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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biocompatibility of a Self-adhesive Gutta-percha-based Material in Subcutaneous Tissue of Mice.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a self-adhesive gutta-percha material and compare it with that of conventional gutta-percha.
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[Surveillance of healthcare associated infections, bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption in high-complexity hospitals in Colombia, 2011].
Biomedica
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Preventing healthcare associated infections, especially for resistant microorganisms, is a priority. In Colombia, the surveillance of such events was started through a national pilot study.
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Differential macrophage response to slow- and fast-growing pathogenic mycobacteria.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have recently been recognized as important species that cause disease even in immunocompetent individuals. The mechanisms that these species use to infect and persist inside macrophages are not well characterised. To gain insight concerning this process we used THP-1 macrophages infected with M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. celatum, and M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that slow-growing mycobacteria gained entrance into these cells with more efficiency than fast-growing mycobacteria. We have also demonstrated that viable slow-growing M. celatum persisted inside macrophages without causing cell damage and without inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS), as M. tuberculosis caused. In contrast, fast-growing mycobacteria destroyed the cells and induced high levels of ROS. Additionally, the macrophage cytokine pattern induced by M. celatum was different from the one induced by either M. tuberculosis or fast-growing mycobacteria. Our results also suggest that, in some cases, the intracellular survival of mycobacteria and the immune response that they induce in macrophages could be related to their growth rate. In addition, the modulation of macrophage cytokine production, caused by M. celatum, might be a novel immune-evasion strategy used to survive inside macrophages that is different from the one reported for M. tuberculosis.
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Occurrence of potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria in Mexican household potable water: a pilot study.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental opportunistic pathogens found in natural and human-engineered waters, including drinking water distribution systems and household plumbing. This pilot study examined the frequency of occurrence of NTM in household potable water samples in Mexico City. Potable water samples were collected from the "main house faucet" and kitchen faucet. The presence of aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and NTM species were determined. Mycobacteria species were identified by PCR restriction enzyme pattern analysis (PRA) of the 65-kDa heat shock protein gene (hsp65) and sequencing of the hypervariable region 2 (V2) of the 16S rRNA gene and of the rpoB gene.
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Transabdominal ligation of the thoracic duct with pericardial-peritoneal shunting in a case of primary idiopathic chylous pericardial effusion.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Primary chylous pericardial effusion is a rare entity with few cases reported so far. We report a case of idiopathic etiology in a previously healthy 16-year-old boy. The patient presented with intermittent chest pain and dizziness caused by a chronic pericardial effusion. An echocardiogram revealing a pericardial effusion and open pericardiocentesis with a drainage of approximately of 500 ml of chylous fluid established the diagnosis. Patient had no history of trauma, cardiac surgery, central insertion of subclavian catheters or blunt injury. Computed tomography ruled out malignancies in the abdomen and chest. Clinical, laboratory and radiological investigations for the possible underlying cause of the condition were not determined. Management with a dietary regimen consisting of a medium-chain triglyceride-rich diet, octreotide pharmacological treatment and initial subxiphoid resection with pericardial tube drainage was unsuccessful. Surgical approach was required consisting of pericardio-peritoneal window with trans-abdominal ligation (clipping) of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm. Postoperative outcome was uneventful and there was a rapid recovery after surgical management.
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Genetic diversity among multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Mexico.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Tuberculosis is an important public health problem in Mexico. However, limited information about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in the country is available. In this work, 109 multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis isolates collected in 23 different states of Mexico in 2003 were retrospectively characterized by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs. All isolates, except for a single cluster containing two strains (subcluster E1), were split when information from the 12-loci MIRUs and spoligo-pattern was simultaneously analyzed. The discriminative power of 12-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, by the Hunter-Gaston index, were 0.9998 and 0.9011, respectively. These findings suggest that almost all cases were epidemiologically unrelated. Instead, the genetic variations observed among these strains are suggestive of emergence of acquired drug-resistance during the course of treatment. The results suggest a high degree of genetic variability and a high frequency of SIT53 (T1 family) spoligotype among the MDR M. tuberculosis isolates included in the study.
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Unusual presentation of primary gastric choriocarcinoma in a 24-year-old female patient.
