JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery and Characterization of the Tuberculosis Drug Lead Ecumicin.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The new tuberculosis (TB) lead ecumicin (1), a cyclic tridecapeptide, was isolated from Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, following a high-throughput campaign for anti-TB activity. The large molecular weight of 1599 amu detected by LC-HR-MS precluded the initial inference of its molecular formula. The individual building blocks were identified by extensive NMR experiments. The resulting two possible planar structures were distinguished by LC-MS(2). Determination of absolute configuration and unambiguous structural confirmation were carried out by X-ray crystallography and Marfey's analysis.
Related JoVE Video
IL-6 Receptor ? Defines Effector Memory CD8(+) T Cells Producing Th2 Cytokines and Expanding in Asthma.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rationale: Cytokine receptors can be markers defining different T cell subsets and considered as therapeutic targets. The association of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6R?) with asthma was reported, suggesting their involvement in asthma. Objectives: To determine whether and how IL-6R? defines a distinct effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cell population in health and disease. Methods: EM CD8+ T cells expressing IL-6R? (IL-6R?high) were identified in human peripheral blood and analyzed for function, gene and transcription factor expression. The relationship of these cells with asthma was determined using blood and sputum. Measurements and Main results: A unique population of IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells was found in peripheral blood. These cells that potently proliferated, survived, and produced high levels of the Th2-type cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 had increased levels of GATA3 and decreased levels of T-bet and Blimp-1 in comparison to other EM CD8+ T cells. In fact, GATA3 was required for IL-6R? expression. Asthmatic patients had an increased frequency of IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood compared to healthy controls. Also, IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells exclusively produced IL-5 and IL-13 in response to asthma-associated respiratory syncytial virus and bacterial superantigens. Conclusions: Human IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells is a unique cell subset that may serve as a reservoir for effector CD8+ T cells, particularly the ones producing Th2-type cytokines, and expand in asthma.
Related JoVE Video
Interobserver variability of aneurysm morphology: discrimination of the daughter sac.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several definitions have been proposed to distinguish the daughter sac when treating unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability of aneurysm morphology, including the daughter sac, using criteria from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) and the Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Study of Japan (UCAS).
Related JoVE Video
Spatial coherence in near-field Raman scattering.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inelastic light scattering in crystals has historically been treated as a spatially incoherent process, giving rise to incoherent optical radiation. Here we demonstrate that Raman scattering can be spatially coherent, in which case it depends on the dimensionality and symmetry of the scatterer. Using near-field spectroscopy, we measure a correlation length of ?30??nm for the optical phonons in graphene, the results varying with vibrational symmetries and spatial confinement of the phonons.
Related JoVE Video
Fast high-order perturbation of surfaces methods for simulation of multilayer plasmonic devices and metamaterials.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The scattering of time-harmonic linear waves by periodic media arises in a wide array of applications from materials science and nondestructive testing to remote sensing and oceanography. In this work we have in mind applications in optics, more specifically plasmonics, and the surface plasmon polaritons that are at the heart of remarkable phenomena such as extraordinary optical transmission, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and surface plasmon resonance biosensing. In this paper we develop robust, highly accurate, and extremely rapid numerical solvers for approximating solutions to grating scattering problems in the frequency regime where these are commonly used. For piecewise-constant dielectric constants, which are commonplace in these applications, surface formulations are clearly advantaged as they posit unknowns supported solely at the material interfaces. The algorithms we develop here are high-order perturbation of surfaces methods and generalize previous approaches to take advantage of the fact that these algorithms can be significantly accelerated when some or all of the interfaces are trivial (flat). More specifically, for configurations with one nontrivial interface (and one trivial interface) we describe an algorithm that has the same computational complexity as a two-layer solver. With numerical simulations and comparisons with experimental data, we demonstrate the speed, accuracy, and applicability of our new algorithms.
Related JoVE Video
Nanocomplexes based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivative and polyethylene glycol-lipid for ginsenoside rg3 delivery.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hybrid nanocomplex formulations, based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) and lipids, were fabricated for the delivery of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg 3 [(S)-Rg3]. Nanocomplexes with less than 200 nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, spherical shape, and negative zeta potential were prepared. The maintenance of the structural stability of the hybrid nanocomplexes in the blood stream was demonstrated by measuring their particle size in serum. Nanocomplexes based on HACE, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG) showed a sustained drug release profile compared with other formulations. Blank nanocomplexes exhibited negligible cytotoxicity within the tested concentration range in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of hybrid nanocomplexes was improved compared with the HACE-based nanoparticles probably because of interactions between lipids and the cellular membrane. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed decreased in vivo clearance of (S)-Rg3, especially in the HACE/PC/DSPE-PEG-based hybrid nanocomplex (F3) group. The hybrid nanostructure and the outer PEG chain likely contributed to improve in vivo performance of the F3 group. Thus, these developed hybrid nanocomplexes could serve as good candidates for tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer agents.
