in highly heterogeneous human tumors by a statistical classifier trained using examples selected by human experts performed poorly due to subjectivity and selection bias. We hypothesized that the analysis can be optimized by a more active process to aid experts in identifying informative training examples. To test this hypothesis, we incorporated a novel active learning (AL) algorithm into FARSIGHT image analysis software that aids the expert by seeking out informative examples for the operator to label. The resulting FARSIGHT-AL system identified EC with specificity and sensitivity consistently greater than 0.9 and outperformed traditional supervised classification algorithms. The system modeled individual operator preferences and generated reproducible results. Using the results of EC classification, we also quantified proliferation (Ki67) and activity in important signal transduction pathways (MAP kinase, STAT3) in immunostained human clear cell renal cell carcinoma and other tumors. FARSIGHT-AL enables characterization of EC in conventionally preserved human tumors in a more automated process suitable for testing and validating in clinical trials. The results of our study support a unique opportunity for quantifying angiogenesis in a manner that can now be tested for its ability to identify novel predictive and response biomarkers.
Drug inhalation via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a convenient, time efficient alternative to nebulizers in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) or non-CF bronchiectasis. Efficient drug administration via DPIs depends on the device resistance and adequate (?45L/min) inspiratory flows and volumes generated by individuals. Drypowder mannitol is delivered using a RS01 breath-actuated device developed by Plastiape, for Pharmaxis. The study aim was to determine in vivo if non-CF bronchiectasis patients' inspiratory flows and volumes are adequate to use the RS01 DPI device.
Drug inhalation via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI) is a convenient, time efficient alternative to nebulizers in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). Efficient drug administration via DPIs depends on the device resistance and adequate (? 45L/min) inspiratory flows and volumes generated by individuals. Dry-powder mannitol is delivered using a RS01 breath-actuated device developed by Plastiape, for Pharmaxis. The study aim was to determine in vivo if CF patients' inspiratory flows and volumes are adequate to use the RS01 DPI device.
Ghrelin is a peptide mainly produced by the stomach and released into circulation, affecting energy balance and growth hormone release. These effects are guided largely by the expression of the ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue type 1a (GHS-R1a) in the hypothalamus and pituitary. However, GHS-R1a is expressed in other brain regions, including the hippocampus, where its activation enhances memory retention. Herein we explore the molecular mechanism underlying the action of ghrelin on hippocampal-dependent memory. Our data show that GHS-R1a is localized in the vicinity of hippocampal excitatory synapses, and that its activation increases delivery of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic-type receptors (AMPARs) to synapses, producing functional modifications at excitatory synapses. Moreover, GHS-R1a activation enhances two different paradigms of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and increases GluA1 AMPAR subunit and stargazin phosphorylation. We propose that GHS-R1a activation in the hippocampus enhances excitatory synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity by regulating AMPAR trafficking. Our study provides insights into mechanisms that may mediate the cognition-enhancing effect of ghrelin, and suggests a possible link between the regulation of energy metabolism and learning.
Cervical cancer screening incorporating high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection has become the preferred screening strategy in some countries and is increasingly more widespread in other countries with organized or opportunistic screening programs. Given knowledge that high-risk HPV genotypes differ in their oncogenic potential, commercial HPV assays with genotyping capabilities have been developed and have garnered attention in the recent literature. The cobas(®) 4800 HPV Test is a qualitative multiplex assay that provides specific genotyping information for HPV types 16 and 18, while concurrently detecting 12 other high-risk HPV genotypes as a pooled result. It is currently the only clinically validated, US FDA-approved assay with this capability. Since HPV types 16 and 18 have been designated as conferring the greatest risk for cervical disease, their detection may prove useful in guiding patient management.