Bol Asoc Med P R
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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We report a case of a young female patient presenting with a high serum beta-HCG levels, amenorrhea, nausea and anemia which mimicked pregnancy followed by upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A gastric tumor was shown on endoscopy. Histopathologic evaluation revealed Primary Gastric Choriocarcinoma (PGC). The patient was treated with three cycles of standard nongestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy. Tumor persistence was evidenced by CT Scans and high serum beta-HCG levels. The patient died approximately six months after diagnosis. Our case report suggest that PGC is a highly aggressive tumor that is often associated with liver and lungs metastasis without evidence of pelvic organ abnormality and is associated with some hormonal effects, such as amenorrhea, anemia, nausea and vomiting mimicking pregnancy in young adult female
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Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome in hypertensive crisis complicated with seizure.
Bol Asoc Med P R
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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This is the case of a 32 year-old-male with chronic kidney disease in hemodialysis who presented with uncontrolled blood pressure after admission to the hospital further complicated with seizures. Head CT-Scan revealed hypodensives areas in sub-cortical white matter and parietal-occipital lobes. Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was diagnosed by radiologic findings. The underlying cause of PRES was treated with good resolution of hypodensives areas. Good prognostic outcome of PRES depends on prompt recognition and treatment to avoid excessive morbidity and/or mortality.
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Clinical management of a complicated crown-root fracture: a case report.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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This report describes the clinical procedures involved in the treatment of a complicated crown-root fracture in the maxillary left central incisor with a wide open apex of a 10-year-old male patient, due to fall from his own height. Post-trauma treatment comprised cervical pulpotomy and adhesive tooth fragment reattachment. After 1 year, clinical and radiograph examinations showed pulp necrosis and an associated periapical lesion. Endodontic therapy with calcium hydroxide-base intracanal dressing, root canal filling and orthodontic extrusion were performed. Extrusion was completed within approximately 16 weeks and the tooth was restored with a post-core system and a prosthetic crown. After a 3 years of follow-up, there was no evidence of apical periodontitis and the tooth was satisfactory both esthetically and functionally.
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Uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain at the emergency room: epiploic appendagitis.
Bol Asoc Med P R
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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This is a case of 49 year-old-female with left lower quadrant pain. Initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis entertained and treated accordingly. Diagnosis of epiploic appendagitis was done by abdominal CT-Scan. Epiploic appendagitis is commonly misdiagnosed as diverticulitis and appendicitis. Non-invasive studies may lead to early diagnosis avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention.
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[Trends of bacterial resistance phenotypes in high-complexity public and private hospitals in Colombia].
Rev. Panam. Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Describe and compare the frequency of bacterial resistance phenotypes of microorganisms obtained from patients in intensive care units (ICU) and other (non-ICU) high-complexity public and private hospital services in Colombia.
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Efficacy of five rotary systems versus manual instrumentation during endodontic retreatment.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of ProFile, GT, ProTaper, Race and K3 rotary instruments compared with hand K-files for removal of gutta-percha during retreatment. Sixty mandibular premolars were instrumented with GT rotary files and filled by thermomechanical compaction of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The teeth are randomly divided into 6 groups of 10 specimens each. The roots were split longitudinally, digital images were created using a flatbed scanner, and the areas with remaining filling material were demarcated using Image Tool 1.21 software. The results indicate that GT left significantly less (p<0.05) remaining filling material (1.18 ± 1.47) than hand (3.70 ± 3.16) and Hero instruments (2.99 ± 2.58). There was no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) among the others techniques: ProFile (1.99 ± 2.66), ProTaper (2.00 ± 1.99) and K3 (2.71 ± 2.87) when compared with GT. In conclusion, GT, ProFile, ProTaper and K3 were more effective in removing gutta-percha than manual and Hero instruments.
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?Differential expression of dnaA and dosR genes among members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex under oxic and hypoxic conditions.
Int. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Major differences regarding the pathology and host immune response of the Beijing and Canettii genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been reported; however, studies on the genetic expression of these genotypes during in vitro dormancy are scarce. This study examined the expression of five cell-cycle-related genes and two dormancy-related genes in M. canettii, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and M. tuberculosis Beijing during the Wayne model of dormancy. The results showed that under hypoxic conditions the three tuberculosis genotypes were able to transcribe genes involved in DNA replication and cellular division. In addition, dosR was found to be up-regulated in M. tuberculosis Beijing during the exponential growth phase but down-regulated under hypoxic conditions. In this genotype, the replication-related gene dnaA was also strongly down-regulated. These latter two findings suggest that, compared to M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. canettii, the Beijing genotype has a lower capacity to synthesize dosR, hspX, and dnaA mRNAs during in vitro dormancy.