Related JoVE Video
Axl is a novel target of withaferin A in the induction of apoptosis and the suppression of invasion.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Withaferin A, a withanolide derived from the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has been reported to exhibit anti-tumorigenic activity against various cancer cells. In this study, we show that withaferin A inhibits the constitutive and recombinant human growth-arrest-specific protein 6 (rhGas6)-induced phosphorylation of Axl and STAT3. In addition, withaferin A also induces the down-regulation of Axl protein expression in a lysosome-dependent manner and inhibits rhGas6-induced wound healing and cell migration. Furthermore, the overexpression of Axl attenuates withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data from the present study indicate that the withaferin A-mediated down-regulation of the Gas6/Axl signaling pathway mediates the inhibition of cell migration and the induction of apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Squeezing Millimeter Waves through a Single, Nanometer-wide, Centimeter-long Slit.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate broadband non-resonant squeezing of terahertz (THz) waves through an isolated 2-nm-wide, 2-cm-long slit (aspect ratio of 10(7)), representing a maximum intensity enhancement factor of one million. Unlike resonant nanogap structures, a single, effectively infinitely-long slit passes incident electromagnetic waves with no cutoff, enhances the electric field within the gap with a broad 1/f spectral response, and eliminates interference effects due to finite sample boundaries and adjacent elements. To construct such a uniform, isolated slit that is much longer than the millimeter-scale spot of a THz beam, we use atomic layer lithography to pattern vertical nanogaps in a metal film over an entire 4-inch wafer. We observe an increasing field enhancement as the slit width decreases from 20?nm to 2?nm, in agreement with numerical calculations.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of risk factors for vertebral compression fracture after stereotactic radiosurgery in spinal tumor patients.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an emerging treatment modality for malignant spinal tumors. After SRS, some patients suffered from pain aggravation due to development of vertebral compression fracture (VCF). In these cases, surgery should be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Lipid-Lowering Treatment Practice Patterns in Korea: Comparison with the Data Obtained from the CEPHEUS Pan-Asian Study.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aim: The Pan-Asian CEPHEUS study assessed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients under lipid-lowering therapy. We compared Korean and other Asian data in order to investigate international variations in clinical practice in the field of cardiology. Methods: Hypercholesterolemic patients ?18 years of age who had been on lipid-lowering treatment for ?3 months were recruited from eight Asian countries. The lipid concentrations were measured, and demographic and other relevant data were collected. In addition, the cardiovascular risk was determined using criteria established in the updated 2004 NCEP guidelines. Results: In Korea, 92 cardiologists enrolled 1,584 patients. The data of these patients were compared with those for 2,060 patients enrolled by 135 cardiologists from other Asian countries in the CEPHEUS study. The proportion of high-risk patients, frequency of use of more potent LDL-C-lowering regimens and rate of LDL-C goal attainment were significantly greater in the Korean subjects than those observed in the other Asian populations. In addition, the Korean patients were more likely to achieve the LDL-C target (odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.70) after adjusting for the LDL-C target level, use of potent LDL-C-lowering regimens, the baseline LDL-C level, age and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in the goal attainment rate between Korea and the other Asian countries. Korean cardiologists appear to be relatively more aggressive with lipid-lowering treatment than other Asian cardiologists.
Related JoVE Video
Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer and may exhibit central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Advances in chemotherapy and effective CNS prophylaxis have significantly decreased the incidence of CNS relapse of ALL to 5-10%. Here, we report the case of a patient with isolated CNS relapse of standard risk group pre-B-cell type ALL in an 11-year-old girl, relapsed 3 years after successful completion of chemotherapy. An 11-year-old girl visited our hospital complaining of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and visual field defects. Neurological examination revealed left-side homonymous hemianopsia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a large irregular dural-based sulcal hematoma in the right parietal and occipital lobes. Surgery to remove the hematoma revealed the existence of hematopoietic malignancy after pathologic evaluation. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed but showed no evidence of malignancy.
Related JoVE Video
Field enhancement and saturation of millimeter waves inside a metallic nanogap.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper investigates the millimeter electromagnetic waves passing through a metal nanogap. Based upon the study of a perfect electrical conductor model, we show that the electric field enhancement inside the gap saturates as the gap size approaches zero, and the ultimate enhancement strength is inversely proportional to the thickness of the metal film. In addition, no significant enhancement can be gained by decreasing the gap size further if the aspect ratio between the dimensions of the underlying geometric structure exceeds approximately 100.
Related JoVE Video
Involvement of reactive oxygen species in cocaine-taking behaviors in rats.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization following repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesized that increased ROS following cocaine exposure would act as signaling molecules in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which might play an important role in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The aim of this study was to evaluate cocaine enhancement of brain metabolic activity and the effects of ROS scavengers on cocaine self-administration behavior, cocaine-induced ROS production in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cocaine enhancement of DA release in the NAc. Metabolic neural activity monitored by temperature and oxidative stress were increased in NAc following cocaine exposure. Systemic administration of the ROS scavenger N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone (PBN) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), either pre- or post-treatment, significantly decreased cocaine self-administration without affecting food intake. Infusion of TEMPOL into the NAc inhibited cocaine self-administration. Increased oxidative stress was found mainly on neurons, but not astrocytes, microglia or oligodendrocytes, in NAc of rats self-administering cocaine. TEMPOL significantly attenuated cocaine-induced enhancement of DA release in the NAc, compared to saline controls. TEMPOL had no effect on the enhancement of DA release produced by the DA transporter inhibitor GBR12909. Taken together, these findings suggest that enhancement of ROS production in NAc neurons contributes to the reinforcing effect of cocaine.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Outcomes of Posterior C2-C3 Fixation for Unstable Hangman's Fracture Compared with Posterior C1-C3 Fusion.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To verify the clinical outcomes of posterior C2-C3 fixation for unstable Hangman's fracture compared with posterior C1-C3 fixation.
Related JoVE Video
Formation of biomembrane microarrays with a squeegee-based assembly method.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipid bilayer membranes form the plasma membranes of cells and define the boundaries of subcellular organelles. In nature, these membranes are heterogeneous mixtures of many types of lipids, contain membrane-bound proteins and are decorated with carbohydrates. In some experiments, it is desirable to decouple the biophysical or biochemical properties of the lipid bilayer from those of the natural membrane. Such cases call for the use of model systems such as giant vesicles, liposomes or supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). Arrays of SLBs are particularly attractive for sensing applications and mimicking cell-cell interactions. Here we describe a new method for forming SLB arrays. Submicron-diameter SiO2 beads are first coated with lipid bilayers to form spherical SLBs (SSLBs). The beads are then deposited into an array of micro-fabricated submicron-diameter microwells. The preparation technique uses a "squeegee" to clean the substrate surface, while leaving behind SSLBs that have settled into microwells. This method requires no chemical modification of the microwell substrate, nor any particular targeting ligands on the SSLB. Microwells are occupied by single beads because the well diameter is tuned to be just larger than the bead diameter. Typically, more 75% of the wells are occupied, while the rest remain empty. In buffer SSLB arrays display long-term stability of greater than one week. Multiple types of SSLBs can be placed in a single array by serial deposition, and the arrays can be used for sensing, which we demonstrate by characterizing the interaction of cholera toxin with ganglioside GM1. We also show that phospholipid vesicles without the bead supports and biomembranes from cellular sources can be arrayed with the same method and cell-specific membrane lipids can be identified.
