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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Detection of Occult Primary Tumors in Patients with Cervical Metastases of Unknown Primary Tumors: Comparison of (18)F FDG PET/CT with Contrast-enhanced CT or CT/MR Imaging-Prospective Study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Purpose To assess diagnostic accuracy of fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG fluorodeoxyglucose ) combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in the detection of occult primary tumors and determination of optimal care in patients with cervical metastasis of an unknown primary tumor ( CUP cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary tumor ) compared with contrast material-enhanced CT alone or combined contrast-enhanced CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (CT/MR imaging). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. In total, 56 patients with initially undetected tumors after endoscopic or physical examination were prospectively assessed with (18)F FDG fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT or contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging. The contrast-enhanced CT/MR images were read in combination. Results of guided biopsy with general anesthesia served as the reference standard. Diagnostic values of (18)F FDG fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT, contrast-enhanced CT, and contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging were compared with the McNemar test. Results Primary tumors were detected at 32 sites in 31 (55%) of 56 patients. There were 26 tumors in the palatine tonsil, two in the hypopharynx, two in the base of the tongue, and two in the nasopharynx. PET/CT depicted 22 (69%) of 32 primary tumors, but it failed to depict primary tumors in 10 (31%) of 32 cases. Overall, sensitivity of PET/CT (69%) in detection of primary tumors was higher than that of contrast-enhanced CT (16%) (P < .001) or contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging (41%) (P = .039), while specificity of these methods did not differ (88%, 76%, and 59% for PET/CT, contrast-enhanced CT, and contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging, respectively; P > .4). Diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [ AUC area under the receiver operating characteristics curve ] = 0.759) of PET/CT in tumor detection was significantly better than that of contrast-enhanced CT alone ( AUC area under the receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.531) (P = .001) or contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging ( AUC area under the receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.537) (P = .036). PET/CT depicted primary tumors in eight (50%) of 16 cases of false-negative CT/MR imaging findings, one distant metastatic case, and two cases of synchronous cancer. Conclusion (18)F FDG fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is more sensitive in detection of primary tumors than is contrast-enhanced CT or contrast-enhanced CT/MR imaging in patients with CUP cervical lymph node metastasis from an unknown primary tumor ; therefore, it may lead to improved therapeutic planning in these patients. © RSNA, 2014.
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Effects of Doping on Transport Properties in Cu-Bi-Se-Based Thermoelectric Materials.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The thermoelectric properties of Zn-, In-, and I-doped Cu1.7Bi4.7Se8 pavonite homologues were investigated in the temperature range from 300 to 560 K. On the basis of the comprehensive structural analysis using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation diffraction for Cux+yBi5-ySe8 compounds with the inherently disordered crystallographic sites, we demonstrate a doping strategy that provides a simultaneous control for enhanced electronic transport properties by the optimization of carrier concentration and exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivity by the formation of point defects. Substituted Zn or In ions on Cu site was found to be an effective phonon scattering center as well as an electron donor, while doping on Bi site showed a moderate effect for phonon scattering. In addition, we achieved largely enhanced power factor in small amount of In doping on Cu site by increased electrical conductivity and moderately decreased Seebeck coefficient. Coupled with a low lattice thermal conductivity originated from intensified point defect phonon scattering by substituted In ions with host Cu ions, a thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 0.24 at 560 K for Cu1.6915In0.0085Bi4.7Se8 was achieved, yielding 30% enhancement compared with that of a pristine Cu1.7Bi4.7Se8 at the same temperature.
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Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Clinical Implications for Nodal Metastasis and Prognosis of Tongue Cancer.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The development of biomarkers for the prediction of lymph node metastasis and prognosis is critical for deciding the treatment modality of tongue cancer. The purpose of our study is to investigate the clinical implications of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) expression in tongue cancer.
