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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tryptanthrin protects hepatocytes against oxidative stress via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/NF-E2-related factor 2 pathway.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Tryptanthrin [6,12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline], originally isolated from Isatidis radix, has been characterized as having anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. It is well-known that excess oxidative stress is one of the major factors causing cell damage in the liver. This study investigated the cytoprotective effects and molecular mechanism of tryptanthrin against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced oxidative stress in human hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells. Tryptanthrin pre-treatment blocked the reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death induced by tBHP. Moreover, tryptanthrin reversed tBHP-induced GSH reduction. This study also confirmed the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by tryptanthrin as a plausible molecular mechanism for its cytoprotective effects. Specifically, tryptanthrin treatment induced nuclear translocation and transactivation of Nrf2 as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a potential upstream kinase of Nrf2. Tryptanthrin also up-regulated the expression of the heme oxygenase 1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunits, which are representative target genes of Nrf2. Moreover, inhibitor of ERK was used to verify the important role of the ERK-Nrf2 pathway in the hepatoprotective effects of tryptanthrin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that tryptanthrin protects hepatocytes against oxidative stress through the activation of the ERK/Nrf2 pathway in HepG2 cells.
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Combination of honokiol and magnolol inhibits hepatic steatosis through AMPK-SREBP-1?c pathway.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Honokiol and magnolol, as pharmacological biphenolic compounds of Magnolia officinalis, have been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1?c (SREBP-1?c) plays an important role in the development and processing of steatosis in the liver. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a combination of honokiol and magnolol on SREBP-1?c-dependent lipogenesis in hepatocytes as well as in mice with fatty liver due to consumption of high-fat diet (HFD). Liver X receptor ? (LXR?) agonists induced activation of SREBP-1?c and expression of lipogenic genes, which were blocked by co-treatment of honokiol and magnolol (HM). Moreover, a combination of HM potently increased mRNA of fatty acid oxidation genes. HM induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an inhibitory kinase of the LXR?-SREBP-1?c pathway. The role of AMPK activation induced by HM was confirmed using an inhibitor of AMPK, Compound C, which reversed the ability of HM to both inhibit SREBP-1?c induction as well as induce genes for fatty acid oxidation. In mice, HM administration for four weeks ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and liver dysfunction, as indicated by plasma parameters and Oil Red O staining. Taken together, our results demonstrated that a combination of HM has beneficial effects on inhibition of fatty liver and SREBP-1?c-mediated hepatic lipogenesis, and these events may be mediated by AMPK activation.
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AMPK activation by isorhamnetin protects hepatocytes against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Arachidonic acid (AA) is a ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is found in the phospholipids of membranes and released from the cellular membrane lipid bilayer by phospholipase A2. During this process, AA could produce excess reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by selectively inhibiting complexes I and III. Isorhamnetin, an O-methylated flavonol aglycone, has been shown to have cardio-protective, anti-adipogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of isorhamnetin on hepatotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms involved. Our in vitro experiments showed that isorhamnetin dose-dependently blocked the hepatotoxicity induced by treatment with AA plus iron in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, isorhamnetin inhibited the AA+iron induced generation of reactive oxygen species and reduction of glutathione, and subsequently maintained mitochondria membrane potential in AA+iron treated HepG2 cells. In addition, isorhamnetin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by Thr-172 phosphorylation of AMPK?, and this was mediated with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2), but not liver kinase B1. Experiments using CaMKK2 siRNA or its selective inhibitor, STO-609, revealed the role of CaMKK2 in the isorhamnetin-induced activation of AMPK in HepG2 cells. These results indicate isorhamnetin protects against the hepatotoxic effect of AA plus iron, and suggest that the AMPK pathway is involved in the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of isorhamnetin in the liver.
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Glycyrrhizae radix methanol extract attenuates methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Glycyrrhizae Radix modulates the neurochemical and locomotor alterations induced by acute psychostimulants in rodents via GABAb receptors. This study investigated the influence of methanol extract from Glycyrrhizae Radix (MEGR) on repeated methamphetamine- (METH-) induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP). A cohort of rats was treated with METH (1?mg/kg/day) for 6 consecutive days, subjected to 6 days of withdrawal, and then challenged with the same dose of METH to induce locomotor sensitization; during the withdrawal period, the rats were administered MEGR (60 or 180?mg/kg/day). A separate cohort of rats was treated with either METH or saline every other day for 6 days in METH-paired or saline-paired chambers, respectively, to induce CPP. These rats were also administered MEGR (180?mg/kg) prior to every METH or CPP expression test. Pretreatment with MEGR (60 and 180?mg/kg/day) attenuated the expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization dose-dependently, and 180?mg/kg MEGR significantly inhibited the development and expression of METH-induced CPP. Furthermore, administration of a selective GABAb receptor antagonist (SCH50911) prior to MEGR treatment effectively blocked the inhibitory effects of MEGR on locomotor sensitization, but not CPP. These results suggest that Glycyrrhizae Radix blocked repeated METH-induced behavioral changes via GABAb receptors.