Related JoVE Video
Stent-assisted coil embolization of ruptured wide-necked aneurysms in the acute period: incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECT.: The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experiences in stent-assisted coil embolization (SAC) of ruptured wide-necked aneurysms in the acute period and to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for periprocedural complications.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of Betula platyphylla bark on amyloid beta-induced learning and memory impairment in mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely associated with amyloid ? (A?)-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the brain. Betula platyphylla, which has been used to treat various oxidative-stressed related diseases, has recently received attention for its preventive activity on age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of B.?platyphylla bark (BPB-316) on A?1-42-induced neurotoxicity and memory impairment. Oral treatment using BPB-316 significantly attenuated A?-induced memory impairment which was evaluated by behavioral tests including the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze test. BPB-316 also inhibited the elevation of ?-secretase activity accompanying the reduced A?1-42 levels in the hippocampus of the brain. Furthermore, BPB-316 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and increased the glutathione content in the hippocampus. In addition, we confirmed that the expression of both cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of A?1-42-injected mice were markedly upregulated by the treatment of BPB-316. Our data suggest that the extracts of B.?platyphylla bark might be a potential therapeutic agent against AD.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatoprotective effects of Limonium tetragonum, edible medicinal halophyte growing near seashores.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During the process of hepatic fibrosis, the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is responsible for the increased formation and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix in the liver. By employing the hepatic stellate cell line, HSC-T6, it was found that the methanol extract of Limonium tetragonum, a halophyte living in salt marsh near south and western seashores of Korea significantly inhibited the proliferation of HSC-T6 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Potential of decursin to inhibit the human cytochrome P450 2J2 isoform.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CYP2J2 enzyme is highly expressed in human tumors and carcinoma cell lines, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP2J2-mediated metabolites, have been implicated in the pathologic development of human cancers. To identify a CYP2J2 inhibitor, 50 natural products obtained from plants were screened using astemizole as a CYP2J2 probe substrate in human liver microsomes. Of these, decursin noncompetitively inhibited CYP2J2-mediated astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine hydroxylation activities with Ki values of 8.34 and 15.8?M, respectively. It also showed cytotoxic effects against human hepatoma HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner while it did not show cytotoxicity against mouse hepatocytes. The present data suggest that decursin is a potential candidate for further evaluation for its CYP2J2 targeting anti-cancer activities. Studies are currently underway to test decursin as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.
Related JoVE Video
Dielectrophoresis-enhanced plasmonic sensing with gold nanohole arrays.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We experimentally demonstrate dielectrophoretic concentration of biological analytes on the surface of a gold nanohole array, which concurrently acts as a nanoplasmonic sensor and gradient force generator. The combination of nanohole-enhanced dielectrophoresis, electroosmosis, and extraordinary optical transmission through the periodic gold nanohole array enables real-time label-free detection of analyte molecules in a 5 ?L droplet using concentrations as low as 1 pM within a few minutes, which is more than 1000 times faster than purely diffusion-based binding. The nanohole-based optofluidic platform demonstrated here is straightforward to construct, applicable to both charged and neutral molecules, and performs a novel function that cannot be accomplished using conventional surface plasmon resonance sensors.
Related JoVE Video
Pig Spermatozoa Defect in Acrosome Formation Caused Poor Motion Parameters and Fertilization Failure through Artificial Insemination and In vitro Fertilization.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The selection of morphologically normal spermatozoa is critical to obtain high breeding performances in boar breeding farms and artificial insemination (AI) centers. Parameters for the selection of semen mainly include total sperm motility, concentration, and morphology. However, these primary parameters are often not reliable for discriminating between normal and abnormal, non-fertilizable spermatozoa. The present study was designed to compare the motion characteristics, fertilization ability using in vitro fertilization (IVF), and acrosome formation of the semen from boars having low (boar number 2012) and normal (boar number 2004 and 2023) breeding performances. The ultimate goal was to identify additional simple and easy criteria for the selection of normal sperm. There was no significant difference between boar 2004 and boar 2023 sperm total motility in computer assisted sperm analysis. However, boar number 2012 semen presented a significantly reduced population of rapid moving spermatozoa and an increased population of slow moving spermatozoa compared to boar numbers 2004 and 2023. Analysis of detailed motion characteristics revealed that sperm from boar number 2012 had significantly reduced motility in progressiveness, average path velocity, straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straightness, and linearity. The assessment of the fertilizing ability by IVF also showed that sperm from boar number 2012 showed a fertility rate of 3.4%, whereas sperm from boar number 2023 had a fertility rate of 75.45%. Interestingly, most of the sperm nuclei were found on the peripheral area of the oocytes, suggesting that the sperm from boar number 2012 lacked penetration ability into the oocyte zonapellucida. The acrosome formation analysis using Pisum sativum agglutinin staining demonstrated that the sperm from boar number 2012 had a defect in acrosome formation. Consequently, primary parameters for selecting semen before AI such as motility are not sufficient to select normal and fertilizable spermatozoa. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the acrosome staining and detailed motion characteristics such as progressiveness, VCL, and VSL should be included in determining semen quality together with primary parameters for successful AI and high breeding performance in the swine industry.
Related JoVE Video
Applications of SPR for the characterization of molecules important in the pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Expert Rev Neurother
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Characterization of binding kinetics and affinity between a potential drug and its receptor are key steps in the development of new drugs. Among the techniques available to determine binding affinities, surface plasmon resonance has emerged as the gold standard because it can measure binding and dissociation rates in real-time in a label-free fashion. Surface plasmon resonance is now finding applications in the characterization of molecules for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, characterization of molecules associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and detection of neurodegenerative disease biomarkers. In addition it has been used in the characterization of a new class of natural autoantibodies that have therapeutic potential in a number of neurologic diseases. In this review we will introduce surface plasmon resonance and describe some applications of the technique that pertain to neurodegenerative disorders and their treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Complete (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectral analysis of the pairs of 20(S) and 20(R) ginsenosides.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ginsenosides, the major ingredients of Panax ginseng, have been studied for many decades in Asian countries as a result of their wide range of pharmacological properties. The less polar ginsenosides, with one or two sugar residues, are not present in nature and are produced during manufacturing processes by methods such as heating, steaming, acid hydrolysis, and enzyme reactions. (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic data for the identification of the less polar ginsenosides are often unavailable or incomplete.