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Clinical significance of intensive endoscopic screening for synchronous esophageal neoplasm in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Abstract Objectives. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often develop second primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of synchronous esophageal squamous cell neoplasm (ESCN) is important because the prognosis of HNSCC can be affected by the statuses of second primary tumors. Methods. In a prospective study, 308 patients with HNSCC were screened for synchronous ESCN between May 2010 and April 2012. All patients underwent conventional white-light endoscopic examination with Lugol chromoendoscopy and narrow band image. Results. The median age was 61 years (range, 26-87 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 4.2:1. Two hundred and thirty-four patients (76.0%) were current or ex-smokers, 207 patients (67.2%) had a history of alcohol consumption and 56 patients (18.2%) had previous history of cancer. Synchronous ESCN was detected in 22 patients (7.1%), and most patients were at an early stage. The locations of index HNSCC in these patients were as follows: hypopharynx (n = 12), larynx (n = 6), oropharynx (n = 2) and oral cavity (n = 2). Synchronous ESCN was detected in 25.5% (12/47) of hypopharyngeal cancer and in 27.8% (15/54) of HNSCC involving the pyriform sinus. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking (current smoker vs. never smoker, Odds Ratio [OR] 8.3, p = 0.028), a history of cancer (OR 5.0, p = 0.002) and pyriform sinus involvement (OR 9.2, p < 0.0001) increased the risk of developing synchronous ESCN. Conclusions. Patients with HNSCC, especially those who are current smokers, have a history of cancer and have pyriform sinus involvement, should undergo intensive endoscopic screening to detect synchronous ESCN.
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ATP-Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Primary or Recurrent Ovarian and Peritoneal Cancer.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate chemosensitivity with an adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay in patients with epithelial ovarian or peritoneal cancer according to tumor histology, grade, and disease status.
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Cell therapy with embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes encapsulated in injectable nanomatrix gel enhances cell engraftment and promotes cardiac repair.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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A significant barrier to the therapeutic use of stem cells is poor cell retention in vivo. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic potential and long-term engraftment of cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) encapsulated in an injectable nanomatrix gel consisting of peptide amphiphiles incorporating cell adhesive ligand Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (PA-RGDS) in experimental myocardial infarction (MI). We cultured rat neonatal CMs in PA-RGDS for 7 days and found that more than 90% of the CMs survived. Next, we intramyocardially injected mouse CM cell line HL-1 CMs with or without PA-RGDS into uninjured hearts. Histologic examination and flow cytometry analysis of digested heart tissues showed approximately 3-fold higher engraftment in the mice that received CMs with PA-RGDS compared to those without PA-RGDS. We further investigated the therapeutic effects and long-term engraftment of mESC-CMs with PA-RGDS on MI in comparison with PBS control, CM-only, and PA-RGDS only. Echocardiography demonstrated that the CM-only and CM+PA-RGDS groups showed higher cardiac function at week 2 compared to other groups. However, from 3 weeks, higher cardiac function was maintained only in the CM+PA-RGDS group; this was sustained for 12 weeks. Confocal microscopic examination of the cardiac tissues harvested at 14 weeks demonstrated sustained engraftment and integration of mESC-CMs into host myocardium in the CM+PA-RGDS group only. This study for the first time demonstrated that PA-RGDS encapsulation can enhance survival of mESC-derived CMs and improve cardiac function post-MI. This nanomatrix gel-mediated stem cell therapy can be a promising option for treating MI.
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Cytoplasmic iASPP Expression as a Novel Prognostic Indicator in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) is a key inhibitor of tumor suppressor p53 that is overexpressed in several human cancers; however, its role in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) remains unknown. The present study investigated the prognostic role of iASPP in patients with OSCC.
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Clinical implication of computed tomography findings in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Accurate tumor staging including involvement of laryngeal cartilage is important to treatment planning. Clinicians rely on imaging findings and determine initial laryngectomy for T4-stage cancer with functionless larynx or extralaryngeal spread (ELS). We examined the accuracy and prognostic value of preoperative CT findings for tumor staging in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Ninety-four consecutive patients with clinically T3-T4-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx who underwent curative resection of primary tumor were reviewed. Preoperative CT findings were interpreted by a radiologist without pathologic information. Pathologic findings were used as the gold standard for correlating radiographic findings. CT imaging identified 23 (72 %) of 32 cases of pathologically documented thyroid cartilage penetration and 24 (73 %) of 33 cases of pathologically documented ELS. The positive predictive values for thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS were 70 and 80 %, respectively. Pretreatment CT imaging up-staged 6 of 46 pT3 cases and all of 8 pT2 cases, while it down-staged 7 of 40 pT4 cases. The accuracy for clinical staging by CT imaging was 78 %. Subglottic extension of the CT image was an independent variable for predicting thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS (P = 0.014). Thyroid cartilage penetration with or without ELS on CT scans is significantly associated with unfavorable DFS outcome of patients (P = 0.020). CT imaging is suboptimal in diagnosing TCP or ELS of advanced laryngeal cancer, but may be useful to predict patient survival by identifying clinically TCP.