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Effects of the aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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We previously demonstrated that the aqueous extract of the Schizandra chinensis fruit (AESC) ameliorated Cd-induced depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain through antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of AESC on anxiety-like behavior and the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (a metabolite of norepinephrine) in different brain regions during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
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Involvement of amygdaloid neuropeptide Y in the anxiolytic effects of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) in the preventive effects of acupuncture against ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety was investigated. Rats were treated with 3g/kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, followed by 3 days of withdrawal. Bilateral acupuncture treatment at HT7 (Shen-Men), PC6 (Nei-Guan) or a non-acupoint was respectively added to the rats during the withdrawal once a day for three days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses showed there was a significant decrease in NPY protein and mRNA expression in the CeA during ethanol withdrawal, which was reversed by acupuncture at HT7 but neither at PC6 nor at a non-acupoint. Acupuncture at HT7 also greatly inhibited the decrease in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the CeA. In elevated plus maze tests, a selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 into the CeA before the acupuncture abolished almost completely the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 rescues the depletion of amygdaloid NPY and reverses the decrease in CREB phosphorylation to produce anxiolytic effects during ethanol withdrawal.
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Korean Red Ginseng attenuates anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is known to have antianxiety properties. This study was conducted to investigate the anxiolytic effects of KRG extract (KRGE) during ethanol withdrawal (EW) and the involvement of the mesoamygdaloid dopamine (DA) system in it.
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U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-?B-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT) is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO) and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1?g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-?B, phosphorylation of I?-B? induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-?B in RAW264.7 cells.
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Biomolecular evidence of anti-inflammatory effects by Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root extract in rodent cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root is widely used in Asia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. This research investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root extract (CRE) using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and carrageenan- (CA-) induced rat paw edema.
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Role of 6-shogaol in tert -butyl hydroperoxide-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells.
Pharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of 6-shogaol on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced oxidative stress leading to apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cells were exposed to tBHP (100 ?mol/l) after pretreatment with 6-shogaol (2.5 and 5 ?mol/l), and then cell viability was measured. 6-Shogaol fully prevented HepG2 cell death caused by tBHP. Treatment of tBHP resulted in apoptotic cell death as assessed by TUNEL assay and the expression of apoptosis regulator proteins, Bcl-2 family, caspases and cytochrome c. Cells treated with 6-shogaol showed rapid reduction of apoptosis by restoring these markers of apoptotic cells. In addition, 6-shogaol significantly recovered disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential as a start sign of hepatic apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. In line with this observation, antioxidative 6-shogaol inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of reduced glutathione in tBHP-stimulated HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results for the first time showed antioxidative and antiapoptotic activities of 6-shogaol in tBHP-treated hepatoma HepG2 cells, suggesting that 6-shogaol could be beneficial in hepatic disorders caused by oxidative stress.
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Curcumin significantly enhances dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma Caki cells through down-regulation of p53-dependent Bcl-2 expression and inhibition of Mcl-1 protein stability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The PI3K/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways are important for cell survival and growth, and they are highly activated in cancer cells compared with normal cells. Therefore, these signaling pathways are targets for inducing cancer cell death. The dual PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 completely inhibited both signaling pathways. However, NVP-BEZ235 had no effect on cell death in human renal carcinoma Caki cells. We tested whether combined treatment with natural compounds and NVP-BEZ235 could induce cell death. Among several chemopreventive agents, curcumin, a natural biologically active compound that is extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma species, markedly induced apoptosis in NVP-BEZ235-treated cells. Co-treatment with curcumin and NVP-BEZ235 led to the down-regulation of Mcl-1 protein expression but not mRNA expression. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 completely inhibited curcumin plus NVP-NEZ235-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Bcl-2 was involved in curcumin plus NVP-BEZ235-induced apoptosis. Curcumin or NVP-BEZ235 alone did not change Bcl-2 mRNA or protein expression, but co-treatment reduced Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression. Combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin reduced Bcl-2 expression in wild-type p53 HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells but not p53-null HCT116 cells. Moreover, Bcl-2 expression was completely reversed by treatment with pifithrin-?, a p53-specific inhibitor. Ectopic expression of Bcl-2 also inhibited apoptosis in NVP-BE235 plus curcumin-treated cells. In contrast, NVP-BEZ235 combined with curcumin did not have a synergistic effect on normal human skin fibroblasts and normal human mesangial cells. Taken together, combined treatment with NVP-BEZ235 and curcumin induces apoptosis through p53-dependent Bcl-2 mRNA down-regulation at the transcriptional level and Mcl-1 protein down-regulation at the post-transcriptional level.