Related JoVE Video
LXR-? antagonist meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid attenuates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Collaborative regulation of liver X receptor (LXR) and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 are main determinants in hepatic steatosis, as shown in both animal models and human patients. Recent studies indicate that selective intervention of overly functional LXR? in the liver shows promise in treatment of fatty liver disease. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA) on LXR? activation and its ability to attenuate fatty liver in mice. MDGA inhibited activation of the LXR? ligand-binding domain by competitively binding to the pocket for agonist T0901317 and decreased the luciferase activity in LXRE-tk-Luc-transfected cells. MDGA significantly attenuated hepatic neutral lipid accumulation in T0901317- and high fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver. The effect of MDGA was so potent that treatment with 1mg/kg for 2 weeks completely reversed the lipid accumulation induced by HFD feeding. MDGA reduced the expression of LXR? co-activator protein RIP140 and LXR? target gene products associated with lipogenesis in HFD-fed mice. These results demonstrate that MDGA has the potential to attenuate nonalcoholic steatosis mediated by selective inhibition of LXR? in the liver in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of radiological stability in reconstructed thoracic and lumbar spine following vertebral body resection.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vertebral body replacement following corpectomy in thoracic or lumbar spine is performed with titanium mesh cage (TMC) containing any grafts. Radiological changes often occur on follow-up. This study investigated the relationship between the radiological stability and clinical symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Silibinin induces apoptosis of HT29 colon carcinoma cells through early growth response-1 (EGR-1)-mediated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) up-regulation.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silibinin, an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent, has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of both cell proliferation and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. We observed that silibinin significantly induced the expression of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) in both p53 wild-type and p53-null cancer cell lines, suggesting that silibinin-induced NAG-1 up-regulation is p53-independent manner. Silibinin up-regulates early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression. The ectopic expression of EGR-1 significantly increased NAG-1 promoter activity and NAG-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGR-1 expression using siRNA markedly reduced silibinin-mediated NAG-1 expression, suggesting that the expression of EGR-1 is critical for silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. We also observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by silibinin; however, ROS did not affect silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression and apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signal transduction pathway is involved in silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) attenuated silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of NAG-1 attenuated silibinin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that up-regulation of NAG-1 contributes to silibinin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Gadolinium enhanced 3D proton density driven equilibrium MR imaging in the evaluation of cisternal tumor and associated structures: comparison with balanced fast-field-echo sequence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although Gadolinium enhanced bFFE is commonly used to evaluate cisternal tumors, banding artifact may interrupt interpretation and adjacent nerve and vessels differentiation is known to be difficult. We analyzed the qualities of Gd enhanced 3D PDDE in the evaluation of cisternal tumors, comparing with bFFE.
Related JoVE Video
A fast and high-order accurate surface perturbation method for nanoplasmonic simulations: basic concepts, analytic continuation and applications.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper we demonstrate that rigorous high-order perturbation of surfaces (HOPS) methods coupled with analytic continuation mechanisms are particularly well-suited for the assessment and design of nanoscale devices (e.g., biosensors) that operate based on surface plasmon resonances generated through the interaction of light with a periodic (metallic) grating. In this connection we explain that the characteristics of the latter are perfectly aligned with the optimal domain of applicability of HOPS schemes, as these procedures can be shown to be the methods of choice for low to moderate wavelengths of radiation and grating roughness that is representable by a few (e.g., tens of) Fourier coefficients. We argue that, in this context, the method can, for instance, produce full and precise reflectivity maps in computational times that are orders of magnitude faster than those of alternative numerical schemes (e.g., the popular "C-method," finite differences, integral equations or finite elements). In this initial study we concentrate on the description of the basic principles that underlie the solution scheme, including those that relate to analytic continuation procedures. Within this framework, we explain how, in spite of conventional wisdom to the contrary, the resulting perturbative techniques can provide a most valuable tool for practical investigations in plasmonics. We demonstrate this with some examples that have been previously discussed in the literature (including treatments of the reflectivity and band gap structure of some simple geometries) and extend this to demonstrate the wider applicability of the proposed approach.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotective Benzyl Benzoate Glycosides from Disporum viridescens Roots in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cells.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from Disporum viridescens roots led to the isolation of five new benzyl benzoate glycosides, BBGs (1-5). The neuroprotective activities of the BBGs were screened using neuronal HT22 hippocampal cells. BBG-D (4) significantly protected murine hippocampal HT22 cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining the antioxidative defense systems such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and the glutathione content. BBG-D, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, increased HO-1 expression through the selective activation of pERK signaling among the MAPK pathways. These results suggest that BBG-D could be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal cytotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Template-stripped asymmetric metallic pyramids for tunable plasmonic nanofocusing.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate a novel scheme for plasmonic nanofocusing with internally illuminated asymmetric metallic pyramidal tips using linearly polarized light. A wafer-scale array of sharp metallic pyramids is fabricated via template stripping with films of different thicknesses on opposing pyramid facets. This structural asymmetry is achieved through a one-step angled metal deposition that does not require any additional lithography processing and when internally illuminated enables the generation of plasmons using a Kretschmann-like coupling method on only one side of the pyramids. Plasmons traveling toward the tip on one side will converge at the apex, forming a nanoscale "hotspot." The asymmetry is necessary for these focusing effects since symmetric pyramids display destructive plasmon interference at the tip. Computer simulations confirm that internal illumination with linearly polarized light at normal incidence on these asymmetric pyramids will focus optical energy into nanoscale volumes. Far-field optical experiments demonstrate large field enhancements as well as angle-dependent spectral tuning of the reradiated light. Because of the low background light levels, wafer-scale fabrication, and a straightforward excitation scheme, these asymmetric pyramidal tips will find applications in near-field optical microscopy and array-based optical trapping.
Related JoVE Video
Promises and Challenges of Nanoplasmonic Devices for Refractometric Biosensing.