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Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is associated with human cervical cancer progression.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The functions of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human cancers remain to be clarified. The lncRNA Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been reported to reprogram chromatin organization and promote breast and colorectal cancer metastasis, the involvement of lncRNAs in cervical cancer is just beginning to be studied. In the present study, we examined the expression and the functional role of HOTAIR in cervical cancer. HOTAIR expression was determined in cervical cancer tissues (n=111) and corresponding normal tissues (n=40) by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and its correlation with clinical parameters and prognosis were analyzed. To determine the effect of HOTAIR knockdown and overexpression in cervical cancer cell lines, we used the CCK-8 assay, wound healing migration and matrigel invasion assay. The expression level of HOTAIR in cervical cancer tissues was higher than that in corresponding non-cancerous tissues. High HOTAIR expression correlated with lymph node metastasis, and reduced overall survival. A multivariate analysis showed that HOTAIR was a prognostic factor for predicting cervical cancer recurrence. Knockdown of HOTAIR reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cervical cancer cell lines. Moreover, HOTAIR regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, which are important for cell motility and metastasis. Therefore, HOTAIR may promote tumor aggressiveness through the upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 and EMT-related genes. These findings indicate that HOTAIR may represent a novel biomarker for predicting recurrence and prognosis and serve as a promising therapeutic target in cervical cancer.
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Altered gene expression profile after exposure to transforming growth factor ?1 in the 253J human bladder cancer cell line.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells and this effect is prominent and constant in 253J bladder cancer cells. We performed a microarray analysis to search for genes that were altered after TGF-?1 treatment to understand the growth inhibitory action of TGF-?1.
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Visualization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1?-p300 interactions in live cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? mediates the hypoxia response signaling pathway essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis in low oxygen environments through its complex formation with CBP/p300 in the nucleus. Employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we devised a live-cell interaction assay based on reporter proteins by tagging fluorescent proteins onto the carboxy termini of HIF-1? and p300. The nature of the constructed reporter protein was verified by observing localized distribution, degradation, and stabilization kinetics in cells transfected with the HIF-1? containing plasmid. A mutant HIF-1? incapable of binding to p300 was then utilized to demonstrate insignificant FRET efficiency, thereby confirming that our constructs could effectively probe the direct interaction between HIF-1? and p300. We further examined the effects of small molecules known to modulate the HIF-1?-p300 interaction and transcriptional activity on FRET. Finally, by inhibiting activities of two HIF-specific hydroxylases, HIF-specific prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 and factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1) with their specific siRNAs, we explored how these HIF-specific hydroxylases contribute to the HIF-1?-p300 interaction by FRET measurements along with HIF-1 mediated transcriptional activation. Therefore, this technique would provide a way to study selective inhibition of either PHD2 or FIH-1 within living cells, and to screen specific inhibitors of HIF-mediated transcription activity for therapeutic applications.
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Surgical outcomes of robotic radical hysterectomy using three robotic arms versus conventional multiport laparoscopy in patients with cervical cancer.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To compare surgical outcomes of robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) using 3 robotic arms with those of conventional laparoscopy in patients with early cervical cancer.
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Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.
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A case-control study to identify risk factors for totally implantable central venous port-related bloodstream infection.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer.
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Combinational chemoprevention effect of celecoxib and an oral antiangiogenic LHD4 on colorectal carcinogenesis in mice.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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To achieve a clinically rational regimen for cancer chemoprevention with improved efficacy and safety, the combination effect of celecoxib and newly developed oral angiogenesis inhibitor, LHD4, on chemoprevention was evaluated. The chemopreventive effects of celecoxib, LHD4, and the combination of celecoxib and LHD4 were evaluated in a murine colorectal carcinogenesis model. After 17 experimental weeks, mouse colon tissues were collected and examined in terms of polyp volume and degree of carcinogenesis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Mice in the celecoxib-treated or LHD4-treated groups had total polyp volumes of 47.0±9.7 and 120.1±45.2?mm, respectively, which represented decreases of 65.6 and 22.3% from the control (154.5±33.5?mm). However, the polyp volume in the combination group was 22.8±9.3?mm, a decrease of 85.2% from the control. In the comparison of carcinogenesis, the percentage of normal tissue (i.e. excluding proliferative tissue) was found to be 40.6% in the control, 51.7% in the celecoxib, 56.9% in the LHD4, and 81.7% in the combination group. In accordance with attenuated carcinogenesis, both inflammation and angiogenesis were also well controlled. Together, these results suggest that the combinatory use of celecoxib and a newly developed oral heparin conjugate could be a promising regimen for chemoprevention by intervening in both inflammation and angiogenesis.