Identification of mutations at familial loci for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has provided novel insights into the aetiology of this rapidly progressing fatal neurodegenerative disease. However, genome wide association studies (GWAS) of the more common (?90%) sporadic form have been less successful with the exception of the replicated locus at 9p21.2. To identify new loci associated with disease susceptibility we have established the largest association study in ALS to date and undertaken a GWAS meta-analytical study combining 3,959 newly genotyped Italian individuals (1,982 cases, 1,977 controls) collected by SLAGEN (Italian Consortium for the Genetics of ALS) together with samples from Netherlands, USA, UK, Sweden, Belgium, France, Ireland and Italy collected by ALSGEN (the International Consortium on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetics). We analyzed a total of 13,225 individuals, 6,100 cases and 7,125 controls for almost 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified a novel locus with genome-wide significance at 17q11.2 (rs34517613 P=1.11 x 10(-8); OR 0.82) that was validated when combined with genotype data from a replication cohort (P=8.62 x 10(-9); OR 0.833) of 4,656 individuals. Furthermore, we confirmed the previously reported association at 9p21.2 (rs3849943 with P=7.69 x 10(-9); OR 1.16). Finally, we have estimated the contribution of common variation to heritability of sporadic ALS as ?12% using a linear mixed model accounting for all SNPs. Our results provide an insight into the genetic structure of sporadic ALS, confirming that common variation contributes to risk and that sufficiently powered studies can identify novel susceptibility loci.
Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity.
Changes in screening guidelines that imply suppression of procedures once recommended are always controversial because of the perception that benefits are being curtailed. Prior to 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines issued by US-based expert bodies differed in several decision areas, making clinicians essentially cherry-pick among recommendations. To some extent, this approach to screening practices also served to shield clinicians from litigation. It implied starting screening earlier, doing it more frequently, and stopping later in life than necessary. This state of affairs changed in 2012, when the most influential professional groups updated their cervical screening guidelines, and recommendations became essentially unified. All groups recommended that women older than 65 years of age discontinue cervical cancer screening on the basis of evidence that screening benefits in this age group were minor and far outweighed by harms. The guidelines are very specific about the exceptions, which ensure acceptable safety. It is expected that the new guidelines will permit less wasteful cervical screening, while fostering the opportunity to direct resources towards ensuring adequate coverage of high-risk women.
The concurrent use of opioids, benzodiazepines (BZDs), and/or alcohol poses a formidable challenge for clinicians who manage chronic pain. While the escalating use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic pain and the concomitant rise in opioid-related abuse and misuse are widely recognized trends, the contribution of combination use of BZDs, alcohol, and/or other sedative agents to opioid-related morbidity and mortality is underappreciated, even when these agents are used appropriately. Patients with chronic pain who use opioid analgesics along with BZDs and/or alcohol are at higher risk for fatal/nonfatal overdose and have more aberrant behaviors. Few practice guidelines for BZD treatment are readily available, especially when they are combined clinically with opioid analgesics and other central nervous system-depressant agents. However, coadministration of these agents produces a defined increase in rates of adverse events, overdose, and death, warranting close monitoring and consideration when treating patients with pain. To improve patient outcomes, ongoing screening for aberrant behavior, monitoring of treatment compliance, documentation of medical necessity, and the adjustment of treatment to clinical changes are essential. In this article, we review the prevalence and pharmacologic consequences of BZDs and/or alcohol use among patients with pain on chronic opioid therapy, as well as the importance of urine drug testing, an indispensable tool for therapeutic drug monitoring, which helps to ensure the continued safety of patients. Regardless of risk or known aberrant drug-related behaviors, patients on chronic opioid therapy should periodically undergo urine drug testing to confirm adherence to the treatment plan.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of oral morphine (0, 45, 135 mg/70 kg) and oral oxycodone (0, 15, 45 mg/70 kg) on buprenorphine-maintained opioid addicts. As a 3: 1 morphine : oxycodone oral dose ratio yielded equivalent subjective and physiological effects in nondependent individuals, this ratio was used in the present study. Two self-administration laboratory procedures - that is, a drug versus money and a drug versus drug procedure - were assessed. Study participants (N=12) lived in the hospital and were maintained on 4 mg/day sublingual buprenorphine. When participants chose between drug and money, money was preferred over all drug doses; only high-dose oxycodone was self-administered more than placebo. When participants chose between drug and drug, both drugs were chosen more than placebo, high doses of each drug were chosen over low doses, and high-dose oxycodone was preferred over high-dose morphine. The subjective, performance-impairing, and miotic effects of high-dose oxycodone were generally greater than those of high-dose morphine. The study demonstrated that a 3: 1 oral dose ratio of morphine : oxycodone was not equipotent in buprenorphine-dependent individuals. Both self-administration procedures were effective for assessing the relative reinforcing effects of drugs; preference for one procedure should be driven by the specific research question of interest.