Nanophotonics
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in metallic thin films are currently standard tools for measuring molecular binding kinetics and affinities - an important task for biophysical studies and pharmaceutical development. Motivated by recent progress in the design and fabrication of metallic nanostructures, such as nanoparticles or nanoholes of various shapes, researchers have been pursuing a new generation of biosensors harnessing tailored plasmonic effects in these engineered nanostructures. Nanoplasmonic devices, while demanding nanofabrication, offer tunability with respect to sensor dimension and physical properties, thereby enabling novel biological interfacing opportunities and extreme miniaturization. Here we provide an integrated overview of refractometric biosensing with nanoplasmonic devices and highlight some recent examples of nanoplasmonic sensors capable of unique functions that are difficult to accomplish with conventional SPR. For example, since the local field strength and spatial distribution can be readily tuned by varying the shape and arrangement of nanostructures, biomolecular interactions can be controlled to occur in regions of high field strength. This may improve signal-to-noise and also enable sensing a small number of molecules. Furthermore, the nanoscale plasmonic sensor elements may, in combination with nanofabrication and materials-selective surface-modifications, make it possible to merge affinity biosensing with nanofluidic liquid handling.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotective biflavonoids of Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 hippocampal cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four biflavonoids (1-4), five flavonoids glycosides (5-9), two catechins (10, 11), two lignans (12-13), neolignan glycoside (14) and phenylpropanoid glycoside (15) were isolated from the leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae). Neuroprotective effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated employing HT22 mouse hippocampal cells, a model system to study glutamate-induced oxidative stress. The glutamate injured HT22 cells were protected significantly by amentoflavone (3), ginkgetin (4) and (-)-epitaxifolin 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (9). The reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) in response to high concentration of glutamate were preserved by pre-treatment of 3, 4 or 9, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and catalase (CAT) were little affected. The reduced content of GSH induced by glutamate was also recovered by 3, 4 or 9 in accommodation with the decrease in ROS production. In addition, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by glutamate insult was clearly prevented by 3, while little changed by 4. Taken together, amentoflavone (3), ginkgetin (4) and (-)-epitaxifolin 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside (9) derived from C. obtusa could protect HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage through preserving antioxidant enzymes activities and/or inhibiting ERK1/2 activation.
Related JoVE Video
Fabrication of smooth patterned structures of refractory metals, semiconductors, and oxides via template stripping.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The template-stripping method can yield smooth patterned films without surface contamination. However, the process is typically limited to coinage metals such as silver and gold because other materials cannot be readily stripped from silicon templates due to strong adhesion. Herein, we report a more general template-stripping method that is applicable to a larger variety of materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors, and oxides. To address the adhesion issue, we introduce a thin gold layer between the template and the deposited materials. After peeling off the combined film from the template, the gold layer can be selectively removed via wet etching to reveal a smooth patterned structure of the desired material. Further, we demonstrate template-stripped multilayer structures that have potential applications for photovoltaics and solar absorbers. An entire patterned device, which can include a transparent conductor, semiconductor absorber, and back contact, can be fabricated. Since our approach can also produce many copies of the patterned structure with high fidelity by reusing the template, a low-cost and high-throughput process in micro- and nanofabrication is provided that is useful for electronics, plasmonics, and nanophotonics.
Related JoVE Video
Primary surgical management by reduction and fixation of unstable hangmans fractures with discoligamentous instability or combined fractures: clinical article.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several controversial issues arise in the management of unstable hangmans fractures. Some surgeons perform external reduction and immobilize the patients neck in a halo vest, while others perform surgical reduction and internal fixation. The nonsurgical treatments with rigid collar or halo vest immobilization present problems, including nonunion, pseudarthrosis, skull fracture, and scalp laceration and may also fail to achieve anatomical realignment of the local C2-3 kyphosis. With recent advances in surgical technique and technology, surgical intervention is increasingly performed as the primary treatment in high cervical fractures. The outcomes of such surgeries are often superior to those of conservative treatment. The authors propose that surgical intervention as a primary management for hangmans fracture may avoid risks inherent in conservative management when severe circumferential discoligamentous instability is present and may reduce the risk of catastrophic results at the fracture site. The purposes of this study were to assess fracture healing following expedient reduction and surgical fixation and to propose a guideline for treatment of unstable hangmans fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Blood pressure-lowering effect of carotid artery stenting in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, long-term effects of carotid artery stenting (CAS) on blood pressure (BP) changes have not been documented well. We evaluated the effects of CAS on BP and found out its predisposing factors in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis.
Related JoVE Video
Salicortin-derivatives from Salix pseudo-lasiogyne twigs inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells via modulation of C/EBP? and SREBP1c dependent pathway.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is reported to be associated with excessive growth of adipocyte mass tissue as a result of increases in the number and size of adipocytes differentiated from preadipocytes. To search for anti-adipogenic phytochemicals, we screened for inhibitory activities of various plant sources on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Among the sources, a methanolic extract of Salix pseudo-lasiogyne twigs (Salicaceae) reduced lipid accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. During our search for anti-adipogenic constituents from S. pseudo-lasiogyne, five salicortin derivatives isolated from an EtOAc fraction of this plant and bearing 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexene-carboxylate moieties, namely 2,6-O-acetylsalicortin (1), 2-O-acetylsalicortin (2), 3-O-acetylsalicortin (3), 6-O-acetylsalicortin (4), and salicortin (5), were found to significantly inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In particular, 2,6-O-acetylsalicortin (1) had the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation, with an IC?? value of 11.6 ?M, and it significantly down-regulated the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1c). Furthermore, 2,6-O-acetylsalicortin (1) suppressed mRNA expression levels of C/EBP? during the early stage of adipocyte differentiation and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression, target genes of SREBP1c. In the present study, we demonstrate that the anti-adipogenesis mechanism of 2,6-O-acetylsalicortin (1) may be mediated via down-regulation of C/EBP? and SREBP1c dependent pathways. Through their anti-adipogenic activity, salicortin derivatives may be potential novel therapeutic agents against obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging of an optical antenna with a single diamond NV center.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter, we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna.
Related JoVE Video
Micelle-Mediated Extraction of Dibenzocyclooctadiene Lignans from Schisandra chinensis with Analysis by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Micelle-mediated extraction offers a convenient alternative to conventional extraction systems. A new method based on micelle-mediated extraction was developed for the separation and determination of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Various experimental conditions using the micelle-mediated method were investigated to evaluate the extraction process. Ethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080), a non-ionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether, was chosen as the extract solvent. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on a Shiseido Capcell Pak C18 analytical column (250 × 4.6mm i.d., 5 µm particle diameter), detected by ultraviolet absorption at 254 nm. The isocratic elution was achieved with a mobile phase composed of water-acetonitrile-formic acid (70:30:0.1) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The method was optimized and fully validated against dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (schizandrin, gomisin A and gomisin N). With 15% Genapol X-080, a liquid to solid ratio of 100:1 (mL/g) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction for 60 min, the extraction percentage of total dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans reached the highest value. The non-ionic surfactant Genapol X-080 solution is an effective alternative for the extraction of bioactive lignans from S. chinensis.
