Neuroprotective effect of caffeoylquinic acids from Artemisia princeps Pampanini against oxidative stress-induced toxicity in PC-12 cells.
Phenolics in dry Artemisia princeps Pampanini, an herbal plant traditionally consumed as food ingredients in Korea was extracted, fractionated, and quantified as well as evaluated for its neuroprotection for PC-12 cells. Whole extract had 5,852 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of total phenolics and 6,274 mg and 9,698 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 g of antioxidant capacities assayed by DPPH and ABTS radicals, respectively. The fraction extracted with n-butanol had the highest levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than the other fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Using a reversed-phase HPLC system, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and its derivatives such as 3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, 1,5-diCQA, 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 4,5-diCQA were isolated and quantified. The whole extract and its n-butanol fraction yielded 3,5-diCQA with the highest amount, which consisted of approximately 36.8% and 33.5%, respectively. The whole extract, the n-butanol fraction, and 3,5-diCQA showed neuroprotective effect on PC-12 cells under the insult of amyloid ß peptide in a dose-dependent manner. Treatments of the whole extract and the n-butanol fraction for PC-12 cells under oxidative stress increased approximately 1.6 and 2.4 times higher cell viability, compared with the control without treatments. For PC-12 cells treated with 3,5-diCQA, intracellular oxidative stress decreased by 51.3% and cell viability increased up to 2.8 times compared to the control with oxidative insult of amyloid ß peptide only. These results indicate that phenolics from A. princeps Pampanini alleviated the oxidative stress and enhanced the viability of PC-12 cells, suggesting that it may be applied as a dietary antineurodegenerative agent in functional foods.