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Isorhamnetin protects against oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and inducing the expression of its target genes.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Isorhamentin is a 3-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, the effects of isorhamnetin on Nrf2 activation and on the expressions of its downstream genes in hepatocytes have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isorhamnetin has the ability to activate Nrf2 and induce phase II antioxidant enzyme expression, and to determine the protective role of isorhamnetin on oxidative injury in hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells, isorhamnetin increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and consistently, increased antioxidant response element (ARE) reporter gene activity and the protein levels of hemeoxygenase (HO-1) and of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which resulted in intracellular GSH level increases. The specific role of Nrf2 in isorhamnetin-induced Nrf2 target gene expression was verified using an ARE-deletion mutant plasmid and Nrf2-knockout MEF cells. Deletion of the ARE in the promoter region of the sestrin2 gene, which is recently identified as the Nrf2 target gene by us, abolished the ability of isorhamnetin to increase luciferase activity. In addition, Nrf2 deficiency completely blocked the ability of isorhamnetin to induce HO-1 and GCL. Furthermore, isorhamnetin pretreatment blocked t-BHP-induced ROS production and reversed GSH depletion by t-BHP and consequently, due to reduced ROS levels, decreased t-BHP-induced cell death. In addition isorhamnetin increased ERK1/2, PKC? and AMPK phosphorylation. Finally, we showed that Nrf2 deficiency blocked the ability of isorhamnetin to protect cells from injury induced by t-BHP. Taken together, our results demonstrate that isorhamnetin is efficacious in protecting hepatocytes against oxidative stress by Nrf2 activation and in inducing the expressions of its downstream genes.
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Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF- ? B Inactivation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH) on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100? ? g/mL) had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-?B? and nuclear factor-?B accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-?B activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.
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Inhibition of Acute Phase Inflammation by Laminaria japonica through Regulation of iNOS-NF- ? B Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Laminaria japonica has been frequently used as food supplements in many of the Asian countries and as a drug in traditional oriental medicine. This research investigated the effects of Laminaria japonica extract (LJE) on acute phase inflammation in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model, as assessed by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses. The effect of LJE was also evaluated in Raw264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the aspect of the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines production. NO, PGE2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- ? , interleukin-1 ? , and interleukin-6 contents were assayed by ELISA, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions were determined by western blot analyses. In rats, LJE treatment inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema formation and infiltration of inflammatory cells in H&E staining. LJE treatment prevented the ability of LPS to increase the levels of iNOS and COX-2 protein in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, LJE suppressed the production of TNF- ? , interleukin-1 ? , and interleukin-6. Treatment of the cells with LJE caused inhibition of inhibitor of ? B ? phosphorylation induced by LPS, suggesting LJE repression of nuclear factor- ? B activity by LPS. In conclusion, this study shown here may be of help to understand the action mechanism of LJE and the anti-inflammatory use of L. japonica.
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Red ginseng extract protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Korean red ginseng, the processed root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has been frequently used for various therapeutic purposes in oriental medicine. The present study investigated the possible effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) for the treatment of liver fibrosis in mice injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 4 wk. Liver injuries were assessed by blood biochemistry and histopathology in mice treated with CCl4 alone or CCl4+ RGE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg). Concomitant treatment with RGE and CCl4 (three times/wk for 4 wk) effectively inhibited liver fibrosis as evidenced by decreases in plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, as well as by the percentages of degenerative regions, numbers of degenerative hepatocytes, and collagen accumulation in hepatic parenchyma. Treatment with CCl4 for 4 wk increased mRNA levels of transforming growth factor ?1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in fibrogenic liver, whereas RGE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the induction of fibrogenic genes by CCl4. Similarly, RGE also prevented transforming growth factor ?1-mediated induction of fibrogenic genes in human hepatic stellate cell lines. More importantly, RGE markedly reduced the number of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in liver tissue. This study implies that RGE efficaciously protects against the liver fibrosis induced by chronic CCl4 treatment, and may therefore have potential to treat liver disease.