Related JoVE Video
Sauchinone, a lignan from Saururus chinensis, protects human skin keratinocytes against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging by regulating the oxidative defense system.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight induces matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, which are responsible for collagenous extracellular matrix proteins breakdown in skin, causing photoaging. Sauchinone is reported to have various bioactivity such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sauchinone against UVB (50?mJ/cm(2))-induced photoaging in HaCaT human epidermal keratinocytes. Sauchinone, at 5-40?µM, significantly protected keratinocytes against UVB-induced damage as assessed by cell viability and toxicity assay. Additionally, sauchinone, at 20-40?µM, prevented the upregulation of MMP-1 proteins and reduction of type 1 collagen induced by UVB. Other assays revealed that, in keratinocytes, sauchinone decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and increased glutathione levels and heme oxygenase-1. Sauchinone also inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results demonstrated that sauchinone protects skin keratinocytes through inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK signaling via upregulation of oxidative defense enzymes.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of resveratrol and SIRT1 on PGC-1? activity and mitochondrial biogenesis: a reevaluation.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been reported that feeding mice resveratrol activates AMPK and SIRT1 in skeletal muscle leading to deacetylation and activation of PGC-1?, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, and improved running endurance. This study was done to further evaluate the effects of resveratrol, SIRT1, and PGC-1? deacetylation on mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle. Feeding rats or mice a diet containing 4 g resveratrol/kg diet had no effect on mitochondrial protein levels in muscle. High concentrations of resveratrol lowered ATP concentration and activated AMPK in C?C?? myotubes, resulting in an increase in mitochondrial proteins. Knockdown of SIRT1, or suppression of SIRT1 activity with a dominant-negative (DN) SIRT1 construct, increased PGC-1? acetylation, PGC-1? coactivator activity, and mitochondrial proteins in C?C?? cells. Expression of a DN SIRT1 in rat triceps muscle also induced an increase in mitochondrial proteins. Overexpression of SIRT1 decreased PGC-1? acetylation, PGC-1? coactivator activity, and mitochondrial proteins in C?C?? myotubes. Overexpression of SIRT1 also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial proteins in rat triceps muscle. We conclude that, contrary to some previous reports, the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates mitochondrial biogenesis is by inhibiting PGC-1? coactivator activity, resulting in a decrease in mitochondria. We also conclude that feeding rodents resveratrol has no effect on mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle.
Related JoVE Video
Recanalization of acute intracranial artery occlusion using temporary endovascular bypass technique.
Neurointervention
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to present our preliminary experience of the temporary endovascular bypass (TEB) technique using an Enterprise stent for recanalization of acute intracranial artery (IA) occlusion.
Related JoVE Video
Reconstructive treatment of ruptured blood blister-like aneurysms with stent and coil.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Controversy remains about the optimal treatment for blood blister--like aneurysms (BBAs).
Related JoVE Video
Hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: incidence and the relationship between symptoms and drainage pattern.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, radiographic findings, relationship between presenting symptoms for treatment and drainage pattern, and treatment outcomes of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula (HC-dAVF).
Related JoVE Video
The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy vs. local steroid injection for management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Local corticosteroid (CS) injection has been widely used to treat carpal tunnel syndrome, but its invasiveness can cause several complications. In this study, the authors tested the efficacy of a new treatment method, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), compared with CS injection.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidation Sharpening, Template Stripping, and Passivation of Ultra-Sharp Metallic Pyramids and Wedges.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ultra-sharp metallic pyramids and wedges with tunable tip angles and 5-nm tip radii are replicated from oxidation-sharpened silicon templates with high throughput (80 million pyramids per wafer). Atomic layer deposition of Al2 O3 shells can protect these sharp pyramidal tips for subsequent usage in near-field imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Squeezing light through nanometre-wide gaps in metals can lead to extreme field enhancements, nonlocal electromagnetic effects and light-induced electron tunnelling. This intriguing regime, however, has not been readily accessible to experimentalists because of the lack of reliable technology to fabricate uniform nanogaps with atomic-scale resolution and high throughput. Here we introduce a new patterning technology based on atomic layer deposition and simple adhesive-tape-based planarization. Using this method, we create vertically oriented gaps in opaque metal films along the entire contour of a millimetre-sized pattern, with gap widths as narrow as 9.9 Å, and pack 150,000 such devices on a 4-inch wafer. Electromagnetic waves pass exclusively through the nanogaps, enabling background-free transmission measurements. We observe resonant transmission of near-infrared waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (?/1,295) and measure an effective refractive index of 17.8. We also observe resonant transmission of millimetre waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (?/4,000,000) and infer an unprecedented field enhancement factor of 25,000.
Related JoVE Video
Plant-derived juvenile hormone III analogues and other sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Cananga latifolia.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH III and its analogues from Cananga latifolia was established. From an aqueous MeOH extract of C. latifolia stem bark, six compounds were isolated along with nine known compounds. These were identified by using spectroscopic analyses as: (2E,6E,10R)-11-butoxy-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-10-oxododeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E)-3-methyl-5-[(1S,2R,6R)-1,2,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohexyl]-pent-2-enoic acid methyl ester, 1?-hydroxy-3-oxo-4?, 5?,7?-H-eudesmane 11-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside, 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2,3-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside and 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2,4-di-O-acetyl-?-l-rhamnopyranoside. Three of the previously known compounds, (2E,6E,10R)-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,11-trienoaic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-dihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid and (2E,6S)-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-6-[(2R,5R)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-hex-2-enoaic acid methyl ester have now been found in a plant species. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis of the chemical constituents of C. latifolia showed that several were predominant in the sub-fractions of a C. latifolia stem bark extract.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of five active compounds in Artemisia princeps and A. capillaris based on UPLC-DAD and discrimination of two species with multivariate analysis.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five active compounds, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, jaceosidin, and eupatilin, in Artemisia princeps (Compositae) were simultaneously determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography connected to diode array detector. The morphological resemblance between A. princeps and A. capillaris makes it difficult to properly identify species properly. It occasionally leads to misuse or misapplication in Korean traditional medicine. In the study, the discrimination between A. princeps and A. capillaris was optimally performed by the developed validation method, which resulted in definitely a difference between two species. Also, it was developed the most reliable markers contributing to the discrimination of two species by the multivariate analysis methods, such as a principal component analysis and a partial least squares discrimination analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-adipogenic activity of compounds isolated from Idesia polycarpa on 3T3-L1 cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, obesity is a complex multifactorial chronic disease increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension, and has become a major worldwide health problem. In the course of screening natural products employing 3T3-L1 cells as an in vitro system, the methanol extract of Idesia polycarpa Maxim. Fruits (Flacourtiaceae) significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation by measuring lipid contents using oil red O staining. One new compound, 6-(oxymethyl)-2-hydroxyphenyl-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (8), was isolated along with nine known compounds (1-7 and 9-10) from CHCl3 and n-BuOH fractions of the methanol extract of I. polycarpa fruits. Among them, idescarpin (1) with 1-hydroxy-6-oxo-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate moiety showed the most potent inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation with IC50 values of 23.2 ?M. Idescarpin (1) dramatically suppressed the induction of C/EBP? expression, whereas it significantly increased the induction of PPAR? expression, supported by quantitative real time PCR and Western blot analysis. The down-regulation in mRNA levels of SREBP1c, SCD-1, and FAS by idescarpin (1) during adipocyte differentiation revealed that the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was mediated by the regulation of lipogenesis. Taken together, we suggest that idescarpin (1) shows a great potential against obesity and diabetes though the anti-adipogenic activity and the up-regulation of PPAR?.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of lumbopelvic rhythm and flexion-relaxation response between 2 different low back pain subtypes.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional study to compare the kinematics and muscle activities during trunk flexion and return task in people with and without low back pain (LBP).