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Mdm2 and p53 Expression in Radiation-Induced Sarcomas of the Head and Neck: Comparison with De Novo Sarcomas.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The pathogenesis of radiation-induced sarcomas (RISs) is not well known. In RIS, TP53 mutations are frequent, but little is known about Mdm2-p53 interaction, which is a recent therapeutic target of sarcomas.
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A Case of Ventriculitis Associated with Renal Abscess Caused by Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Recently, serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae has been a major agent of an invasive syndrome characterized by liver abscess and its metastatic infection. Extrahepatic infection and its characteristics in patients with renal abscess caused by K. pneumoniae are poorly understood, and few cases of central nervous system infection have been reported. This is a report of 80-year-old woman with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal abscess caused by serotype K1 K. pneumoniae, complicated with ventriculitis despite of appropriate use of antibiotics. Physicians need to be aware of possibility of metastatic infection in patients with serotype K1 K. pneumoniae infection, if they develop neurologic symptom and focus of infection is still present.
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Late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of myocardial infarction: comparison of image quality between single and double doses of contrast agents.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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To compare the image quality of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) using a single dose of gadolinium contrast agent versus the conventional double dose for assessing myocardial infarction. This retrospective study examined 37 patients with chronic myocardial infarction who underwent LGE CMR using both inversion recovery (IR)-turbo fast low-angle shot magnitude-reconstructed and phase-sensitive images with two different dosages of gadolinium contrast agent: a single dose of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA in 17 patients and a double dose of 0.2 mmol/kg in 20 patients. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and visual conspicuity between infarct and normal myocardium (CNRinfarct-normal, conspicuityinfarct-normal) and between infarct and left ventricular cavity (CNRinfarct-LVC, conspicuityinfarct-LVC) were compared. Interobserver agreement for the maximal transmural extent of infarction was also evaluated. CNRinfarct-normal was significantly higher with double-dose gadolinium contrast agent (15.5 ± 20.7 vs. 40.4 ± 16.1 in magnitude images and 9.5 ± 2.8 vs. 11.2 ± 2.7 in phase-sensitive images, P < 0.001) while conspicuityinfarct-normal showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Both CNRinfarct-LVC (7.7 ± 10.7 vs. -6.6 ± 19.0 in magnitude images and 4.1 ± 2.3 vs. -0.4 ± 4.1 in phase-sensitive images, P < 0.05) and conspicuityinfarct-LVC were significantly better with single-dose gadolinium contrast. Interobserver agreement for assessing the transmural extent of infarction was moderate in both groups: 0.591 for single-dose and 0.472 for double-dose. LGE CMR using a single dose of gadolinium contrast agent showed significantly better contrast between infarcted myocardium and left ventricular cavity lumen without a significant decrease in visual contrast between infarcted myocardium and normal myocardium, compared to a double dose.
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Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate is Effective in the Treatment of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia of Any Size Including a Small Prostate.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Although transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is considered the standard surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is replacing TURP. We compared TURP with HoLEP with matching for prostate size.
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Prognostic Factors and Oncological Outcomes of 122 Head and Neck Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients Treated at a Single Institution.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Head and neck soft tissue sarcomas (HNSTS) are rare tumors with various histological types displaying different clinical behavior. As a result, prognostic factors of this disease remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors and oncological outcomes of HNSTS.
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Risk Factors for Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Clinically Node-Positive Lateral Neck.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with clinically node-positive lateral neck is more likely to recur after surgery than node-negative PTC. The present study investigated the risk factors for recurrence in PTC patients with clinically node-positive lateral neck.
