JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A study of the effects of physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling in porcine skin.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Many comparative studies of chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been reported. However, rare basic scientific data about the immediate effects after combined treatment with chemical peeling and dermabrasion have been confirmed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the application of physical abrasion in combination with chemical peels. Materials and methods: Three pigs were treated with physical abrasion using a water jet device in combination with an ?-hydroxy acid solution, and the skin samples of the control received chemical peeling solution alone. The levels of growth factors and neuropeptides were measured with a multiplex immunoassay. Result: Skin treated with physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling showed prominent detachment and swelling of the stratum corneum (SC), and fluid collection in the hair follicles. The mean cell count of CD34 positive fibroblasts and mast cells, levels of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and neurotensin, were significantly increased in the tissue treated with physical abrasion combined with a chemical peeling agent, compared to the skin in the control. Conclusion: We concluded that physical dermabrasion combined with chemical peeling can be more effective than chemical peeling alone, for the approach through transfollicular routes.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient lytic induction of kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) by the anthracyclines.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lytic induction of latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been considered as a therapeutic option for efficient treatment of several KSHV-associated malignancies. Here, we developed a robust high-throughput screening system that allows an easy and quantitative measurement of lytic induction of latent KSHV and discovered three anthracyclines as potent inducers from screen of FDA-approved drugs. Lytic induction of latent KSHV by three compounds was verified by the significant induction of lytic genes and subsequent production of infectious KSHV. Importantly, lytic induction by three compounds was much more efficient than that by sodium butyrate, a well-characterized inducer of KSHV lytic cycle. Mechanistically, the anthracyclines caused lytic induction of KSHV through apoptosis induced by their DNA intercalation rather than topoisomerase II inhibition. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrated a role of anthracyclines as effective lytic inducers of KSHV and also provided a molecular basis of their use for efficient treatment of diseases associated with KSHV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Laxity after complete release of the medial collateral ligament in primary total knee arthroplasty.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medial collateral ligament (MCL) release is one of the essential steps toward the achievement of ligament balancing during the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with varus deformity. When the varus deformity is severe, complete release of the MCL until balanced is often required. However, it is believed that complete MCL release may lead to catastrophic laxity. The purpose of this prospective study is to compare the medial joint gap opening in postoperative valgus stress radiograph in patients with complete MCL release against patients with partial release.
Related JoVE Video
Algorithm for detecting seam cracks in steel plates using a Gabor filter combination method.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Presently, product inspection based on vision systems is an important part of the steel-manufacturing industry. In this work, we focus on the detection of seam cracks in the edge region of steel plates. Seam cracks are generated in the vertical direction, and their width range is 0.2-0.6 mm. Moreover, the gray values of seam cracks are only 20-30 gray levels lower than those of the neighboring surface. Owing to these characteristics, we propose a new algorithm for detecting seam cracks using a Gabor filter combination method. To enhance the performance, we extracted features of seam cracks and employed a support vector machine classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is suitable for detecting seam cracks.
Related JoVE Video
A novel esterase from Paenibacillus sp. PBS-2 is a new member of the ?-lactamase belonging to the family VIII lipases/esterases.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Screening of a gene library from Paenibacillus sp. PBS-2 generated in Escherichia coli led to the identification of a clone with lipolytic activity. Sequence analysis showed an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 378 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 42 kDa. The esterase displayed 69% and 42% identity with the putative ?-lactamases from Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 and Clostridium sp. BNL1100, respectively. The esterase contained a Serx- x-Lys motif that is conserved among all ?-lactamases found to date. The protein PBS-2 was produced in both soluble and insoluble forms when E. coli cells harboring the gene were cultured at 18°C. The enzyme is a serine protein and was active against p-nitrophenyl esters of C2, C4, C8, and C10. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were pH 9.0 and 30°C, respectively. Relative activity of 55% remained at up to 5°C with an activation energy of 5.84 kcal/mol, which indicates that the enzyme is cold-adapted. Enzyme activity was inhibited by Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Hg(2+) ions. As expected for a serine esterase, activity was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. The enzyme was remarkably active and stable in the presence of commercial detergents and organic solvents. This cold-adapted esterase has potential as a biocatalyst and detergent additive for use at low temperatures.
Related JoVE Video
Coumestrol induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating Sirt1 in cultured skeletal muscle cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mitochondrion is a central organelle in cellular energy homeostasis; thus, reduced mitochondrial activity has been associated with aging and metabolic disorders. This paper provides biological evidence that coumestrol, which is a natural isoflavone, activates mitochondrial biogenesis. In cultured myocytes, coumestrol activated the silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (Sirt1) through the elevation of the intracellular NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Coumestrol also increased the mitochondrial contents and induced the expression of key proteins in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain in cultured myocytes. A Sirt1 inhibitor and Sirt1-targeting siRNAs abolished the effect of coumestrol on mitochondrial biogenesis. Similar to an increase in mitochondrial content, coumestrol improved myocyte function with increased ATP concentration. Taken together, the data suggest that coumestrol is a novel inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis through the activation of Sirt1.
Related JoVE Video
The safety and efficacy of poly-L-lactic acid on sunken cheeks in Asians.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer device used for correction of facial contour deficiencies, with a gradual onset of effect that is maintained for up to 25 months. PLLA is currently widely used to correct age-related facial volume deficits in Asians.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protein stability by gp78-associated endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Triacylglycerol (TG) is the major form of stored energy in eukaryotic organisms and is synthesized by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). DGAT2, one of the two DGAT enzymes, is barely detectable in cells, even though its mRNA transcripts are maintained at considerable levels. However, little is known about how DGAT2 expression is altered by protein stability. DGAT2 was highly unstable in cells and was rapidly degraded by proteasomes in an ubiquitin-dependent manner. Deletion mutation analysis identified transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1) as a protein degradation signal. TMD1 is also important for ER localization of DGAT2. Moreover, DGAT2 interacted with p97/VCP, a crucial component of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, and polyubiquitinated DGAT2 accumulated following treatment with an ERAD inhibitor. Furthermore, gp78, an E3 ligase involved in ERAD, regulates the degradation of DGAT2 through direct interactions and ubiquitination. Consequently, the stabilization of DGAT2 increased the number of lipid droplets in hepatic cells. Therefore, DGAT2 is regulated by gp78-associated ERAD at the post-translational level.