Related JoVE Video
Phenolic glycosides from Lindera obtusiloba and their anti-allergic inflammatory activities.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eight phenolic glycosides, tachioside (1), isotachioside (2), koaburaside (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 4,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), a mixture of erigeside C (6a) and salidroside (6b), and 6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from the stems of Lindera obtusiloba Blume. The structures of the isolates were determined by 1H-, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC spectroscopy. To evaluate their anti-allergic inflammatory activities, the inhibitory effects of isolates (1-7) on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interleukin (IL)-6 were examined using human mast cells; previous studies have reported that TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from mast cells is positively related to the severity of allergic symptoms. Of the tested compounds, koaburaside (3), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), and (6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) suppressed histamine release from mast cells as compared with gallic acid (positive control). In particular, 6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7) attenuated the gene expressions of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in human mast cells. Our results support the notion that phenolic glycosides isolated from L. obtusiloba inhibit mast-cell-derived allergic inflammation, histamine, and proinflammatory cytokines.
Related JoVE Video
A patterned recombinant human IgM guides neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Matrix molecules convey biochemical and physical guiding signals to neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and shape the trajectory of neuronal fibers that constitute neural networks. We have developed recombinant human IgMs that bind to epitopes on neural cells, with the aim of treating neurological diseases. Here we test the hypothesis that recombinant human IgMs (rHIgM) can guide neurite outgrowth of CNS neurons. Microcontact printing was employed to pattern rHIgM12 and rHIgM22, antibodies that were bioengineered to have variable regions capable of binding to neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. rHIgM12 promoted neuronal attachment and guided outgrowth of neurites from hippocampal neurons. Processes from spinal neurons followed grid patterns of rHIgM12 and formed a physical network. Comparison between rHIgM12 and rHIgM22 suggested the biochemistry that facilitates anchoring the neuronal surfaces is a prerequisite for the function of IgM, and spatial properties cooperate in guiding the assembly of neuronal networks.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive-enhancing effects of Rhus verniciflua bark extract and its active flavonoids with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids within the brain comprises anti-apoptosis of neuronal cells, anti-neuroinflammation and enhancement of cognitive function. We reported that Rhus vernciflua inhibits glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells. Here we narrowed it down to get neuroprotective fractions from the plant yielding flavonoid-rich ethyl acetate fraction (PREF). Among its active flavonoids, fisetin exhibited not only inhibitory effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 but also memory enhancing effects via reactivation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway in memory-impaired mice by scopolamine. Butein also showed a similar activity to fisetin even though to a lesser extent. The neuroprotection by PREF and selected flavonoids may involve maintenance of antioxidant defense mechanism including glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Conclusively, we demonstrate the R. vernciflua bark extract and its active flavonoids with potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects might be good therapeutic candidates as cognitive-enhancers.
Related JoVE Video
?-Adrenergic stimulation does not activate p38 MAP kinase or induce PGC-1? in skeletal muscle.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are reports that the ?-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol induces a large increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) in skeletal muscle. This has led to the hypothesis that the increases in PGC-1? and mitochondrial biogenesis induced in muscle by endurance exercise are mediated by catecholamines. In the present study, we evaluated this possibility and found that injecting rats with clenbuterol or norepinephrine induced large increases in PGC-1? and mitochondrial proteins in brown adipose tissue but had no effect on PGC-1? expression or mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. In brown adipocytes, the increase in PGC-1? expression induced by ?-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), which phosphorylates and activates the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family member activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), which binds to a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the PGC-1? promoter and mediates the increase in PGC-1? transcription. Phospho-CREB does not have this effect. Our results show that the reason for the lack of effect of ?-adrenergic stimulation on PGC-1? expression in muscle is that catecholamines do not activate p38 or increase ATF2 phosphorylation in muscle.
Related JoVE Video
Coil-protected embolization technique for a branch-incorporated aneurysm.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A small branch-incorporated aneurysm is an aneurysm with a small branch incorporated into the sac or the neck. It is one of the most difficult aneurysms to treat with coil embolization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the coil-protected embolization technique for small-branch incorporated aneurysm.
Related JoVE Video
Self-assembled plasmonic nanoring cavity arrays for SERS and LSPR biosensing.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Self-assembled plasmonic nanoring cavity arrays are formed alongside the curvature of highly packed metallic nanosphere gratings. The sub-10-nm gap size is precisely tuned via atomic layer deposition and highly ordered arrays are produced over a cm-sized area. The resulting hybrid nanostructure boosts coupling efficiency of light into plasmons, and shows an improved SERS detection limit. These substrates are used for SERS detection of the biological analyte, adenine, followed by concurrent localized surface plasmon resonance sensing.