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C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Combination of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues are preferably applied in rice paddy soils to increase the rate of organic matter mineralization and to improve plant growth. However, organic matter addition facilitates methane (CH4) emission from rice paddy soil. Mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) increases NO3-N concentrations in soil, which are precursors for the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, N2O is a minor greenhouse gas emitted from submerged rice field and hence is not often considered during calculation of total global warming potential (GWP) during rice cultivation. The hypothesis of this study was that fluxes of N2O emissions might be changed after removal of flooded water from rice field and the effect of cover crops on N2O emissions in the fallow season might be interesting. However, the effects of N-rich plant residues on N2O emission rates in the fallow season and its effect on annual GWP were not studied before. In this experiment, combination of barley (non-leguminous) and hairy vetch (leguminous) biomasses were applied at 9 Mg ha(-1) and 27 Mg ha(-1) rates in rice paddy soil. Cover crop application significantly increased CH4 emission flux while decreased N2O emissions during rice cultivation. The lowest N2O emission was observed in 27 Mg ha(-1) cover crop treated plots. Cover crop applications increased N contents in soil aggregates especially in smaller aggregates (<250 ?m), and that proportionately increased the N2O emission potentials of these soil aggregates. Fluxes of N2O emissions in the fallow season were influenced by the N2O emission potentials of soil aggregates and followed opposite trends as those observed during rice cultivation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the doses of cover crop applications for rice cultivation should not be optimized considering only CH4, but N2O should also be considered especially for fallow season to calculate total GWP.
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Clinical significance of pretreatment metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To evaluate the usefulness of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured by pretreatment fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as predictors of clinical outcome in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPSCC).
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Association between obesity, prostate-specific antigen level and prostate-specific antigen density in men with a negative prostate biopsy.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To determine the association between body mass index (BMI), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and PSA density (PSAD) in patients with an elevated serum PSA level but a negative prostate biopsy.
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Late-onset metastatic adenocarcinoma of the spermatic cord from primary gastric cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Metastatic cancers of the paratesticular tissue are very rare; however, the most frequent primary site of spermatic cord metastasis is the gastrointestinal tract.
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Clinical values for abnormal ¹?F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in (18)F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase (18)F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated (18)F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake.
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Development of TRAIL resistance by radiation-induced hypermethylation of DR4 CpG island in recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
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Postoperative stability for surgery-first approach using intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy: 12 month follow-up.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative stability of the surgery-first approach using intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). We retrospectively studied a sample derived from the patients who were treated by the surgery-first approach using a LeFort I osteotomy and IVRO for correction of class III dentofacial deformity from 2008 to 2012. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively and 2 days, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively were traced, and the skeletal and dental variables at different time points were analysed. The study sample comprised 37 subjects, mean (SD) age 23 (4) years. The mean (SD) total duration of treatment including postoperative orthodontics was 14 (6) months, and surgical movement of the maxillary A point was 0.75 (1.3)mm anteriorly, and 0.21 (1.79)mm superiorly. The surgical change in the position of the maxillary first molar was 1.01 (1.57)mm superiorly. The mean (SD) movement of mandible was 11.15 (5.4)mm posteriorly at pogonion and 1.02 (1.79)mm inferiorly at menton. There were no significant change in maxillary skeletal variables during the first year postoperative period. The surgical relapse of mandible at pogonion was 0.63 (2.31) mm anteriorly (p=0.01), however, the relapse in superior direction at menton was 2.86 (1.39) mm with statistical significance (p=0.01). The total duration of orthodontic treatment with surgery-first was roughly 5 months shorter than conventional preoperative and postoperative orthodontic treatment. The surgery-first approach using IVRO is effective and predictable, and shortens the overall duration of treatment. Anterior relapse of the mandible was less than 1mm, and increased superior relapse can be compensated for with appropriate preoperative planning to provide a reliable outcome. This study was limited to 12 months' follow-up, and a long term follow-up study is indicated.
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Growth inhibition after exposure to transforming growth factor-?1 in human bladder cancer cell lines.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-?1 in bladder cancer cells.
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Autophagy inhibition can overcome radioresistance in breast cancer cells through suppression of TAK1 activation.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Autophagy is frequently activated in radioresistant cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of autophagy and transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in radioresistance.
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Factors associated with crestal bone loss following dental implant placement in a longitudinal follow-up study.