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A mouse model of Down syndrome trisomic for all human chromosome 21 syntenic regions.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is the most common genetic cause for developmental cognitive disability. The regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. In this report, we describe a new mouse model for DS that carries duplications spanning the entire Hsa21 syntenic regions on all three mouse chromosomes. This mouse mutant exhibits DS-related neurological defects, including impaired cognitive behaviors, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation and hydrocephalus. These results suggest that when all the mouse orthologs of the Hsa21 genes are triplicated, an abnormal cognitively relevant phenotype is the final outcome of the elevated expressions of these orthologs as well as all the possible functional interactions among themselves and/or with other mouse genes. Because of its desirable genotype and phenotype, this mutant may have the potential to serve as one of the reference models for further understanding the developmental cognitive disability associated with DS and may also be used for developing novel therapeutic interventions for this clinical manifestation of the disorder.
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First insights into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from HIV-infected Mexican patients and mutations causing multidrug resistance.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The prevalence of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species in HIV-infected patients in Mexico is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of MTb and NTM species in HIV-infected patients from Mexico City, to evaluate the genotypic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains, to determine their drug resistance profiles by colorimetric microplate Alamar Blue assay (MABA), and finally, to detect mutations present in katG, rpoB and inhA genes, resulting in isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance.
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Deficiencies in the region syntenic to human 21q22.3 cause cognitive deficits in mice.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Copy-number variation in the human genome can be disease-causing or phenotypically neutral. This type of genetic rearrangement associated with human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) underlies partial Monosomy 21 and Trisomy 21. Mental retardation is a major clinical manifestation of partial Monosomy 21. To model this human chromosomal deletion disorder, we have generated novel mouse mutants carrying heterozygous deletions of the 2.3- and 1.1-Mb segments on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10) and Mmu17, respectively, which are orthologous to the regions on human 21q22.3, using Cre/loxP-mediated chromosome engineering. Alterations of the transcriptional levels of genes within the deleted intervals reflect gene-dosage effects in the mutant mice. The analysis of cognitive behaviors shows that the mutant mice carrying the deletion on either Mmu10 or Mmu17 are impaired in learning and memory. Therefore, these mutants represent mouse models for Monosomy 21-associated mental retardation, which can serve as a powerful tool to study the molecular mechanism underlying the clinical phenotype and should facilitate efforts to identify the haploinsufficient causative genes.
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Live, attenuated strains of Listeria and Salmonella as vaccine vectors in cancer treatment.
Bioeng Bugs
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Live, attenuated strains of many bacteria that synthesize and secrete foreign antigens are being developed as vaccines for a number of infectious diseases and cancer. Bacterial-based vaccines provide a number of advantages over other antigen delivery strategies including low cost of production, the absence of animal products, genetic stability and safety. In addition, bacterial vaccines delivering a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) stimulate innate immunity and also activate both arms of the adaptive immune system by which they exert efficacious anti-tumor effects. Listeria monocytogenes and several strains of Salmonella have been most extensively studied for this purpose. A number of attenuated strains have been generated and used to deliver antigens associated with infectious diseases and cancer. Although both bacteria are intracellular, the immune responses invoked by Listeria and Salmonella are different due to their sub-cellular locations. Upon entering antigen-presenting cells by phagocytosis, Listeria is capable of escaping from the phagosomal compartment and thus has direct access to the cell cytosol. Proteins delivered by this vector behave as endogenous antigens, are presented on the cell surface in the context of MHC class I molecules, and generate strong cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, proteins delivered by Salmonella, which lacks a phagosomal escape mechanism, are treated as exogenous antigens and presented by MHC class II molecules resulting predominantly in Th2 type immune responses. This fundamental disparity between the life cycles of the two vectors accounts for their differential application as antigen delivery vehicles. The present paper includes a review of the most recent advances in the development of these two bacterial vectors for treatment of cancer. Similarities and differences between the two vectors are discussed.
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L929 cell response to root perforation repair cements: an in vitro cytotoxicity assay.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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This study compared the cytotoxicity of an experimental epoxy-resin and calcium hydroxide-based cement (MBPc), gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using the agar overlay method with neutral red dye. L929 cells were seeded into 6-well culture plates where 48-h set test materials were placed on the agar overlay, in triplicate. Teflon and natural rubber served as negative and positive controls. After an incubation period of 24 h at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air, a discolored area around the samples and the positive controls could be observed and measured per quadrant. The mean values were compared and converted into grades to classify the results according to the table of cytotoxicity grades according to the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. The nonviable cell areas and the morphological changes in the cells were observed with an inverted microscope. The results showed grade 1 (slight) for the two types of MTA (p>0.05) and grade 2 (mild) for the MBPc (p<0.001). All samples met the requirements of the test as none of the cultures showed reactivity higher than grade 2.