Drug self-administration procedures in laboratory settings allow us to closely model drug-taking behavior in real-world settings. This review provides an overview of many of the common self-administration methods used in human laboratory research. Typically, self-administration studies provide a quantifiable measure of the reinforcing effect of a drug, which is believed to be predictive of its potential for abuse. Several adaptations of the self-administration paradigm exist, the simplest of which allows participants free access to the drug under investigation. Free-access procedures allow investigators to observe patterns of drug self-administration and drug effects in a controlled setting. Allowing participants to choose between two simultaneously available reinforcers (choice procedures) is another well-established method of assessing the reinforcing effects of a drug. Offering a choice between two reinforcers (e.g. two different doses of the same drug, two different drugs, or drug and nondrug reinforcers) provides researchers with a point of comparison (e.g. between a drug of known abuse potential and a novel drug). When combined with other endpoints, such as subjective effects ratings, physiological responses, and cognitive performance, human self-administration paradigms have contributed significantly to our understanding of the factors that contribute to, maintain, and alter drug-taking behavior including: craving, positive subjective effects, toxicity, drug interactions and abstinence. This area of research has also begun to incorporate other techniques such as imaging and genetics to further understand the multifaceted nature of substance abuse. The present paper summarizes the different self-administration techniques that are commonly used today and the application of other procedures that may complement interpretation of the drug self-administration findings.
Inhalation of antibiotics and mucolytics is the most important combination of inhaled drugs for chronic obstructive lung diseases and has become a standard part of treatment. However, it is yet to be determined whether the administration of a mucolytic has an effect on the transport rate of antibiotics across the airway epithelial cells. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation dry powder, specifically mannitol, on ciprofloxacin transport using a Calu-3 air-interface cell model. Transport studies of ciprofloxacin HCl were performed using different configurations including single spray-dried ciprofloxacin alone, co-spray-dried ciprofloxacin with mannitol, and deposition of mannitol prior to ciprofloxacin deposition. To understand the mechanism of transport and interactions between the drugs, pH measurements of apical surface liquid (ASL) and further transport studies were performed with ciprofloxacin base, with and without the presence of ion channel/transport inhibitors such as disodium cromoglycate and furosemide. Mannitol was found to delay absorption of ciprofloxacin HCl through the increase in ASL volume and subsequent reduction in pH. Conversely, ciprofloxacin base had a higher transport rate after mannitol deposition. This study clearly demonstrates that the deposition of mannitol prior to ciprofloxacin on the air-interface Calu-3 cell model has an effect on its transport rate. This was also dependent on the salt form of the drug and the timing and sequence of formulations administered.
Airway epithelial injury is regarded as a key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes. The concentration of the pneumoprotein club cell (Clara cell) CC16 in urine has been found to be a non-invasive marker for hyperpnoea-induced airway epithelial perturbation. Exercise-hyperpnoea induces mechanical, thermal and osmotic stress to the airways. We investigated whether osmotic stress alone causes airway epithelial perturbation in athletes with suspected EIB. Twenty-four recreational summer sports athletes who reported respiratory symptoms on exertion performed a standard eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test with dry air and a mannitol test (osmotic challenge) on separate days. Median urinary CC16 increased from 120 to 310 ?g ?mol creatinine(-1) after dry air hyperpnoea (P = 0.002) and from 90 to 191 ?g ?mol creatinine(-1) after mannitol (P = 0.021). There was no difference in urinary CC16 concentration between athletes who did or did not bronchoconstrict after dry air hyperpnoea or mannitol. We conclude that, in recreational summer sports athletes with respiratory symptoms, osmotic stress per se to the airway epithelium induces a rise in urinary excretion of CC16. This suggests that hyperosmolarity of the airway surface lining perturbs the airway epithelium in symptomatic athletes.
Little is known about how adolescents peer relations might alter whether sport participation is associated with alcohol use. Consistent with social learning theory, we found that sport participation was protective against alcohol use if these peers had low alcohol use, but athletes were likely to use alcohol if their sport friends and teammates had high alcohol use. Interestingly, those with no or low sport participation seemed to emulate the alcohol use of their non-sport friends, whereas adolescents in a high number of sports had elevated alcohol use regardless of their non-sport friends alcohol use.
The goal of this volume is to show how organized activities provide an ideal setting for developing a deeper understanding of peer relations, as well as offering a context for a more positive study of peers. The chapters in this volume focus on youth 10 to 18 years of age. In this introductory chapter we first describe the reasons why organized activities, like sports, arts, and school clubs, are ideal settings to examine peer processes. Next, we describe the theoretical and empirical research related to two questions: (1) how do peers influence organized activity participation and (2) how does organized activity participation influence peer relations. We organize this review around three themes outlined in the broader peer relations literature: (1) peer groups, (2) peer relationships, and (3) peer interactions.