Related JoVE Video
A macrophage NBR1-MEKK3 complex triggers JNK-mediated adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) is a critical determinant of obesity-associated inflammation and glucose intolerance. The upstream mechanisms controlling this pathway are still unknown. Here we report that the levels of the PB1 domain-containing adaptor NBR1 correlated with the expression of proinflammatory molecules in adipose tissue from human patients with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that NBR1 plays a key role in adipose-tissue inflammation. We also show that NBR1 inactivation in the myeloid compartment impairs the function, M1 polarization, and chemotactic activity of macrophages; prevents inflammation of adipose tissue; and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an interaction between the PB1 domains of NBR1 and the mitogen-activated kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) enables the formation of a signaling complex required for the activation of JNK. Together, these discoveries identify an NBR1-MEKK3 complex as a key regulator of JNK signaling and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Defect detection for corner cracks in steel billets using a wavelet reconstruction method.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Presently, automatic inspection algorithms are widely used to ensure high-quality products and achieve high productivity in the steelmaking industry. In this paper, we propose a vision-based method for detecting corner cracks on the surface of steel billets. Because of the presence of scales composed of oxidized substances, the billet surfaces are not uniform and vary considerably with the lighting conditions. To minimize the influence of scales and improve the accuracy of detection, a detection method based on a visual inspection algorithm is proposed. Wavelet reconstruction is used to reduce the effect of scales. Texture and morphological features are used to identify the corner cracks among the defective candidates. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective in detecting corner cracks on the surfaces of the steel billets.
Related JoVE Video
Biorefinery of instant noodle waste to biofuels.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolite changes signal genetic regulatory mechanisms for robust cell behavior.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exploiting mechanisms of utilizing the sugar d-galactose in Escherichia coli as a model system, we explored the consequences of accumulation of critical intermediates of the d-galactose metabolic pathways by monitoring cell growth, metabolites, and transcript profiles. These studies revealed both metabolic network changes far from the d-galactose pathway and changes in the global gene regulatory network. The concentration change of a critical intermediate disturbs the equilibrium state, generating a ripple effect through several metabolic pathways that ends up signaling up- or downregulation of specific sets of genes in a programmed manner to cope with the imbalance. Such long-range effects on metabolites and genetic regulatory mechanisms not only may be a common feature in bacteria but very likely operate during cellular development and differentiation in higher organisms as well as in disease cells, like cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Peritonsillar Involvement in Pyoderma Gangrenosum associated with Ulcerative Colitis.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peritonsillar abscess is a common deep throat infection. Early diagnosis and prompt, appropriate management of a peritonsillar abscess prevents mortality. A 45-year-old woman on steroids for an ulcerative colitis (UC) exacerbation presented with sore throat and multiple skin ulcers on her left forearm and right foot. Computed tomography of the neck revealed a peritonsillar abscess. Gram staining and culture of the abscess were negative, and a skin biopsy suggested pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). The final diagnosis was peritonsillar involvement of steroid-refractory PG-associated UC. The patient showed a complete response to infliximab. Here, we report a case of successful infliximab treatment for peritonsillar involvement of steroid-refractory PG-associated UC.
Related JoVE Video
Structural insights into conserved L-arabinose metabolic enzymes reveal the substrate binding site of a thermophilic L-arabinose isomerase.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structural genomics demonstrates that despite low levels of structural similarity of proteins comprising a metabolic pathway, their substrate binding regions are likely to be conserved. Herein based on the 3D-structures of the ?/?-fold proteins involved in the ara operon, we attempted to predict the substrate binding residues of thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-arabinose isomerase (GSAI) with no 3D-structure available. Comparison of the structures of L-arabinose catabolic enzymes revealed a conserved feature to form the substrate-binding modules, which can be extended to predict the substrate binding site of GSAI (i.e., D195, E261 and E333). Moreover, these data implicated that proteins in the l-arabinose metabolic pathway might retain their substrate binding niches as the modular structure through conserved molecular evolution even with totally different structural scaffolds.
Related JoVE Video
Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling in the mouse liver following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although many studies have been performed on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, only a limited number of reports have investigated these effects on non-skin tissue. This study aimed to describe the metabolite changes in the liver of hairless mice following chronic exposure to UVB radiation. We did not observe significant macroscopic changes or alterations in hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver of UVB-irradiated mice, compared with those for normal mice. In this study, we detected hepatic metabolite changes by UVB exposure and identified several amino acids, fatty acids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and taurine-conjugated cholic acids as candidate biomarkers in response to UVB radiation in the mouse liver by using various mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling including ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF)-MS, gas chromatography-TOF-MS and nanomate LTQ-MS. Glutamine exhibited the most dramatic change with a 5-fold increase in quantity. The results from altering several types of metabolites suggest that chronic UVB irradiation may impact significantly on major hepatic metabolism processes, despite the fact that the liver is not directly exposed to UVB radiation. MS-based metabolomic approach for determining regulatory hepatic metabolites following UV irradiation will provide a better understanding of the relationship between internal organs and UV light.
Related JoVE Video
Short-term differential adaptation to anaerobic stress via genomic mutations by Escherichia coli strains K-12 and B lacking alcohol dehydrogenase.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial adaptations often occur via genomic mutations under adverse environmental conditions. This study used Escherichia coli ?adhE cells as a model system to investigate adaptation to anaerobic conditions, which we then compared with the adaptive mechanisms of two closely related E. coli strains, K-12 and B. In contrast to K-12 ?adhE cells, the E. coli B ?adhE cells exhibited significantly delayed adaptive growth under anaerobic conditions. Adaptation by the K-12 and B strains mainly employed anaerobic lactate fermentation to restore cellular growth. Several mutations were identified in the pta or pflB genes of adapted K-12 cells, but mostly in the pta gene of the B strains. However, the types of mutation in the adapted K-12 and B strains were similar. Cellular viability was affected directly by severe redox imbalance in B ?adhE cells, which also impaired their ability to adapt to anaerobic conditions. This study demonstrates that closely related microorganisms may undergo different adaptations under the same set of adverse conditions, which might be associated with the specific metabolic characteristics of each strain. This study provides new insights into short-term microbial adaptation to stressful conditions, which may reflect dynamic microbial population changes in nature.
Related JoVE Video
Controlled localization of functionally active proteins to inclusion bodies using leucine zippers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inclusion bodies (IBs) are typically non-functional particles of aggregated proteins. However, some proteins in fusion with amyloid-like peptides, viral coat proteins, and cellulose binding domains (CBDs) generate IB particles retaining the original functions in cells. Here, we attempted to generate CBD IBs displaying functional leucine zipper proteins (LZs) as bait for localizing cytosolic proteins in E. coli. When a red fluorescent protein was tested as a target protein, microscopic observations showed that the IBs red-fluoresced strongly. When different LZ pairs with KDs of 8-1,000 µM were tested as the bait and prey, the localization of the red fluorescence appeared to change following the affinities between the LZs, as observed by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. This result proposed that LZ-tagged CBD IBs can be applied as an in vivo matrix to entrap cytosolic proteins in E. coli while maintaining their original activities. In addition, easy detection of localization to IBs provides a unique platform for the engineering and analyses of protein-protein interactions in E. coli.
Related JoVE Video
Toward a Generalized and High-throughput Enzyme Screening System Based on Artificial Genetic Circuits.