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Protective effects of Korean red ginseng extract on cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Korean red ginseng is known to regulate the immune system and help the body struggle infection and disease. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment due to its use in industry. Exposure to cadmium is problematic causing organ dysfunction. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In experiments, animals were orally administrated with RGE (25, 50 mg/kg) for 7 d and then intravenously injected with cadmium (CdCl2, 4 mg/kg) to induce acute hepatotoxicity. Cadmium caused the elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum. In contrast, pretreatment with RGE significantly reduced those serum indexes related with liver damage. In histopathological analysis, RGE decreased the centrilobular necrosis around central veins and the peripheral hemorrhage around portal triads. Moreover, RGE restored the deficit in hepatic glutathione level resulting from cadmium treatment. RGE also inhibited the increase in the expression of Bad, a representative apoptosis marker protein, induced by cadmium treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that RGE can reduce the cadmium-induced hepatic toxicity, partly via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic process.
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O-methylated flavonol isorhamnetin prevents acute inflammation through blocking of NF-?B activation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Here, we isolated isorhamnetin, a natural 3-O-methylated flavonoid, from water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica, Umbelliferae) and investigated its ability to protect against acute inflammation in vivo and in vitro. To induce paw swelling, the hind paw of each rat was injected with a carrageenan 1h after vehicle or isorhamnetin treatment. In vitro effect and mechanism studies were performed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Administration of isorhamnetin markedly inhibited the swelling volume and the thickness of hind paws. Moreover, isorhamnetin significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression in rats. Isorhamnetin pretreatment inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release in LPS-stimulated cells. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) is the key step in the iNOS gene induction. Isorhamnetin specifically inhibited NF-?B luciferase activity, but not AP-1. Pretreatment with isorhamnetin suppressed NF-?B nuclear translocation in accordance with decreased phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory-?B. Consistently, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 expression, representative NF-?B target genes, were almost completely prohibited by isorhamnetin. Furthermore, isorhamnetin inhibited LPS-induced JNK and AKT/IKK?/? phosphorylation. Our results suggest that isorhamnetin inhibited JNK, and AKT/IKK?/? activation, leading to NF-?B inactivation, which might contribute to the inhibition of the acute inflammatory response.
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Red ginseng abrogates oxidative stress via mitochondria protection mediated by LKB1-AMPK pathway.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a botanical medicine throughout the history of Asian traditional Oriental medicine. Formulated red ginseng (one form of Korean ginseng) has been shown to have antioxidant and chemopreventive effects.
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Amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor is involved in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture during ethanol withdrawal in rats.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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In a previous study, acupuncture at acupoint HT7 attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by normalizing amygdaloid catecholamines. In the present study, the involvement of amygdaloid corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture was investigated during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with 3 g /kg/day of ethanol for 28 days, and the CRF mRNA levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) were measured by using a RT-PCR analysis 72 hours after the last dose of ethanol. During ethanol withdrawal, the rats were bilaterally treated with acupuncture at acupoints HT7, PC6 or at a non-acupoint (Tail) for one min/day for three days. Also, rats were bilaterally injected with CRF into the CEA five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, after which followed by the elevated-plus maze (EPM) test and the plasma corticosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) were administered. The RT-PCR analysis showed a significant increase in the amygdaloid CRF mRNA levels in the ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with both the saline-treated rats and the rats treated with acupuncture at HT7, but neither acupuncture at PC6 nor acupuncture at a non-acupoint significantly inhibited the increased mRNA expression. The EPM test and the RIA also showed that the post-acupuncture infusion of CRF greatly reduced the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture at HT7. These results suggest that during ethanol withdrawal, the anxiolytic effect of acupuncture may be mediated through the modulation of amydaloid CRF during ethanol withdrawal.