J Oral Implantol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To estimate the magnitude of crestal bone loss and to identify factors associated with changes in crestal bone height following placement of dental implants. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study, consisting of a sample derived from the population of patients who had at least one dental implant placed in a community practice over a 10-year period. A total of 11 predictor variables were grouped into demographic, related health status, anatomic, implant-specific, and operative categories. The primary outcome variable was a change in crestal bone height (mm) over the course of follow up. The secondary outcome variable was crestal bone loss at 1 year grouped into two categories (bone loss > 1.5 mm and ? 1.5 mm). Univariate and multivariate regression mixed effects models were developed to identify variables associated with crestal bone level changes over time. P-values at ? 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: The study sample was composed of 85 subjects who received 148 implants. The mean change of the crestal bone was -2.1 mm + 1.5 mm (range = -12.5 - 0.5; Median = -1.77). In the multivariate model, none of the variables studied were statistically associated with mean crestal bone loss. Among 84 (66.1%) implants with bone loss > 1.5 mm within 1 year, no variables were associated with bone loss in the multivariate model.Conclusion: Of the 11 predictor variables evaluated in this study, none were statistically significant in regard to an increased risk for crestal bone loss or for excessive bone loss within the first year after implant placement.
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Risk factors for central neck lymph node metastasis of clinically noninvasive, node-negative papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To examine predictive factors for subclinical central neck lymph node metastases (LNM) of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC).
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Oral delivery of a potent anti-angiogenic heparin conjugate by chemical conjugation and physical complexation using deoxycholic acid.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, plays a pivotal role in tumor progression and for this reason angiogenesis inhibitors are an important class of therapeutics for cancer treatment. Heparin-based angiogenesis inhibitors have been newly developed as one of such classes of therapeutics and possess a great promise in the clinical context. Taurocholate conjugated low molecular weight heparin derivative (LHT7) has been proven to be a potent, multi-targeting angiogenesis inhibitor against broad-spectrum angiogenic tumors. However, major limitations of LHT7 are its poor oral bioavailability, short half-life, and frequent parenteral dosing schedule. Addressing these issues, we have developed an oral formulation of LHT7 by chemically conjugating LHT7 with a tetrameric deoxycholic acid named LHTD4, and then physically complexing it with deoxycholylethylamine (DCK). The resulting LHTD4/DCK complex showed significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (34.3 ± 2.89%) and prolonged the mean residence time (7.5 ± 0.5 h). The LHTD4/DCK complex was mostly absorbed in the intestine by transcellular pathway via its interaction with apical sodium bile acid transporter. In vitro, the VEGF-induced sprouting of endothelial spheroids was significantly blocked by LHTD4. LHTD4/DCK complex significantly regressed the total vessel fractions of tumor (77.2 ± 3.9%), as analyzed by X-ray microCT angiography, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. Using the oral route of administration, we showed that LHTD4/DCK complex could be effective and chronically administered as angiogenesis inhibitor.
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Risk factors and survival outcomes for patients with anastomotic leakage after surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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This study evaluated the risk factors for anastomotic leakage (AL) and survival outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
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Lymph node density as an independent predictor of cancer-specific mortality in patients with lymph node-positive laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma after laryngectomy.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We examined the prognostic value of lymph node density in predicting cancer-specific mortality (CSM) for patients with lymph nodes positive (pN+) laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after laryngectomy.
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18F fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with negative neck palpation findings: a prospective study.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To assess the clinical usefulness of fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and CT/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting occult neck metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and negative neck palpation findings.
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The stability following advancement genioplasty with biodegradable screw fixation.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative stability using biodegradable screws with that of metal plates for fixation of advancement genioplasty. We studied patients who had advancement genioplasty alone or at the same time as other orthognathic surgery including mandibular setback. We assessed the lateral cephalographs at different time points (preoperatively, and 7 days, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively). A total of 54 patients were enrolled and 27 patients were assigned to each group. The position of pogonion was stable 12 months postoperatively, and the amount of skeletal advancement was reflected in soft tissue close to 100%. There were no clinical differences between biodegradable screws and conventional metal plates used for fixation. Biodegradable fixation for advancement genioplasty is a good option for patients who would require a second operation for removal of the plates.
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A comparison of clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic surgery for adnexal tumors.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and surgical outcomes between laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery and traditional multiport laparoscopic (TML) surgery for treatment of adnexal tumors.