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Multiple effector mechanisms induced by recombinant Listeria monocytogenes anticancer immunotherapeutics.
Adv. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular gram-positive bacterium that naturally infects professional antigen presenting cells (APC) to target antigens to both class I and class II antigen processing pathways. This infection process results in the stimulation of strong innate and adaptive immune responses, which make it an ideal candidate for a vaccine vector to deliver heterologous antigens. This ability of L. monocytogenes has been exploited by several researchers over the past decade to specifically deliver tumor-associated antigens that are poorly immunogenic such as self-antigens. This review describes the preclinical studies that have elucidated the multiple immune responses elicited by this bacterium that direct its ability to influence tumor growth.
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A novel human Her-2/neu chimeric molecule expressed by Listeria monocytogenes can elicit potent HLA-A2 restricted CD8-positive T cell responses and impact the growth and spread of Her-2/neu-positive breast tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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The aim of this study was to efficiently design a novel vaccine for human Her-2/neu-positive (hHer-2/neu) breast cancer using the live, attenuated bacterial vector Listeria monocytogenes.
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Construction and characterization of an attenuated Listeria monocytogenes strain for clinical use in cancer immunotherapy.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Listeria monocytogenes has been exploited previously as a vaccine vector for the delivery of heterologous proteins such as tumor-specific antigens for active cancer immunotherapy. However, for effective use of live vector in clinics, safety is a major concern. In the present study, we describe an irreversibly attenuated and highly immunogenic L. monocytogenes platform, the L. monocytogenes dal-, dat-, and actA-deleted strain that expresses the human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) using an antibiotic resistance marker-free plasmid (the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain expressing PSA). Despite limited in vivo survival, the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain was able to elicit efficient immune responses required for tumor clearance. Our results showed that immunization of mice with the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain caused the regression of the tumors established by the prostate adenocarcinoma cell line expressing PSA. An evaluation of immunologic potency indicated that the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain elicits a high frequency of PSA-specific immune responses. Interestingly, immunization with the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain induced significant infiltration of PSA-specific T cells in the intratumoral milieu. Collectively, our data suggest that the dal dat DeltaactA 142 strain is a safe and potent vector for clinical use and that this platform may be further exploited as a potential candidate to express other single or multiple antigens for cancer immunotherapy.
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Negligible expression of arsenic in some commercially available brands of Portland cement and mineral trioxide aggregate.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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This study was designed aiming to determine and compare the amount of arsenic in some brands of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement.
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In vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in murine fibroblasts exposed to EDTA, NaOCl, MTAD and citric acid.
Braz Dent J
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of some root canal irrigants to induce genetic damage and/or cellular death in vitro. Murine fibroblast cells were exposed to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), MTAD™ and citric acid in increasing concentrations for 3 h at 37ºC. The negative control group was treated with vehicle control (phosphate buffer solution - PBS) for 3 h at 37°C, and the positive control group was treated with methylmetanesulfonate, 1 ?M. for 3 h at 37°C. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the trypan blue test and genotoxicity was evaluated by the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that exposure to 2.5% and 5% NaOCl and 8.5% citric acid resulted in a significant cytotoxic effect. NaOCl, EDTA and citric acid did not produce genotoxic effects with respect to the comet assay data for all evaluated concentrations. Although MTAD was not a cytotoxic agent, it showed significant genotoxic effects at all tested concentrations (ANOVA and Tukeys test; p<0.05). NaOCl, EDTA and citric acid were found to be cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner, but they were not genotoxic. MTAD did not cause cell death, but presented genotoxic effects.
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Evaluation of the cell growth of mycobacteria using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 as a representative species.
J. Microbiol.
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The study of the in vitro cell growth of mycobacteria still remains a fastidious, difficult, and time-consuming procedure. In addition, assessing mycobacterial growth in the laboratory is often complicated by cell aggregation and slow growth-rate. We now report that the use of a stainless steel spring in the culture led to an absence of large cell clumps, to a decrease of dead cells in the exponential phase and to growth of a more homogeneous population of large cells. We also report that flow cytometry is a rapid, simple and reliable approach to monitor mycobacterial cell growth and viability. Here, we monitored Mycobacterium smegmatis cellular growth by optical density, dry cell mass, and colony forming units; in addition, viability, cell size and granularity profiles were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cell morphology by electron microscopy. Cultures monitored by flow cytometry may lead to a better understanding of the physiology of mycobacteria. Moreover, this methodology may aid in characterizing the cell growth of other fastidious species of microorganisms.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.