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Roots of Erigeron annuus Attenuate Acute Inflammation as Mediated with the Inhibition of NF- ? B-Associated Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 production.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Erigeron annuus is a naturalized plant belonging to Compositae (asteraceae) family, which is called the annual fleabane, and commonly found at meadows and roadside. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of E. annuus roots (EER), as assessed by the paw edema formation and histological analysis in rat, and the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw264.7 murine macrophages. Carrageenan treatment promoted infiltration of inflammatory cells and caused swelling in the hind paw. Oral administrations of EER (0.3?g/kg and 1?g/kg) attenuated acute inflammation similar to the result using dexamethasone (1?mg/kg). Treatment of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulated inflammatory condition: LPS significantly increased the productions of NO, PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines. EER suppressed activation of macrophages, preventing the induction of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. LPS treatment induced phosphorylation of I- ? B ? and increased the level of nuclear NF- ? B protein, both of which were suppressed by concomitant treatment of EER. In conclusion, EER ameliorated acute inflammation in rats, and the induction of NO, PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines in Raw264.7 cells. EERs effects may be associated with its inhibition of NF- ? B activation, suggesting its effect on inflammatory diseases.
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Inhibitory effects of traditional herbal formula pyungwi-san on inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Pyungwi-san (PWS) is a traditional basic herbal formula. We investigated the effects of PWS on induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? )) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- ? B) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced Raw 264.7 cells and on paw edema in rats. Treatment with PWS (0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL) resulted in inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced COX-2, iNOS, NF- ? B, and MAPKs as well as production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and TNF- ? induced by LPS. Our results demonstrate that PWS possesses anti-inflammatory activities via decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF- ? B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophage cells. More importantly, results of the carrageenan-(CA-) induced paw edema demonstrate an anti-edema effect of PWS. In addition, it is considered that PWS also inhibits the acute edematous inflammations through suppression of mast cell degranulations and inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, iNOS and TNF- ? . Thus, our findings may provide scientific evidence to explain the anti-inflammatory properties of PWS in vitro and in vivo.
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Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men) attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3?g?kg(-1)day(-1) of ethanol (20%, w/v) or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72?h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05). Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05). Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01). Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan). Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05). In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05). These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system.
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Inhibition of liver X receptor-?-dependent hepatic steatosis by isoliquiritigenin, a licorice antioxidant flavonoid, as mediated by JNK1 inhibition.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Isoliquiritigenin (ILQ), a flavonoid obtained from Glycyrrhizae species, has an antioxidant effect. This study investigated the potential of ILQ for inhibiting liver X receptor-? (LXR?)-mediated lipogenesis and steatosis in hepatocytes and its underlying molecular basis. Treatment with ILQ antagonized the ability of an LXR? agonist (T0901317) to activate sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), thereby repressing transcription of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. ILQ treatment inhibited activating phosphorylation of JNK1 elicited by palmitate or TNF?. JNK1, but not JNK2, increased LXR? phosphorylation at serine residues, promoting LXR? activation. The ability of ILQ to inhibit JNK1 downstream of ASK1-MKK7 led to the repression of T0901317-inducible LXR? and SREBP-1c activation. In mice fed a high-fat diet, ILQ treatment inhibited hepatic steatosis, as shown by a decrease in fat accumulation and repression of lipogenic genes. The results of blood biochemistry and histopathology confirmed attenuation of high-fat diet-induced liver injury by ILQ. Moreover, ILQ inhibited oxidative stress, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation, iNOS and COX2 induction, and nitrotyrosinylation. Our results demonstrate that ILQ has the ability to repress LXR?-dependent hepatic steatosis through JNK1 inhibition and protect hepatocytes from oxidative injury inflicted by fat accumulation.
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Inhibition of SREBP-1c-mediated hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by sauchinone, an AMPK-activating lignan in Saururus chinensis.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Sauchinone, as an AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)-activating lignan in Saururus chinensis, has been shown to prevent iron-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) plays a key role in hepatic steatosis, which promotes oxidative stress in obese subjects. Previously, we identified the role of AMPK in liver X receptor-alpha (LXRalpha)-mediated SREBP-1c-dependent lipogenesis. Because sauchinone as an antioxidant has the ability to activate AMPK, this study investigated its effects on SREBP-1c-dependent lipogenesis in hepatocytes and in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative injury. Sauchinone prevented the ability of an LXRalpha agonist (T0901317) to activate SREBP-1c, repressing transcription of the fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, and LXRalpha genes. Consistent with this, an HFD in mice caused fat accumulation in the liver with SREBP-1c induction, which was attenuated by sauchinone treatment. Also, sauchinone had the ability to inhibit oxidative stress as shown by decreases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation, nitrotyrosinylation, and 4-hydroxynonenal production. Moreover, it prevented not only the liver injury, but also the AMPK inhibition elicited by HFD feeding. These results demonstrate that sauchinone has the capability to inhibit LXRalpha-mediated SREBP-1c induction and SREBP-1c-dependent hepatic steatosis, thereby protecting hepatocytes from oxidative stress induced by fat accumulation.