Fish oil supplementation provides an inconsistent degree of protection from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may be attributed to genetic variation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the elongation-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-2 (ELOVL2) gene have been strongly associated with plasma proportions of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). We investigated the effect of genotype interaction with fish oil dosage on plasma n-3 LC-PUFA proportions in a parallel double-blind controlled trial, involving 367 subjects randomised to treatment with 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1.51:1) or olive oil placebo for 6 months. We genotyped 310 subjects for ELOVL2 gene SNPs rs3734398, rs2236212 and rs953413. At baseline, carriers of all minor alleles had lower proportions of plasma DHA than non-carriers (P = 0.021-0.030). Interaction between genotype and treatment was a significant determinant of plasma EPA (P < 0.0001) and DHA (P = 0.004-0.032). After the 1.8 g/day dose, carriers of ELOVL2 SNP minor alleles had approximately 30 % higher proportions of EPA (P = 0.002-0.004) and 9 % higher DHA (P = 0.013-0.017) than non-carriers. Minor allele carriers could therefore particularly benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in maintaining high levels of plasma n-3 PUFA conducive to protection from CVD.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are two archetypal systemic autoimmune diseases which have been shown to share multiple genetic susceptibility loci. In order to gain insight into the genetic basis of these diseases, we performed a pan-meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) together with a replication stage including additional SSc and SLE cohorts. This increased the sample size to a total of 21,109 (6835 cases and 14,274 controls). We selected for replication 19 SNPs from the GWAS data. We were able to validate KIAA0319L (P = 3.31 × 10(-11), OR = 1.49) as novel susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE. Furthermore, we also determined that the previously described SLE susceptibility loci PXK (P = 3.27 × 10(-11), OR = 1.20) and JAZF1 (P = 1.11 × 10(-8), OR = 1.13) are shared with SSc. Supporting these new discoveries, we observed that KIAA0319L was overexpressed in peripheral blood cells of SSc and SLE patients compared with healthy controls. With these, we add three (KIAA0319L, PXK and JAZF1) and one (KIAA0319L) new susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE, respectively, increasing significantly the knowledge of the genetic basis of autoimmunity.
The outcome of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab is not defined. To assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in this melanoma subset, we performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma treated with ipilimumab. The clinical characteristics, treatments, toxicities, radiographic assessment of disease burden by central radiology review at each site, and mutational profiles of the patients tumors were recorded. Available peripheral blood samples were used to assess humoral immunity against a panel of cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. By the immune-related response criteria of the 30 patients who underwent radiographic assessment after ipilimumab at approximately week 12, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 6 immune-related stable disease, and 22 immune-related progressive disease. By the modified World Health Organization criteria, there were 1 immune-related complete response, 1 immune-related partial response, 5 immune-related stable disease, and 23 immune-related progressive disease. Immune-related adverse events (as graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0) consisted of six patients with rash (four grade 1, two grade 2), three patients with diarrhea (one grade 1, two grade 3), one patient with grade 1 thyroiditis, one patient with grade 3 hepatitis, and 1 patient with grade 2 hypophysitis. The median overall survival from the time of the first dose of ipilimumab was 6.4 months (range: 1.8-26.7 months). Several patients demonstrated serologic responses to cancer-testis antigens and other antigens. Durable responses to ipilimumab were observed, but the overall response rate was low. Additional investigation is necessary to clarify the role of ipilimumab in patients with mucosal melanoma.
FDA approval of long-acting injectable naltrexone (Vivitrol) for opioid dependence highlights the relevance of understanding mechanisms of antagonist treatment. Principles of learning suggest an antagonist works through extinguishing drug-seeking behavior, as episodes of drug use ("testing the blockade") fail to produce reinforcement. We hypothesized that opiate use would moderate the effect of naltrexone, specifically, that opiate-positive urines precede dropout in the placebo group, but not in the active-medication groups.