ACS Synth Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Large-scale screening of enzyme libraries is essential for the development of cost-effective biological processes, which will be indispensable for the production of sustainable biobased chemicals. Here, we introduce a genetic circuit termed the Genetic Enzyme Screening System that is highly useful for high-throughput enzyme screening from diverse microbial metagenomes. The circuit consists of two AND logics. The first AND logic, the two inputs of which are the target enzyme and its substrate, is responsible for the accumulation of a phenol compound in cell. Then, the phenol compound and its inducible transcription factor, whose activation turns on the expression of a reporter gene, interact in the other logic gate. We confirmed that an individual cell harboring this genetic circuit can present approximately a 100-fold higher cellular fluorescence than the negative control and can be easily quantified by flow cytometry depending on the amounts of phenolic derivatives. The high sensitivity of the genetic circuit enables the rapid discovery of novel enzymes from metagenomic libraries, even for genes that show marginal activities in a host system. The crucial feature of this approach is that this single system can be used to screen a variety of enzymes that produce a phenol compound from respective synthetic phenyl-substrates, including cellulase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, tyrosine phenol-lyase, and methyl parathion hydrolase. Consequently, the highly sensitive and quantitative nature of this genetic circuit along with flow cytometry techniques could provide a widely applicable toolkit for discovering and engineering novel enzymes at a single cell level.
Related JoVE Video
Rejuvenation effects of hyaluronic acid injection on nasojugal groove: Prospective randomized split face clinical controlled study.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Pronounced nasojugal groove (tear trough deformity) is one of the landmarks of aging. Hyaluronic acid filler can be used for attenuating the nasojugal sulcus but irregular lumpness and overcorrection are common adverse reactions. Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Restylane Vital(®) with its specialized injector on volume correction and skin tone of nasojugal groove. Subjects and method: Ten Korean women were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomized to be injected a stabilized hyaluronic acid-based gel of nonanimal origin (NAHSA injector, Restylane Vital(®), Q-med) on one side of nasojugal groove, with the other side paired as control. The treatment was performed in one session. Outcome assessments included standardized photography, mexameter, and spectrometer for skin tone, global evaluation by blinded investigators, and patients self-assessment. An assessment was made before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment. Results: All patients reported a high degree of satisfaction. Duration of overall effect varied among the patients. Correction of the nasojugal groove with a Restylane Vital(®) injector causes minimal tissue trauma and allows exact placement of hyaluronic acid. Restylane Vital(®) injector offers more predictable results and a lower incidence of adverse effects than more commonly used techniques. Conclusions: Hyaluronic acid filler intradermal injection with special injector is a safe and effective method for correction of nasojugal groove.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of collagen tripeptide supplement on skin properties: A prospective, randomized, controlled study.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Experimental and clinical trials have indicated that dietary supplements can have beneficial effects on skin health. Objective: We investigated to evaluate the effect of daily collagen peptide (CP) supplement on skin properties. Methods: Thirty-two healthy volunteers were randomized to receive either no supplement (Group A), CP 3 g (Group B), CP 3 g, and vitamin C 500 mg (Group C), or vitamin C 500 mg (Group D) daily for 12 weeks. Skin properties evaluated included hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and elasticity using a corneometer, tewameter, and cutometer, respectively. Results: Changes from baseline in the corneometer were statistically significant between Groups A and B (p = 0.011) and Groups A and C (p = 0.004). There were statistically significant differences in cutometer from baseline between Groups A and B (p = 0.005) and Groups A and C (p = 0.015). There was no significant difference from baseline in the corneometer and cutometer between Groups B and C. The greatest changes in TEWL from baseline were seen in Group B, and the second greatest changes were seen in Group C. Conclusions: Daily CP supplementation may improve skin hydration and elasticity, but concomitant intake of low-dose vitamin C did not enhance the effect of CP on skin properties.
Related JoVE Video
Draft Genome Sequence of an Anaerobic and Extremophilic Bacterium, Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis, Isolated from a Geothermal Hot Stream.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Caldanaerobacter yonseiensis is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a geothermal hot stream in Indonesia. This bacterium utilizes xylose and produces a variety of proteases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of C. yonseiensis, which reveals insights into the pentose phosphate pathway and protein degradation metabolism in thermophilic microorganisms.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic organization of two types of flounder warm-temperature acclimation-associated 65-kDa protein and their gene expression profiles.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We isolated and characterized two cDNA clone encoding warm-temperature acclimation-associated 65-kDa proteins (PoWap65-1 and PoWap65-2) from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The deduced amino acid sequences of PoWap65s showed overall identities of 33-73% with other fish Wap65 and mammalian hemopexin-like proteins. The 5-flanking regions of both PoWap65-encoding genes contained various putative transcriptional elements. While PoWap65-1 and PoWap65-2 were structurally similar, they exhibited highly differential patterns of expression. PoWap65-1 was expressed only in the liver, whereas PoWap65-2 transcripts were detected in a wide range of tissues. The accumulation of PoWap65s mRNA was expressed differentially during development. Expression of them in warm temperatures also differed in flounder embryonic cells. PoWap65-1 was upregulated by temperature stimulation whereas PoWap65-2 was not detected. PoWap65s were highly regulated by Edwardsiella tarda infection and hypoxia. Pathogen challenge induced PoWap65-2 expression in the liver whereas PoWap65-1 was downregulated. Hypoxia induced the expression of both PoWap65s in the liver of juvenile fish.
Related JoVE Video
Genome Sequence of Marine Bacterium Idiomarina sp. Strain 28-8, Isolated from Korean Ark Shells.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiomarina sp. strain 28-8 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, flagellar bacterium isolated from the bodies of ark shells (Scapharca broughtonii) collected from underwater sediments in Gangjin Bay, South Korea. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Idiomarina sp. 28-8 (2,971,606 bp, with a G+C content of 46.9%), containing 2,795 putative coding sequences.
Related JoVE Video
Genome Sequences of Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis Strains DSM 43388 and DSM 46075.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Strains of Amycolatopsis orientalis produce vancomycin or other related glycopeptide antibiotic compounds. Here we report the draft genome sequences of glycopeptide nonproducers Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis DSM 43388 and DSM 46075. Their genome information will provide insights into the acquisition and regulation of glycopeptide antibiotic resistance genes.