Related JoVE Video
Plasmonic nanofocusing with a metallic pyramid and an integrated C-shaped aperture.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate the design, fabrication and characterization of a near-field plasmonic nanofocusing probe with a hybrid tip-plus-aperture design. By combining template stripping with focused ion beam lithography, a variety of aperture-based near-field probes can be fabricated with high optical performance. In particular, the combination of large transmission through a C-shaped aperture aligned to the sharp apex (<10?nm radius) of a template-stripped metallic pyramid allows the efficient delivery of light--via the C-shaped aperture--while providing a nanometric hotspot determined by the sharpness of the tip itself.
Related JoVE Video
Clarifying differences among thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scale variants: is the artery half open or half closed?
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b/3 has been regarded as a successful angiographic outcome, the definition or subclassification of TICI 2 has differed between the original (o-TICI) and modified TICI (m-TICI). We sought to compare interobserver variability for both scores and analyze the subgroups of the TICI 2.
Related JoVE Video
RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, induces apoptosis in U937 human lymphoma cells through reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of p38 MAPK.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RU486 (mifepristone) exerts an anticancer effect on cancer cells via induction of apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of RU486 on the apoptosis of U937 human leukemia cells. RU486 markedly increased apoptosis in U937 cells as well as in MDA231 human breast carcinoma, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial and HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. RU486 increased dose-dependent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ??m) in RU486-treated U937 cells. We also found that overexpression of Bcl-2 completely blocked RU486-mediated apoptosis. However, reactive oxygen species signaling had no effect on RU486-induced apoptosis. RU486 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK, but p38 MAPK only was associated with RU486-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, RU486 induces apoptosis through reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of p38 MAPK in U937 human leukemia cells.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of anti-platelet resistance on the development of cerebral ischemic lesion after carotid artery stenting.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebral ischemic lesions are frequently observed after carotid artery stenting (CAS), and anti-platelet agents are used to prevent stent thrombosis and peri-procedural complications. However, despite the premedication, cerebral ischemic lesions are observed, suggesting that they may rather be related to anti-platelet resistance. We, therefore, investigated the effects of anti-platelet resistance on the development of cerebral ischemic lesions after CAS.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomy and tensile strength of the abdominal head of the pectoralis major muscle in relation to transaxillary breast augmentation.
Aesthetic Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to elucidate the anatomy of the abdominal head of the pectoralis major (AHPM) in relation to transaxillary breast augmentation (TBA).
Related JoVE Video
Self double-stranded (ds)DNA induces IL-1? production from human monocytes by activating NLRP3 inflammasome in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1? is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus. IL-1? production requires cleaving pro-IL-? into IL-1? by the caspase-1-associated multiprotein complex called inflammasomes. In this study we show that self dsDNA induces IL-1? production from human monocytes dependent on serum or purified IgG containing anti-dsDNA Abs by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and K(+) efflux were involved in this activation. Knocking down the NLRP3 or inhibiting caspase-1, ROS, and K(+) efflux decreased IL-1? production. Supernatants from monocytes treated with a combination of self dsDNA and anti-dsDNA Ab(+) serum promoted IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in an IL-1?-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights in lupus pathogenesis by demonstrating that self dsDNA together with its autoantibodies induces IL-1? production from human monocytes by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through inducing ROS synthesis and K(+) efflux, leading to the increased Th17 cell response.
Related JoVE Video
Initial experience with the new double-lumen scepter balloon catheter for treatment of wide-necked aneurysms.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new double-lumen balloon catheter was being developed for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The purpose of this study is to report our initial experience of a double-lumen balloon catheter for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Activation of vasculogenic progenitor cells by ent-16?,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vasculogenic progenitor cells (VPCs) circulate in the blood and have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells that make up the lining of blood vessels. Therefore, VPC transplantation is a new strategy for the treatment of ischemic diseases. Because priming/preconditioning of VPCs before transplantation enhances their regenerative potential, the present study investigated whether ent-16?,17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oic acid (DHK) isolated from Siegesbeckia pubescens could stimulate/activate VPCs in vitro. Therefore, the effect of DHK (1-100 µM concentration) on the proliferation, migration, and tube forming of VPCs was examined in various systems, and related signaling pathways were identified. DHK treatment significantly increased the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of VPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt was significantly increased by DHK, but chemical inhibitors against ERK1/2 (U0126) and Akt (LY294002) significantly attenuated DHK-enhanced proliferation, migration, and tube formation of VPCs. Collectively, these results indicated that DHK shows promise as a novel VPC primer/activator.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-inflammatory phenolics isolated from Juniperus rigida leaves and twigs in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation is an essential host defense system particularly in response to infection and injury; however, excessive or undesirable inflammatory responses contribute to acute and chronic human diseases. A high-throughput screening effort searching for anti-inflammatory compounds from medicinal plants deduced that the methanolic extract of Juniperus rigida S. et L. (Cupressaceae) inhibited significantly nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Activity-guided fractionation and isolation yielded 13 phenolic compounds, including one new phenylpropanoid glycosides, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl 9-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1). Among the isolated compounds, phenylpropanoid glycosides with p-hydroxy group (2, 4) and massoniaside A (7), (+)-catechin (10), amentoflavone (11) effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Coil embolization of unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since the International Subarachnoid Aneurysmal Trial, endovascular coiling has been increasingly used as primary treatment option for ruptured or unruptured aneurysms that are feasible for coiling.
Related JoVE Video
Facile assembly of micro- and nanoarrays for sensing with natural cell membranes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microarray technology has facilitated many powerful high-throughput studies in the fields of genetics and proteomics, among others. However, preparation of microarrays composed of cell-derived membranes with embedded receptors has proven difficult. Here we describe a new method for forming microarrays composed of synthetic lipid vesicles and natural cell membranes. The method is based upon assembly of vesicles and natural membranes into recessed micro- and nanowells and using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) block as a "squeegee." This method is used to assemble phospholipid vesicles into arrays with micrometer and nanoscale dimensions. Native myelin and neuronal lipid raft arrays are also formed in 30 min or less. We show the natural membrane arrays can be used for sensing lipid-protein interactions by detecting cholera toxin binding to ganglioside GM1 in neuronal lipid rafts. In multicomponent arrays myelin can be distinguished from neuronal rafts by antibody binding to cell-specific surface antigens. Finally, myelin arrays formed in gold nanowells are used for surface plasmon resonance sensing. This assembly approach is simple, broadly applicable, and opens up new avenues of research not easily accomplished with standard microarray technology.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.