Mutations in the prion-like domain (PrLD) of hnRNPA1 and A2/B1 genes were recently identified in 2 families with inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and in ALS patients. These mutations were shown to increase the propensity of hnRNPA1 and A2/B1 proteins, which are TDP-43-binding partners, to self-aggregate. hnRNPA3 protein contains a similar PrLD and was recently described in the p62-positive/TDP-43-negative inclusions in affected tissues of C9orf72-mutated ALS/FTD patients. We screened hnRNPA1, A2/B1, and A3 genes in a cohort of 113 familial ALS (FALS) individuals without mutations in other known ALS-causative genes. We extended our analysis to 108 FALS with mutations in other ALS-associated genes and to 622 sporadic cases by screening specifically the PrLDs of hnRNPA1, A2/B1, and A3. We failed to find variants in each cohort. Our results suggest that mutations in hnRNPA1, A2/B1, and A3 genes are a rare finding in ALS.
Marine n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) activate the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?), which modulates the expression of adiponectin. We investigated the interaction of dietary n3 PUFAs with adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes as a determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. The Modulation of Atherosclerosis Risk by Increasing Doses of n3 Fatty Acids study is a parallel design, double-blind, controlled trial. Serum adiponectin was measured in 142 healthy men and 225 women aged 45-70 y randomized to treatment with doses of 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 g/d 20:5n3 and 22:6n3 (1.51:1), or placebo for 12 mo. The 310 participants who completed the study were genotyped for 5 SNPs at the ADIPOQ locus: -11391 G/A (rs17300539), -11377 C/G (rs266729), -10066 G/A (rs182052), +45 T/G (rs2241766), and +276 G/T (rs1501299). The -11391 A-allele was associated with a higher serum adiponectin concentration at baseline (n = 290; P < 0.001). The interaction between treatment and age as a determinant of adiponectin was significant in participants aged >58 y after the highest dose (n = 92; P = 0.020). The interaction between +45 T/G and treatment and age was a nominally significant determinant of serum adiponectin after adjustment for BMI, gender, and ethnicity (P = 0.029). Individuals homozygous for the +45 T-allele aged >58 y had a 22% increase in serum adiponectin concentration compared with baseline after the highest dose (P-treatment effect = 0.008). If substantiated in a larger sample, a diet high in n3 PUFAs may be recommended for older individuals, especially those of the +45 TT genotype who have reported increased risk of hypoadiponectinemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes acute airway narrowing that occurs as a result of exercise. EIB occurs in a substantial proportion of patients with asthma, but may also occur in individuals without known asthma.
BACKGROUND: In an effort to increase effective intervention following opioid overdose, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) has implemented programs where bystanders are given brief education in recognizing the signs of opioid overdose and how to provide intervention, including the use of naloxone. The current study sought to assess the ability of NYSDOH training to increase accurate identification of opioid and non-opioid overdose, and naloxone use among heroin users. METHODS: Eighty-four participants completed a test on overdose knowledge comprised of 16 putative overdose scenarios. Forty-four individuals completed the questionnaire immediately prior to and following standard overdose prevention training. A control group (n=40), who opted out of training, completed the questionnaire just once. RESULTS: Overdose training significantly increased participants ability to accurately identify opioid overdose (p<0.05), and scenarios where naloxone administration was indicated (p<0.05). Training did not alter recognition of non-opioid overdose or non-overdose situations where naloxone should not be administered. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that overdose prevention training improves participants knowledge of opioid overdose and naloxone use, but naloxone may be administered in some situations where it is not warranted. Training curriculum could be improved by teaching individuals to recognize symptoms of non-opioid drug over-intoxication.
TREX1 (DNase III) is an exonuclease involved in response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Heterozygous mutations in TREX1 were previously observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögrens syndrome (SS). We performed a mutational analysis of the TREX1 gene on three autoimmune diseases: SLE (210 patients) and SS (58 patients), to confirm a TREX1 involvement in the Italian population, and systemic sclerosis (SSc, 150 patients) because it shares similarities with SLE (presence of antinuclear antibodies and connective tissue damage). We observed 7 variations; two of these are novel nonsynonymous variants (p.Glu198Lys and p.Met232Val). They were detected in one SS and in one SSc patient, respectively, and in none of the 200 healthy controls typed in this study and of the 1712 published controls. In silico analysis predicts a possibly damaging role on protein function for both variants. The other 5 variations are synonymous and only one of them is novel (p.Pro48Pro). This study contributes to the demonstration that TREX1 is involved in autoimmune diseases and proposes that the spectrum of involved autoimmune diseases can be broader and includes SSc. We do not confirm a role of TREX1 variants in SLE.
Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), 3 of which we found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants at 103 discrete loci outside of the major histocompatibility complex. With high-resolution Bayesian fine mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalog of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals.