Related JoVE Video
Co-fermentation of carbon sources by Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 to enhance the production of bioethanol.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the enhancement of bioethanol production in Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 by co-fermentation of carbon sources such as glycerol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, fructose, xylose, starch, mannitol and citric acid. Biofuel production increases with increasing growth rate of microorganisms; that is why we investigated the optimal growth rate of E. aerogenes ATCC 29007, using mixtures of different carbon sources with glycerol. E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 was incubated in media containing each carbon source and glycerol; growth rate and bioethanol production improved in all cases compared to those in medium containing glycerol alone. The growth rate and bioethanol production were highest with mannitol. Fermentation was carried out at 37 °C for 18 h, pH 7, using 50 mL defined production medium in 100 mL serum bottles at 200 rpm. Bioethanol production under optimized conditions in medium containing 16 g/L mannitol and 20 g/L glycerol increased sixfold (32.10 g/L) than that containing glycerol alone (5.23 g/L) as the carbon source in anaerobic conditions. Similarly, bioethanol production using free cells in continuous co-fermentation also improved (27.28 g/L) when 90.37 % of 16 g/L mannitol and 67.15 % of 20 g/L glycerol were used. Although naturally existing or engineered microorganisms can ferment mixed sugars sequentially, the preferential utilization of glucose to non-glucose sugars often results in lower overall yield and productivity of ethanol. Here, we present new findings in E. aerogenes ATCC 29007 that can be used to improve bioethanol production by simultaneous co-fermentation of glycerol and mannitol.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble interleukin-6 receptor is a prognostic marker for relapse-free survival in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Considering the protumorigenic roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6) transsignaling, we assessed the serum levels of IL-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) in 143 patients with breast cancer. Serum levels of IL-6 were elevated with advanced T and N stage. Serum levels of sIL-6R were lower in patients with estrogen receptor-positive cancer. The median values of IL-6 and sgp130 did not differ between patients with recurrence and those without recurrence. However, higher serum levels of sIL-6R at diagnosis were associated with significantly shorter relapse-free survival in patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Control of total GFP expression by alterations to the 3 region nucleotide sequence.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we distinguished the Escherichia coli type II cytoplasmic membrane translocation pathways of Tat, Yid, and Sec for unfolded and folded soluble target proteins. The translocation of folded protein to the periplasm for soluble expression via the Tat pathway was controlled by an N-terminal hydrophilic leader sequence. In this study, we investigated the effect of the hydrophilic C-terminal end and its nucleotide sequence on total and soluble protein expression.
Related JoVE Video
Genome Sequence of the Vancomycin-Producing Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis Strain KCTC 9412T.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amycolatopsis orientalis is the producer of vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that is used for the treatment of serious infections with Gram-positive bacteria. Here we present the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based 9.06-Mb draft genome sequence of the type strain Amycolatopsis orientalis subsp. orientalis KCTC 9412 (DSM 40040; ATCC 19795).
Related JoVE Video
The efficacy of a microwave device for treating axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians: a preliminary study.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A microwave-based device has been developed to treat axillary hyperhidrosis by selectively heating the interface between the skin and underlying fat in the axilla. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of microwave-based devices for axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians. Eleven patients (8 females and 3 males, age range 20-52 years, mean age 37.6 years) with axillary hyperhidrosis or osmidrosis were enrolled, treated with the microwave-based device, and followed up for 7 months. Procedure efficacy, patient satisfaction, and treatment safety were assessed. The clinical records were reviewed and the patients were interviewed individually at follow-up visits or via telephone. Evaluation of sweating showed at least a 2-point drop or greater in hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) in 83.3% subjects (10/12 axillae) as measured at the 7-month follow-up. Of 16 axillae with osmidrosis, 93.8% (15/16 axillae) showed good to excellent results. Histologic findings also showed destruction of eccrine and apocrine glands that were replaced with fibrosis. Regarding safety, altered sensation of arms developed in one case that resolved after 3 months. This novel microwave-based treatment appears to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and osmidrosis in Asians.
Related JoVE Video
Improved electroluminescence from ZnO light-emitting diodes by p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on the effect of a p-type MgZnO electron blocking layer (EBL) on the electroluminescence from n-type ZnO/undoped ZnO/p-type ZnO light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The p-type Mg(0.1)Zn(0.9)O EBL was introduced between the undoped and p-type ZnO layers. The p-type Mg(0.1)Zn(0.9)O EBL increased the ultraviolet emission by 140% at 60 mA and decreased the broad deep-level emission from ZnO LEDs. The calculated band structures and carrier distribution in ZnO LEDs show that p-type Mg(0.1)Zn(0.9)O EBL effectively suppresses the electron overflow from undoped ZnO to p-type ZnO and increases the hole concentration in the undoped ZnO layer.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid analysis of barley straw before and after dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment by photoluminescence.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fluorescence intensities (FIs) of raw and pretreated barley straws were measured by fluorescence microscopy, and the difference in the fluorescence intensity of barley straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment was analyzed by investigation of the major compounds of barley straw. The difference in fluorescence intensity was due to the difference in xylan content. Barley straw was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at various conditions and the correlation between the fluorescence intensity and glucose yield of barley straw was investigated. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the correlation was found to be 72.28%. Also the calibration of fluorescence intensity with the xylan content was performed. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of the raw and the pretreated barley straw were examined to verify the proposed method. The absorption and emission wave lengths were 550 nm and 665 nm, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Development of glycerol-utilizing Escherichia coli strain for the production of bioethanol.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The production of bioethanol was studied using recombinant Escherichia coli with glycerol as a carbon source. Glycerol is an attractive feedstock for biofuels production since it is generated as a major byproduct in biodiesel industry; therefore, we investigated the conversion of glycerol to bioethanol using E. coli BL21 (DE3) which harbors several genes in ethanol production pathway of Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190. Fermentation was carried out at 34°C for 42h, pH 7.6, using defined production medium. Under optimal conditions, bioethanol production by the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3), strain pEB, was two-fold (3.01g/L) greater than that (1.45g/L) by the wild-type counterpart. The results obtained in this study will provide valuable guidelines for engineering bioethanol producers.
Related JoVE Video
Amplification of DNA remnants in mummified human brains from medieval Joseon tombs of Korea.
Anthropol Anz
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, a number of mummified brains obtained from the remains of medieval Joseon Koreans have been subjected to biological investigations. Although the morphology of the organs had been perfectly maintained on gross examination, we still do not know how well biomolecules such as DNA were preserved. In the present study, the preservation status of remnant DNA in mummified brain tissue was determined by means of comparisons with corresponding DNA taken from the femurs of the same subjects. Quantifiler analysis revealed that DNA from the mummified brain was less fragmented than that contained in the femurs. The better preservation status of the brain DNA was shown also in MiniFiler assays: the number of short tandem repeat (STR) locus profiles for the mummified brain was far higher than in the case of the femur bones. In the case of the mtDNA analysis, longer DNA fragments (821 bp) could be successfully amplified with brain samples, whereas only shorter PCR amplicons (221-263 bp) were seen with the femur samples. Indeed mummified brain tissue, if discovered in amounts suitable for ancient DNA analysis, promises to be the preferred source for genetic analysis of individuals from pre-modern Korean tombs.