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Efficacy of sauchinone as a novel AMPK-activating lignan for preventing iron-induced oxidative stress and liver injury.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Iron-overload disorders cause hepatocyte injury and inflammation by oxidative stress, possibly leading to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study investigated the efficacy of sauchinone, a bioactive lignan, in preventing iron-induced liver injury and explored the mechanism of sauchinones activity. To create iron overload, mice were injected with phenylhydrazine, and the effects on hepatic iron and histopathology were assessed. Phenylhydrazine treatment promoted liver iron accumulation and ferritin expression, causing hepatocyte death and increased plasma arachidonic acid (AA). Sauchinone attenuated liver injury (EC(50)=10 mg/kg) and activated AMPK in mice. Treatment of hepatocytes with iron and AA simulated iron overload conditions: iron + AA synergistically amplified cytotoxicity, increasing H(2)O(2) and the mitochondrial permeability transition. Sauchinone protected hepatocytes from iron + AA-induced cytotoxicity, preventing the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis (EC(50)=1 microM), similar to the result using metformin. Sauchinone treatment activated LKB1, which led to AMPK activation: these events contributed to cell survival. Evidence of cytoprotection by LKB1 and AMPK activation was revealed in the reversal of sauchinones restoration of the mitochondrial membrane potential by either dominant negative mutant AMPKalpha or chemical inhibitor. In conclusion, sauchinone protects the liver from toxicity induced by iron accumulation, and sauchinones effects may be mediated by LKB1-dependent AMPK activation.
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A new cytotoxic guaianolide from Chrysanthemum boreale.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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A new cytotoxic guaianolide was isolated from Chrysanthemum boreale Makino. The structure of guaianolide was elucidated as 8-acetoxy-4,10-dihydroxy-2,11(13)-guaiadiene-12,6-olide (1). Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity (IC(50)< or =4 microg/ml) against all five human cancer cell lines tested.
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Liquiritigenin, a flavonoid aglycone from licorice, has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Liquiritigenin (LQ), an active component of licorice, has an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inhibitory nitric oxide synthase expression. This study investigated the effects of LQ on choleresis, the expression of hepatic transporters and phase-II enzymes, and fulminant hepatitis. The choleretic effect and the pharmacokinetics of LQ and its glucuronides were monitored in rats. After intravenous administration of LQ, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve of glucuronyl metabolites was greater than that of LQ in plasma, which accompanied elevations in bile flow rate and biliary excretion of bile acid, glutathione, and bilirubin. The expressions of hepatocellular transporters and phase-II enzymes were assessed by immunoblots, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. In the livers of rats treated with LQ, the protein and mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein 2 and bile salt export pump were increased in the liver, which was verified by their increased localizations in canalicular membrane. In addition, LQ treatment enhanced the expression levels of major hepatic phase-II enzymes. Consistent with these results, LQ treatments attenuated galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis in rats, as supported by decreases in the plasma alanine aminotransferase, liver necrosis, and plasma TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that LQ has a choleretic effect and the ability to induce transporters and phase-II enzymes in the liver, which may be associated with a hepatoprotective effect against galactosamine/LPS. Our findings may provide insight into understanding the action of LQ and its therapeutic use for liver disease.
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Hepatoprotective Activity of Licorice Water Extract against Cadmium-induced Toxicity in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Licorice is commonly used as a cure for digestive disorders and as a detoxification agent in East Asia. This study investigated the protective effect of licorice water extract against cadmium (CdCl(2), Cd)-induced liver toxicity in rats. To induce acute toxicity, Cd (4 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and intravenously (i.v.) injected into rats. The rats then received either a vehicle or licorice water extract (50, 100 mg/kg/day) for 3 days, and were subsequently exposed to a single injection of Cd 24 h after the last licorice/vehicle treatment. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased by Cd treatment. In contrast, pretreatment with licorice reduced ALT, AST and LDH. In histopathological analysis, licorice decreased the central necrosis around central veins, the peripheral hemorrhage around portal triads, the percentage of degenerative hepatic regions (%/mm(2) hepatic parenchyma) and the number of degenerative hepatic cells (N/100 hepatic cells). Licorice also inhibited the increment of Bad (a BH3 domain-containing protein) translocation by Cd in liver cells. These results demonstrate that licorice could have a hepatoprotective effect by inhibiting the translocation of Bad to the mitochondria in Cd-intoxificated rats.