Few studies have examined abuse of prescription opioids among individuals with chronic pain under buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) maintenance. The current 7-week inpatient study assessed oral oxycodone self-administration by patients with chronic pain who had a history of opioid abuse. Participants (n=25) were transitioned from their preadmission prescribed opioid to Bup/Nx. All of the participants were tested under each of the sublingual Bup/Nx maintenance doses (2/0.5, 8/2 or 16/4 mg) in random order. During each maintenance period, participants could self-administer oxycodone orally (0, 10, 20, 40 or 60 mg prescription opioids) or receive money during laboratory sessions. Drug choice (percentage) was the primary dependent variable. Subjective ratings of clinical pain and withdrawal symptoms also were measured. Mann-Whitney tests compared percentage of drug choice for each active oxycodone dose to placebo. Logistic regression analyses identified correlates of oxycodone preference, defined as 60% or greater choice of oxycodone compared to money. Pain was significantly reduced while participants were maintained on Bup/Nx compared to preadmission ratings. No differences in percentage drug choice were observed between the active oxycodone doses and placebo under each Bup/Nx maintenance dose. However, factors associated with oxycodone preference were lower Bup/Nx maintenance dose, more withdrawal symptoms and more pain. These data suggest that Bup/Nx was effective in reducing pain and supplemental oxycodone use. Importantly, adequate management of pain and withdrawal symptoms by Bup/Nx may reduce oxycodone preference in this population.
CDK4 is amplified in > 90% of well-differentiated (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLS). The selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)/CDK6 inhibitor PD0332991 inhibits growth and induces senescence in cell lines and xenografts. In a phase I trial of PD0332991, several patients with WDLS or DDLS experienced prolonged stable disease. We performed an open-label phase II study to determine the safety and efficacy of PD0332991 in patients with advanced WDLS/DDLS.
Respiratory symptoms and asthma control questionnaires are poor predictors of the presence or severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and objective measurement is recommended. To optimize the chance of a positive test result, there are several factors to consider when exercising patients for EIB, including the ventilation achieved and sustained during exercise, water content of the inspired air, and the natural variability of the response. The high rate of negative exercise test results has led to the development of surrogates to identify EIB in laboratory or office settings, including eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea of dry air and inhalation of hyperosmolar aerosols.
This article presents the various potential mechanisms responsible for the development of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Although the etiology of EIB is multifactorial, and the physiologic processes involved may vary between individuals (especially between those with and without asthma), drying of the small airways with an associated inflammatory response seems prerequisite for EIB. Dysregulated repair processes following exercise-induced airway epithelial injury may also serve as basis for EIB development/progression.
Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20?mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4?°C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20?mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20?mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20?mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20?mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.
This article discusses the available literature on refractoriness in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, namely, a decrease in airway responsiveness with repeated exercise challenges. The mechanisms of this naturally occurring protective feature is unknown. Reviewing previous studies together with findings in more recent studies, the authors propose desensitization of the G protein-coupled cysteinyl leukotriene receptor1 as the mechanism of refractoriness and that this desensitization occurs as a result of interplay between leukotrienes and prostaglandins.
Association studies have implicated common variants in the 12q14.1 region containing CYP27B1 in multiple sclerosis (MS). Rare CYP27B1 mutations cause autosomal recessive vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1, and it has recently been reported that heterozygous CYP27B1 mutations are associated with increased MS susceptibility and lower active vitamin D levels. By sequencing CYP27B1 in 134 multiplex families and genotyping the most common variant R389H in 2,608 MS patients and 1,987 controls from Italy and Belgium (a total of 4,729 individuals), we were unable to replicate these observations. These results provide evidence against a major role for CYP27B1 mutations in MS.
As the nontherapeutic use of prescription medications escalates, serious associated consequences have also increased. This makes it essential to estimate misuse, abuse, and related events (MAREs) in the development and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring of prescription drugs accurately. However, classifications and definitions to describe prescription drug MAREs differ depending on the purpose of the classification system, may apply to single events or ongoing patterns of inappropriate use, and are not standardized or systematically employed, thereby complicating the ability to assess MARE occurrence adequately. In a systematic review of existing prescription drug MARE terminology and definitions from consensus efforts, review articles, and major institutions and agencies, MARE terms were often defined inconsistently or idiosyncratically, or had definitions that overlapped with other MARE terms. The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trials, Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership convened an expert panel to develop mutually exclusive and exhaustive consensus classifications and definitions of MAREs occurring in clinical trials of analgesic medications to increase accuracy and consistency in characterizing their occurrence and prevalence in clinical trials. The proposed ACTTION classifications and definitions are designed as a first step in a system to adjudicate MAREs that occur in analgesic clinical trials and postmarketing adverse event surveillance and monitoring, which can be used in conjunction with other methods of assessing a treatments abuse potential.