Related JoVE Video
c-Myc phosphorylation by PKC? represses prostate tumorigenesis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies showing reduced PKC? expression or enzymatic activity in different types of human cancers support the clinical relevance of PKC? as a tumor suppressor. However, the in vivo role of PKC? and its mechanisms of action in prostate cancer remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the genetic inactivation of PKC? in mice results in invasive prostate carcinoma in vivo in the context of phosphatase and tensin homolog deficiency. Bioinformatic analysis of human prostate cancer gene-expression sets revealed increased c-Myc transcriptional activity in PKC?-inactive cells, which correlated with increased cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Interestingly, PKC? knockdown or the overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in vitro through increased c-Myc mRNA and protein levels and decreased Ser-373 phosphorylation of c-Myc. Analysis of prostate cancer samples demonstrated increased expression and decreased phosphorylation of c-Myc at Ser-373 in PKC? knockout tumors. In vivo xenograft studies revealed that c-Myc phosphorylation by PKC? is a critical event in the control of metastasis. Collectively, these results establish PKC? as an important tumor suppressor and regulator of c-Myc function in prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and functional characterizations of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor FcKuSPI of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serine proteinase inhibitors play important and diverse roles in biological processes such as coagulation, defense mechanisms, and immune responses. Here, we identified and characterized a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor, designated FcKuSPI, of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine proteinase inhibitors from the hemocyte cDNA library of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcKuSPI comprises 80 residues with a putative signal peptide of 15 amino acids. The predicted molecular weight of the mature peptide is 7.66 kDa and its predicted isoelectric point is 8.84. FcKuSPI includes a Kunitz domain containing six conserved cysteine residues that are predicted to form three disulfide bonds. FcKuSPI shares 44-53% homology with BPTI/Kunitz family members from other species. FcKuSPI mRNA was expressed highly in the hemocytes and moderately in muscle in healthy shrimp. Recombinant FcKuSPI protein demonstrated anti-protease activity against trypsin and anticoagulant activity against citrated human plasma in a dose-dependent manner in in vitro assays.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of a small molecule activator of SIRT1 gene expression.
Aging (Albany NY)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased SIRT1 expression exerts beneficial effects in transgenic animal models, ameliorating the onset and progression of aging-related disease phenotypes in various organs including the heart. The potential beneficial effects of SIRT1 have made SIRT1 a prime therapeutic target for age-related diseases and considerable efforts led to the identification of small molecule activator of SIRT1 protein. Thus far, however, a small molecule activator of SIRT1 gene expression has not been reported. Here, we report that syringaresinol, isolated from Panax ginseng berry pulp, is an activator of SIRT1 gene expression. Using human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), we show that syringaresinol treatment induced binding of FOXO3 to the SIRT1 promoter in a sequence-specific manner, leading to induction of SIRT1 expression. Increased SIRT1 expression in HUVECs by syringaresinol treatment delayed cellular senescence and improved various markers of endothelial functions in a FOXO3 dependent manner. Collectively, these findings bring to light a new transcription activator of SIRT1 that may have therapeutic potential.
Related JoVE Video
Litoreibacter halocynthiae sp. nov., isolated from the sea squirt Halocynthia roretzi.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and coccoid, ovoid or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated P-MA1-7(T), was isolated from a sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) collected from the South Sea, Korea. Strain P-MA1-7(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain P-MA1-7(T) fell within the cluster comprising the type strains of four species of the genus Litoreibacter, exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.0-98.5% to these four type strains and less than 95.9% sequence similarity to the strains of the other species examined. Strain P-MA1-7(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)?7c as the predominant fatty acid. The major polar lipids of strain P-MA1-7(T) were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain P-MA1-7(T) was 58.3 mol% and DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain P-MA1-7(T) with the type strains of the four species of the genus Litoreibacter were in the range of 8-21%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain P-MA1-7(T) was separate from other species of the genus Litoreibacter. On the basis of these data, strain P-MA1-7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Litoreibacter, for which the name Litoreibacter halocynthiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P-MA1-7(T) (?=KCTC 32213(T)?=CCUG 63416(T)).
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of subwavelength metal hole array structure for the enhancement of back-illuminated quantum dot infrared photodetectors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper is focused on analyzing the impact of a two-dimensional metal hole array structure integrated to the back-illuminated quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) infrared photodetectors. The metal hole array consisting of subwavelength-circular holes penetrating gold layer (2D-Au-CHA) provides the enhanced responsivity of DWELL infrared photodetector at certain wavelengths. The performance of 2D-Au-CHA is investigated by calculating the absorption of active layer in the DWELL structure using a finite integration technique. Simulation results show that the performance of the DWELL focal plane array (FPA) is improved by enhancing the coupling to active layer via local field engineering resulting from a surface plasmon polariton mode and a guided Fabry-Perot mode. Simulation method accomplished in this paper provides a generalized approach to optimize the design of any type of couplers integrated to infrared photodetectors. Experimental results demonstrate the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio by the 2D-Au-CHA integrated FPA as compared to the DWELL FPA. A comparison between the experiment and the simulation shows a good agreement.
Related JoVE Video
Localized surface plasmon-enhanced near-ultraviolet emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes using silver and platinum nanoparticles.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) using silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs). The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with metal NPs is higher by 20.1% for NUV-LEDs with Ag NPs and 57.9% for NUV-LEDs with Pt NPs at 20 mA than that of NUV-LEDs without metal NPs. The time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra shows that the decay times of NUV-LEDs with Ag and Pt NPs are faster than that of NUV-LEDs without metal NPs. The TR-PL and absorbance spectra of metal NPs indicate that the spontaneous emission rate is increased by resonance coupling between excitons in the multiple quantum wells and LSPs in the metal NPs.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide analysis of redox reactions reveals metabolic engineering targets for D-lactate overproduction in Escherichia coli.
Metab. Eng.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most current metabolic engineering applications rely on the inactivation of unwanted reactions and the amplification of product-oriented reactions. All of the biochemical reactions involved with cellular metabolism are tightly coordinated with the electron flow, which depends on the cellular energy status. Thus, the cellular metabolic flux can be controlled either by modulation of the electron flow or the regulation of redox reactions. This study analyzed the genome-wide anaerobic fermentation products of 472 Escherichia coli single gene knockouts, which comprised mainly of dehydrogenases, oxidoreductases, and redox-related proteins. Many metabolic pathways that were located far from anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation significantly affected the profiles of lactic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol. Unexpectedly, D-lactate overproduction was determined by a single gene deletion in dehydrogenases (e.g., guaB, pyrD, and serA) involved with nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the combined knockouts of guaB, pyrD, serA, fnr, arcA, or arcB genes, which are involved with anaerobic transcription regulation, enhanced D-lactate overproduction. These results suggest that the anaerobic fermentation profiles of E. coli can be tuned via the disruption of peripheral dehydrogenases in anaerobic conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Green tea formulations with vitamin C and xylitol on enhanced intestinal transport of green tea catechins.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol on intestinal cell transport of gallated and nongallated catechin was studied. The transport of catechins from both apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical directions was measured. The effect of vitamin C (4, 10, 20 ppm), xylitol (11, 27.5, 55 ppm), and combinations of both on the intestinal transport rate of catechins was examined. The efflux value (Pb?a/Pa?b) of (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin (EC), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) was 0.26, 0.22, 1.22, and 0.17, respectively, indicating that EC appeared to be less absorbed compared with other catechins. The addition of xylitol (11, 27.5, 55 ppm) and vitamin C (4, 10, 20 ppm) and in combination enhanced transport rate of nongallated catechins such as EC and EGC. For EC, vitamin C was revealed to be the most effective on intestinal transport, implying the inhibition of the efflux transport mechanism of EC. Intestinal transport of gallated catechins significantly increased from catechins formulated with vitamin C and xylitol in a dose-dependent manner compared to the catechin-only formulation. Results provide a potential strategy to enhance the delivery and bioavailability of catechins in humans by modulating green tea formulation with vitamin C and xylitol.