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Bojesodok-eum, a Herbal Prescription, Ameliorates Acute Inflammation in Association with the Inhibition of NF-?B-Mediated Nitric Oxide and ProInflammatory Cytokine Production.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Bojesodok-eum (BSE) is a herbal prescription consisting of Coptidis Rhizoma and Scutellariae Radix as main components. This paper investigated the effects of BSE on the induction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and proinflammatory cytokines that are caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine macrophage cell line and on the paw edema formation in animals. Administration of BSE (0.3?g/kg and 1?g/kg) in rats significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema formation, as did dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory positive control drug. In cell model, treatment of BSE decreased the production of NO and PGE(2) in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. BSE also inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein as well as COX activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, BSE suppressed the ability of LPS to produce TNF-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6. LPS treatment induced nuclear NF-?B level and I-?B? phosphorylation, which were inhibited subsequent treatment of BSE, suggesting its repression of LPS-inducible NF-?B activation. BSE abrogated the induction of NO, PGE(2), and proinflammatory cytokines, as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS as mediated with NF-?B inhibition.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of bangpungtongsung-san, a traditional herbal prescription.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Bangpungtongsung-san (BPTS), a traditional oriental herbal prescription, is widely used for expelling wind, draining heat, and providing general improvement to the immune system. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPTS on induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- ) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells, and on paw edema in rats. At concentrations of 0.5, 0.75, and 1?mg/mL, treatment with BPTS inhibited levels of expression of LPS-induced NF-?B and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, and p38) as well as production of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by LPS. These results suggest that BPTS may exert anti-inflammatory effects via reduction of proinflammatory mediators, including NO, PGE(2), TNF-?, and IL-6 through suppression of the signaling pathways of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-induced macrophages. In addition, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, an antiedema effect of BPTS was observed in rats. These findings may provide scientific evidence validating the use of BPTS in treatment of patients with heat syndrome in Korean oriental medicine.
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Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Bupleurum falcatum on the L-Thyroxine-Induced Hyperthyroidism in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Bupleuri Radix (BR), the dried roots of Bupleurum falcatum L., has been used in folk medicine as an antiinflammatory and antioxidative agent. The aqueous extract of BR was evaluated for its possible ameliorative effect in the regulation of hyperthyroidism in l-thyroxine- (LT4-) induced rat model. After oral administration of 300, 150, and 75?mg/kg of BR extracts, once a day for 15 days from 12th LT4 treatments, changes on the body, thyroid gland, liver, and epididymal fat pad weights, serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, asparte aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations, hepatic lipid peroxidation, glutathione contents, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were investigated with thyroid gland, liver, and epididymal fat histopathological changes. The effects of BR extracts were compared with that of propylthiouracil, a standard antithyroid drug 10?mg/kg (intraperitoneally). In this experiment, BR extracts dose dependently reversed LT4-induced hyperthyroidisms, and these effects indicating their potential in the regulation of hyperthyroidism. Further, the BR extract normalized LT4-induced liver oxidative stresses, and also reduced liver and epididymal fat pad changes. BR extracts 150?mg/kg showed comparable effects on the LT4-induced rat hyperthyroidism as compared with PTU 10?mg/kg. These effects of BR may help the improvement of hyperthyroidisms and accompanied various organ damages.
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The Antioxidant Effects of Isorhamnetin Contribute to Inhibit COX-2 Expression in Response to Inflammation: A Potential Role of HO-1.
Inflammation
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Previously, we reported that isorhamnentin, a 3-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The present study further investigated the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of isorhamnentin. Administration of isorhamnetin decreased the number of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) positive cells in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. Isorhamnetin also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-2 in cells. It is well known that LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leads to COX-2 induction. Isorhamnetin decreased LPS-induced ROS production and apoptosis. In addition, the basal expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased by isorhamnetin treatment in agreement with the increase in nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), an essential transcription factor for the regulation of HO-1 expression. Moreover, pretreatment of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a chemical inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the ability of isothamnetin to inhibit COX-2 expression. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 by isorhamnetin leads to a reduction in ROS production and its antioxidant property might contribute to the inhibition of COX-2 expression in response to inflammation.
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