Assessing and mitigating the abuse liability (AL) of analgesics is an urgent clinical and societal problem. Analgesics have traditionally been assessed in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy relative to placebo or an active comparator. In these trials, rigorous, prospectively designed assessment for AL is generally not performed. The Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) convened a consensus meeting to review the available evidence and discuss methods for improving the assessment of the AL of analgesics in clinical trials in patients with pain. Recommendations for improved assessment include: (1) performing trials that include individuals with diverse risks of abuse; (2) improving the assessment of AL in clinical trials (eg, training study personnel in the principles of abuse and addiction behaviors, designing the trial to assess AL outcomes as primary or secondary outcome measures depending on the trial objectives); (3) performing standardized assessment of outcomes, including targeted observations by study personnel and using structured adverse events query forms that ask all subjects specifically for certain symptoms (such as euphoria and craving); and (4) collecting detailed information about events of potential concern (eg, unexpected urine drug testing results, loss of study medication, and dropping out of the trial). The authors also propose a research agenda for improving the assessment of AL in future trials.
Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8?mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2-8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8?mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule liking or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment.
Inhaled dry powder mannitol enhanced mucus clearance and improved quality of life over 2 weeks in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. This studys objective was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dry powder mannitol over 12 weeks.
Despite the prevalent worldwide abuse of stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine, no medications are currently approved for treating this serious public health problem. Both preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) is effective in reducing the abuse liability of amphetamine, raising the question of whether similar positive findings would be obtained for cocaine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of oral NTX to alter the cardiovascular and subjective effects of D-amphetamine (D-AMPH) and cocaine (COC). Non-treatment-seeking COC users (N=12) completed this 3-week inpatient, randomized, crossover study. Participants received 0, 12.5, or 50?mg oral NTX 60?min before active or placebo stimulant administration during 10 separate laboratory sessions. Oral AMPH (0, 10, and 20?mg; or all placebo) was administered in ascending order within a laboratory session using a 60-min interdose interval. Smoked COC (0, 12.5, 25, and 50?mg; or all placebo) was administered in ascending order within a laboratory session using a 14-min interdose interval. Active COC and AMPH produced dose-related increases in cardiovascular function that were of comparable magnitude. In contrast, COC, but not AMPH, produced dose-related increases in several subjective measures of positive drug effect (eg, high, liking, and willingness to pay for the drug). NTX did not alter the cardiovascular effects of AMPH or COC. NTX also did not alter positive subjective ratings after COC administration, but it did significantly reduce ratings of craving for COC and tobacco during COC sessions. These results show that (1) oral AMPH produces minimal abuse-related subjective responses in COC smokers, and (2) NTX reduces craving for COC and tobacco during COC sessions. Future studies should continue to evaluate NTX as a potential anti-craving medication for COC dependence.
Although opioid substitution therapy is an effective clinical tool used to manage opioid abuse and dependence, concerns regarding the current FDA-approved medications have lead to a search for efficacious, non-opioid medications. Preclinical data indicate that neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor activity may modulate opioid effects and withdrawal. This investigation sought to examine the ability of the NK1 antagonist aprepitant to alter the effects of methadone as well as withdrawal symptoms induced by brief methadone discontinuation.
Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR technique and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are used to study amino acid affinity supports-nucleotides interactions with L-histidine amino acid immobilized on a surface as model support. We have immobilized L-histidine ligand on a carboxymethyldextran-modified gold surface intended for surface plasmon resonance and we analyze the binding profiles of synthetic polynucleotides (1-6 base, sugar and backbone) by determining the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD). The SPR binding profile (square-shaped) is identical for all the complexes and the highest binding affinity can be found for polyA? followed by polyG?. As expected, the 5-mononucleotides have the lowest affinity. To further study the structural aspects of the interaction we investigate the polynucleotide binding preferences to L-histidine chromatography support by STD-NMR spectroscopy. These results revealed that an increase in the number of bases and backbone to 6 units leads to more contacts with the support, where the main driving force for the interaction with polynucleotides are through the base, except for polyC?, which is mainly through sugar-phosphate backbone. Therefore, the combination of SPR measurements with STD-NMR technique allowed to establish fine details of the molecular recognition process involved in amino acid affinity supports-nucleotides complexes.