Related JoVE Video
In situ estimation of applied biaxial loads with Lamb waves.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spatially distributed arrays of piezoelectric disks are being applied to monitor structural integrity using Lamb waves. Applied loads directly affect waves propagating between array elements because of dimensional changes and the acoustoelastic effect. Resulting changes in phase velocity depend upon the propagation direction as well as the Lamb wave mode and frequency. This paper shows from numerical solutions of the acoustoelastic wave equation for an isotropic plate that it is possible to decouple the effects of a homogeneous biaxial stress into its two principal components. As a consequence of both this decoupling and material isotropy, the acoustoelastic response of a specific mode and frequency is described by only two constants, which can be determined from a uniaxial loading experiment. Using this formulation, a method is developed and verified via simulations to estimate an arbitrary biaxial load from phase velocity changes measured along multiple directions of propagation. Results from uniaxial loading experiments on two different plates further demonstrate the efficacy of the method. It is also shown that opening fatigue cracks may significantly degrade results by interfering with Lamb wave direct arrivals, but that this degradation can be mitigated by using a reduced set of data from unaffected paths of propagation.
Related JoVE Video
Inactivation of Metabolic Genes Causes Short- and Long-Range dys-Regulation in Escherichia coli Metabolic Network.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The metabolic network in E. coli can be severely affected by the inactivation of metabolic genes that are required to catabolize a nutrient (D-galactose). We hypothesized that the resulting accumulation of small molecules can yield local as well as systemic effects on the metabolic network. Analysis of metabolomics data in wild-type and D-galactose non-utilizing mutants, galT, galU and galE, reveal the large metabolic differences between the wild-type and the mutants when the strains were grown in D-galactose. Network mapping suggested that the enzymatic defects affected the metabolic modules located both at short- and long-ranges from the D-galactose metabolic module. These modules suggested alterations in glutathione, energy, nucleotide and lipid metabolism and disturbed carbon to nitrogen ratio in mutant strains. The altered modules are required for normal cell growth for the wild-type strain, explaining why the cell growth is inhibited in the mutants in the presence of D-galactose. Identification of these distance-based dys-regulations would enhance the systems level understanding of metabolic networks of microorganisms having importance in biomedical and biotechnological research.
Related JoVE Video
Pretreatment of rice straw with combined process using dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Use of lignocellulosic biomass has received attention lately because it can be converted into various versatile chemical compounds by biological processes. In this study, a two-step pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia was performed efficiently on rice straw to obtain fermentable sugar. The soaking in aqueous ammonia process was also optimized by a statistical method.
Related JoVE Video
Design and development of synthetic microbial platform cells for bioenergy.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes,non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass-degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.
Related JoVE Video
Capacitance transient analysis of different-sized InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The energy states of InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) were analyzed by comparing between two QD systems with different QD sizes. The electrical properties of the QD systems were investigated via capacitance-voltage measurements and capacitance transient spectroscopy (also known as deep-level transient spectroscopy) with selective carrier injection and extraction which can be achieved with very small pulse amplitude under bias variation. For the large QDs, several energy states were found with the use of selective carrier injection and extraction. The thermal-activation energies obtained from the capacitance transient spectra of the large QDs were distributed from 70 to 600 meV. This energy distribution was originated from the quantized states of the individual QDs and the size distribution of the QDs. The spectra of the small QDs showed a well-defined energy state of E(c) - 132 meV. From these results, it was estimated that two to four electrons fill a single QD under the proper measurement bias of 0.2 V pulse.
Related JoVE Video
A novel cold-adapted esterase from Salinisphaera sp. P7-4: gene cloning, overproduction, and characterization.
J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salinisphaera sp. P7-4 was isolated from the intestine of silver whiting, Sillago japonicas caught in the Pacific Ocean, and the esterase gene was cloned using the shotgun method. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence (951 bp) corresponded to a protein of 316 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 34,443. The esterase had 46 and 44% identities with the esterase enzymes of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 and Rhodopseudomonas palustris HaA2, respectively. The primary structure of P7-4 esterase showed the conserved catalytic triad (Ser, Asp, His), consensus pentapeptide GXSXG, and oxyanion hole sequence (HG). The protein P7-4 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli in a biologically active form. The enzyme showed high catalytic activity at low temperatures (5-25° C) with an activation energy of 2.18 kcal/mol. This result indicated that the esterase from Salinisphaera sp. P7-4 is a new cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed acyl-group chains with short chain lengths of ?10 carbon. Metal ions such as Cd2(+), Co2(+), Cu2(+), Hg2(+), Ni2(+) and Zn2(+) inhibited enzymatic activity. Additionally, EDTA has no effect on its activity, whereas inhibition was observed with PMSF, a serine hydrolase inhibitor.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Significance of Age at the Time of Diagnosis among Young Breast Cancer Patients.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes corresponding to age at diagnosis as categorized into 5-year intervals and to explore whether endocrine-responsive tumors display clinical benefits from endocrine therapy after chemotherapy among young breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
A split-face study using botulinum toxin type B to decrease facial erythema index.
J Cosmet Laser Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A reddish tone in facial skin is a common concern of patients who suffer from facial flushing. No studies have been conducted to date for evaluation of the effect of botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B) on facial flushing.
Related JoVE Video
Intense focused ultrasound tightening in Asian skin: clinical and pathologic results.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laxity and wrinkles of the aging face are common cosmetic concerns. Intense focused ultrasound (IFUS), a novel treatment modality for skin laxity, produces thermal effects at various depths while sparing overlying epidermis.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics and outcomes according to molecular subtypes of breast cancer as classified by a panel of four biomarkers using immunohistochemistry.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the significance of immunohistochemical molecular subtyping, we evaluated outcomes of subtypes based on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67. Using tissue microarrays, 1006 breast cancer patients between November 1999 and August 2005 were categorized into four subtypes: luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 < 14%), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 ? 14% or ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), HER2-enriched (ER-, PR-, HER2+), and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER-, PR-, HER2-). Demographics, recurrence patterns, and survival were retrospectively analyzed using uni-/multivariate analyses. Luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and TNBC accounted for 53.1%, 21.7%, 9.0%, and 16.2% of cases, respectively. Luminal A presented well-differentiation and more co-expression of hormone receptors comparing to luminal B. HER2-enriched showed larger size and higher nodal metastasis. TNBC demonstrated younger age at diagnosis, larger size, undifferentiation, higher proliferation, and frequent visceral metastases. The peak of recurrence for luminal A was at 36 months postoperatively, while that for HER2-enriched and TNBC peaked at 12 months. The relapse risk of luminal B was mixed. Luminal A showed the best survival, but no difference was observed between the other three subtypes. When matched by nodal status, however, TNBC showed the worst outcomes in node-positive patients. In multivariate analyses, luminal A remained a positive prognostic significance. Immunohistochemically-defined subtypes showed different features, recurrence patterns, and survival. Therefore, molecular subtypes using four biomarkers could provide clinically useful information of tumor biology and clinical behaviors, and could be used for determining treatment and surveillance strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of video fluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with vocal cord paralysis.
Dysphagia
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We reviewed the findings of a video fluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) of 28 patients with vocal cord paralysis (VCP) who complained of swallowing difficulties. VFSSs were performed with thick and thin liquid using modified Logemann methods. The patients were grouped according to whether their VCP was of central or peripheral origin, and the VFSS findings of the groups were compared. The patients showed oral phase dysfunction and pharyngeal dysfunction, especially when the cause was of central origin. Oral phase abnormalities were found in 13 patients and pharyngeal phase abnormalities were found in all patients, including penetration in 20 patients and aspiration in 14 patients. Improper lip closure (LC) and bolus formation (BF) and a delay in triggering pharyngeal swallow (TPS) and upper esophageal sphincter release (UESR) were significantly more frequent in patients with central VCP. With thin-liquid swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT) and pharyngeal delay time (PDT) were significantly more prolonged in central VCP. The results suggest that the delay in triggering and poor coordination of swallowing were profound in patients with central VCP, but dysfunction in peripheral VCP may originate from poor pharyngeal movement.
Related JoVE Video
Genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. strain P8-3-8, isolated from Fistularia commersonii in Vietnam.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acinetobacter sp. strain P8-3-8 is an aerobic, Gram-negative marine bacterium isolated from the intestine of the bluespotted cornetfish (Fistularia commersonii). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. P8-3-8 (3,905,565 bp, with a G+C content of 37.6%) containing 3,621 putative coding sequences. The genome data reveal a high density of genes encoding transcriptional regulators involved in anaerobic respiration.
Related JoVE Video
Draft genome sequence of Kocuria rhizophila P7-4.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the draft genome sequence of Kocuria rhizophila P7-4, which was isolated from the intestine of Siganus doliatus caught in the Pacific Ocean. The 2.83-Mb genome sequence consists of 75 large contigs (>100 bp in size) and contains 2,462 predicted protein-coding genes.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of local and regional recurrence on distant metastasis and survival in patients treated with breast conservation therapy.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the effect of local recurrence (LR) and regional recurrence (RR) on distant metastasis and survival in patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT).
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and mRNA expression of the liver-specific cathepsin L1 gene of the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We isolated a homolog of cathepsin L from a cDNA library of the olive flounder liver. The flounder cathepsin L1 transcript consisted of 1,221 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 334 amino acids. The overall identity between flounder cathepsin L1 and other cathepsin Ls was 50-64%, and flounder cathepsin L1 contained the highly conserved ERFNIN-motif. A phylogenetic tree indicated that flounder cathepsin L1 is in the same monophyletic group as zebrafish cathepsin Lc. RT-PCR analysis revealed that cathepsin L1 transcripts were expressed only in the liver. They were detected from 28 d post-hatching. Under starvation conditions, cathepsin L1 expression was decreased at 30 d.
Related JoVE Video
Ruegeria halocynthiae sp. nov., isolated from the sea squirt Halocynthia roretzi.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated MA1-6T, was isolated from a sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) collected from the South Sea, Korea, and was characterized to determine its taxonomic position. Strain MA1-6T grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 30 °C and in the presence of 2-3?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MA1-6T fell within the clade comprising Ruegeria species and exhibited 95.3-96.5?% similarity to the type strains of recognized Ruegeria species. Strain MA1-6T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1?7c as the major fatty acid, which is consistent with data for Ruegeria species. The major polar lipids detected in strain MA1-6T and Ruegeria atlantica KCTC 12424T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain MA1-6T was 58.6 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain MA1-6T can be distinguished from recognized Ruegeria species. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain MA1-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria halocynthiae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MA1-6T (=KCTC 23463T=CCUG 60744T).
Related JoVE Video
Effect of crude glycerol-derived inhibitors on ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, ethanol production from pure and crude glycerol using Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 was evaluated under anaerobic culture conditions. Inhibitory effects of substrate concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations were investigated based on crude glycerol components. Ethanol production was performed with pure glycerol concentrations ranging from 5 to 30 g/L to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration and osmotic pressure. The consumed glycerol was 5-14.33 g/L, and the yield of ethanol was higher than 0.75 mol ethanol/mol glycerol after 24 h of cultivation. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of salts (NaCl and KCl), experiments were performed with 0-20 g/L of each salt. Inhibitory effects of salts were strongest at high salt concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pH was performed in the pH range 4-10, and cell growth and ethanol production were highest at pH 5-6. Also, ethanol production was slightly inhibited at low concentration of crude glycerol comparison with pure glycerol. However, significant inhibitory effects were not observed at 1.5 and 2% crude glycerol which showed higher ethanol production compared to pure glycerol.
Related JoVE Video
How many sentinel lymph nodes are enough for accurate axillary staging in t1-2 breast cancer?