To examine whether tamper-resistant formulations (TRFs) of tapentadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER) 50?mg (TAP50) and tapentadol hydrochloride 250?mg (TAP250) could be converted into forms amenable to intranasal (study 1) or intravenous abuse (study 2).
Unsaturated fatty acids are ligands of PPAR-?, which up-regulates genes involved in fatty acid transport and TAG synthesis and the insulin-sensitising adipokine adiponectin, which activates fatty acid ?-oxidation via PPAR-? action in liver. We investigated the effect of dietary fatty acid interaction with PPARG, PPARA and ADIPOQ gene variants on plasma lipid and adiponectin concentrations in the Reading Imperial Surrey Cambridge Kings study, a five-centre, parallel design, randomised controlled trial of 466 subjects at increased cardiometabolic risk. After a 4-week run-in to baseline, SFA was replaced by MUFA or carbohydrate (low fat) in isoenergetic diets for 24 weeks. Habitual dietary PUFA:SFA ratio×PPARG Pro12Ala genotype interaction influenced plasma total cholesterol (P=0·02), LDL-cholesterol (P=0·002) and TAG (P=0·02) concentrations in White subjects. PPARA Val162Leu×PPARG Pro12Ala genotype interaction influenced total cholesterol (P=0·04) and TAG (P=0·03) concentrations at baseline. After high-MUFA and low-fat diets, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were reduced (P<0·001) and gene×gene interaction determined LDL-cholesterol (P=0·003) and small dense LDL as a proportion of LDL (P=0·012). At baseline, ADIPOQ -10066 G/A A-allele was associated with lower serum adiponectin (n 360; P=0·03) in White subjects. After the high-MUFA diet, serum adiponectin increased in GG subjects and decreased in A-allele carriers (P=0·006 for difference). In GG, adiponectin increased with age after the high MUFA and decreased after the low-fat diet (P=0·003 for difference at 60 years). In conclusion, in Whites, high dietary PUFA:SFA would help to reduce plasma cholesterol and TAG in PPARG Ala12 carriers. In ADIPOQ -10066 GG homozygotes, a high-MUFA diet may help to increase adiponectin with advancing age.
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, activated by unsaturated fatty acids. We investigated independent and interactive effects of PPAR?2 gene PPARG Pro12Ala (rs1801282) andPPAR?gene PPARA Leu162Val (rs1800206) genotypes with dietary intake of fatty acids on concentrations of plasma lipids in subjects of whom 47.5% had metabolic syndrome.
Motivation theories suggest that parents are an integral support for adolescents participation in organized activities. Despite the importance of parents, the field knows very little about how parents own experiences in activities influence the participation of their adolescent children. The goals of this study were to examine (a) the patterns of intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in parents activity participation during adolescence and their adolescents activity participation, and (b) the processes underlying each of these patterns within Mexican-origin families. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through three in-depth interviews conducted with 31 seventh-grade adolescents and their parents at three time points over a year. The quantitative data suggested there was modest intergenerational continuity in activity participation. There were three distinct patterns: nine families were continuous participants, seven families were continuous nonparticipants, and 15 families were discontinuous, where the parent did not participate but the youth did participate in activities. The continuous participant families included families in which parents valued how organized activities contributed to their own lives and actively encouraged their adolescents participation. The continuous nonparticipant families reported less knowledge and experience with activities along with numerous barriers to participation. There were three central reasons for the change in the discontinuous families. For a third of these families, parents felt strongly about providing a different childhood for their adolescents than what they experienced. The intergenerational discontinuity in participation was also likely to be sparked by someone else in the family or an external influence (i.e., friends, schools).
Altered signalling in B cells is a predominant feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The genes BANK1 and BLK were recently described as associated with SLE. BANK1 codes for a B-cell-specific cytoplasmic protein involved in B-cell receptor signalling and BLK codes for an Src tyrosine kinase with important roles in B-cell development. To characterise the role of BANK1 and BLK in SLE, a genetic interaction analysis was performed hypothesising that genetic interactions could reveal functional pathways relevant to disease pathogenesis.
Studies have suggested that the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dextromethorphan may be useful in the treatment of opioid dependence.
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