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer, the appropriate number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) to be removed for accurate axillary staging is still controversial. We hypothesized that there might be an optimal threshold number of SLNs. We investigated how many SLNs should be removed to achieve an acceptable accuracy and ensure minimal morbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Novel GFP expression using a short N-terminal polypeptide through the defined twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli is frequently used as a convenient host organism for soluble recombinant protein expression. However, additional strategies are needed for proteins with complex folding characteristics. Here, we suggested that the acidic, neutral, and alkaline isoelectric point (pI) range curves correspond to the channels of the E. coli type-II cytoplasmic membrane translocation (periplasmic translocation) pathways of twin-arginine translocation (Tat), Yid, and general secretory pathway (Sec), respectively, for unfolded and folded target proteins by examining the characteristic pI values of the N-termini of the signal sequences or the leader sequences, matching with the known diameter of the translocation channels, and analyzing the N-terminal pI value of the signal sequences of the Tat substrates. To confirm these proposed translocation pathways, we investigated the soluble expression of the folded green fluorescent protein (GFP) with short N-terminal polypeptides exhibiting pI and hydrophilicity separately or collectively. This, in turn, revealed the existence of an anchor function with a specific directionality based on the N-terminal pI value (termed as N-terminal pI-specific directionality) and distinguished the presence of the E. coli type-II cytoplasmic membrane translocation pathways of Tat, Yid, and Sec for the unfolded and folded target proteins. We concluded that the pI value and hydrophilicity of the short N-terminal polypeptide, and the total translational efficiency of the target proteins based on the ?GRNA value of the N-terminal coding regions are important factors for promoting more efficient translocation (secretion) through the largest diameter of the Tat channel. These results show that the short N-terminal polypeptide could substitute for the Tat signal sequence with improved efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Maximal transcriptional activation of piscine soluble Toll-like receptor 5 by the NF-?B subunit p65 and flagellin.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), which is highly conserved from lower to higher vertebrates, is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for bacterial flagellin. However, a soluble form of TLR5 (TLR5S) was identified in fish that is not present in mammals. To better understand the transcriptional regulation of TLR5S gene in fish, we determined the TLR5S 5-flanking sequence region from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and assayed its promoter activity in Hirame natural embryo (HINAE) cells. The 5-flanking region of TLR5S (715 bp) contains sequence elements for two AP-1 binding sites, two C/EBP sites, and one NF-?B site. To elucidate the functional significance of these sites, deletion clones and a site-directed mutant of NF-?B were generated. We estimated the luciferase activity in flagellin- or lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HINAE cells. The co-transfection of p65 with the wild-type TLR5S promoter greatly increased luciferase activity by more than nine-fold compared with the NF-?B mutant. Wild-type TLR5S promoter activity was increased synergistically by more than 159.5-fold in the presence of flagellin and p65. Furthermore, it was determined that the level of TRL5S mRNA was up-regulated by p65 and flagellin using a quantitative PCR. Additionally, translocation of TLR5S in the HINAE-TLR5S stable cell line after flagellin stimulation was observed by confocal microscopy. These results suggest that NF-?B and flagellin are essential components that act as a transcription factor and ligand, respectively, for maximal induction of the TLR5S promoter.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of the autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 from the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is an important cellular response to starvation and stress, and plays critical roles in embryogenesis, development, cell death, cancer, and immunity. Beclin-1 is one of the central regulators of autophagy in mammals. In the present study, we isolated a PoBeclin-1 cDNA from the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) by screening a flounder gill cDNA library and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The PoBeclin-1 cDNA we isolated encodes a 447-amino acid polypeptide containing a conserved Bcl-2-binding domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of PoBeclin-1 showed high degrees of sequence identity (80.5-95.3%) with Beclin-1 from human, frog, mouse, zebrafish, and pufferfish. PoBeclin-1 transcripts were detected from 1 day post-hatching and were found to be ubiquitously expressed in the healthy flounder. Expression of PoBeclin-1 mRNA was increased in the kidney and spleen of flounders challenged with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). When infected with VHSV, PoBeclin-1-overexpressing HINAE cells had low level (about 26%) of VHSV G transcripts compared to control cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PoBeclin-1 may play a role in the innate immune response to viral infection in the flounder.
Related JoVE Video
The relationship between the predictors of obstructive sleep apnea and difficult intubation.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study was performed in order to determine the risk factors for difficult tracheal intubation in obstructive sleep apnea patients.
Related JoVE Video
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Salmonella Typhimurium CueP.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) can survive in the phagosome of macrophages, causing serious medical and veterinary problems. CueP is uniquely found in S. Typhimurium and has been characterized as a major periplasmic copper-binding protein. Although cueP has been identified as being responsible for the copper resistance of the bacterium in vivo, the biochemical role and three-dimensional structure of CueP remain unknown. In this study, CueP from S. Typhimurium was overexpressed and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity, anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographies. The purified CueP protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 2.5?Å resolution at 100?K. The crystal belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). To obtain initial phases, selenomethionyl-substituted protein was overproduced and purified. Optimization of crystallization conditions for the selenomethionyl-substituted protein is in progress.
Related JoVE Video
Allele-specific PCR genotyping of the HSP70 gene polymorphism discriminating the green and red color variants sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Color variation is a well-known feature of sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus), which are classified into three groups based on their colors of red, green and black. It is also one of the most important traits related to how they taste, and it thereby affects their market price. Attempts were made to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to analyze differences associated with SNP genotypes between green and red color variants using HSP70 as the target gene. The HSP70 gene, which is found universally in organisms from bacteria to humans, is one of the most evolutionarily conserved genes and the most widely studied biomarker of stress response. DNA fragments of 1074 bp covering a partial sequence of the sea cucumber HSP70 gene, were amplified from both red and green variants, and subsequently analyzed for the presence of SNPs. Twenty-seven polymorphic sites in total, including heterozygous sites, were observed. Of these, six sites were found to be significantly different SNP genotypes between green and red variants. Furthermore, PCR with an internal primer designed to include an allele-specific SNP at the 3 end (site 443) showed differentiation between the two variants, 100% and 4.2% amplification in green and red variants, respectively. The validated SNPs may serve as informative genetic markers that can be used to distinguish variants at the early developmental stage, prior to color differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular and functional analyses of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is an important neuroendocrine factor that stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary. Several nonmammalian GHRH-like peptides were reported previously to be encoded by PACAP and processed from the same transcript and prepropolypeptide. However, the true nonmammalian GHRHs in amphibian and fishes were only recently discovered. We identified and characterized the primary structure of the GHRH gene and determined its expression profiles under normal and infectious conditions in the teleost fish, Paralichthys olivaceus. The 142 amino acids of the GHRH precursor are encoded by six exons spanning 2290bp. The flounder GHRH precursor mRNA was constitutively expressed in the brain as well as gills and ovary. Inducible expression of GHRH mRNA was observed in the gills of Edwardsiella tarda-challenged fish. Induction of GHRH mRNA was highest at 24h post-bacterial challenge. Subsequently, the biological role of GHRH was investigated by exogenous treatment of flounder embryogenic cells (hirame natural embryonic cells, HINAE cells) and primary cultured pituitary cells with a synthetic GHRH peptide (fGHRH-28). The 10(-6)M concentration of fGHRH-28 produced intracellular cAMP in HINAE cells and induced growth hormone mRNA in both of HINAE and pituitary cells. The profiles of TNF-? mRNA expression differed from HINAE and pituitary cells after fGHRH-28 treatment. TNF-? mRNA levels elevated approximately 3-fold in HINAE cells, but decreased to one-third in pituitary cells stimulated by fGHRH-28. These results suggest that the flounder GHRH plays roles in the bidirectional communication network between growth and immunity in fish.
Related JoVE Video
The feasibility of endoscopy-assisted breast conservation surgery for patients with early breast cancer.
J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast conservation surgery (BCS) has become a standard treatment method for patients with early breast cancer. Endoscopy-assisted BCS (EABCS) can be performed through an inconspicuous periareolar and a small axillary incision for sentinel node biopsy, which may give better cosmetic outcomes than conventional BCS skin incisions. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of EABCS for patients with early breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.