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Aspiration cytology of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.
Diagn. Cytopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Aspiration cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), a newly established salivary gland neoplasm defined by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, are not fully characterized to date. We report cytologic descriptions of nine cases of molecularly confirmed MASC, including two with unusual findings.
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Rates of fecal transmission of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients in intensive care units in Korea.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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We investigated the rates of fecal transmission of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).
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Short-Term Treatment Results for Unilateral Vocal Fold Palsy Induced by Mediastinal Lesions.
J Voice
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a frequent complication of surgery of mediastinal structures. This study evaluated the characteristics and short-term treatment outcomes of injection laryngoplasty for unilateral VFP (UVFP) induced by mediastinal lesions.
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Combination of AG490, a Jak2 inhibitor, and methylsulfonylmethane synergistically suppresses bladder tumor growth via the Jak2/STAT3 pathway.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Human urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer, with a worldwide estimate of about two million patients. Recurrence after complete transurethral prostatic resection is the most important problem in therapy. Combination therapy is a new approach in the treatment of cancers that do not respond to current therapies. These therapies have many advantages over conventional therapies, such as fewer side-effects and greater efficiency. Research efforts using natural compounds for the elimination or growth suppression of the cancer arise from studies on methylsulfonylmethane (MSM). MSM is a natural sulfur compound with no side-effects. AG490 is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been extensively used for inhibiting Jak2 in vitro and in vivo. In our study, the combinatorial effect of these two agents on human bladder cancer cell lines and xenografts was analyzed. We observed that the combination of AG490 and MSM inhibited cancer cell viability and cell migration in vitro. This combination inhibited VEGF mRNA expression in bladder cancer cell lines. In vivo experiments showed that oral administration of AG490 and MSM combination significantly inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts in mice. Our study clearly demonstrates that the predominant effect of this combination is the reduction of signaling molecules including STAT3, STAT5b, IGF-1R, VEGF and VEGF-R2 which are involved in the growth, progression and metastasis of human bladder cancer. The anti-metastatic ability of this drug combination is confirmed using metastatic animal models. Therefore, this combination could have the effect of genesistasis and powerful anticancer effects against bladder cancer.
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Functional transformations of bile acid transporters induced by high-affinity macromolecules.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. However, membrane-based intestinal transporters are confined to the transport of only small molecular substrates. Here, we propose a new strategy that uses high-affinity binding macromolecular substrates to functionally transform the membrane transporters so that they behave like receptors, ultimately allowing the apical-basal transport of bound macromolecules. Bile acid based macromolecular substrates were synthesized and allowed to interact with ASBT. ASBT/macromolecular substrate complexes were rapidly internalized in vesicles, localized in early endosomes, dissociated and escaped the vesicular transport while binding of cytoplasmic ileal bile acid binding proteins cause exocytosis of macromolecules and prevented entry into lysosomes. This newly found transformation process of ASBT suggests a new transport mechanism that could aid in further utilization of ASBT to mediate oral macromolecular drug delivery.
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FIGO staging for uterine sarcomas: can the revised 2008 staging system predict survival outcome better?
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare survival of patients with uterine sarcomas using the 1988 and 2008 International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) staging systems to determine if revised 2008 staging accurately predicts patient survival.
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Methane emission and dynamics of methanotrophic and methanogenic communities in a flooded rice field ecosystem.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Methane emissions, along with methanotrophs and methanogens and soil chemical properties, were investigated in a flooded rice ecosystem. Methane emission increased after rice transplantation (from 7.2 to 552 mg day(-1) m(-2) ) and was positively and significantly correlated with transcripts of pmoA and mcrA genes, transcript/gene ratios of mcrA, temperature and total organic carbon. Methane flux was negatively correlated with sulfate concentration. Methanotrophs represented only a small proportion (0.79-1.75%) of the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene reads: Methylocystis (type II methanotroph) decreased rapidly after rice transplantation, while Methylosinus and unclassified Methylocystaceae (type II) were relatively constant throughout rice cultivation. Methylocaldum, Methylobacter, Methylomonas and Methylosarcina (type I) were sparse during the early period, but they increased after 60 days, and their maximum abundances were observed at 90-120 days. Of 33 218 archaeal reads, 68.3-86.6% were classified as methanogens. Methanosaeta, Methanocella, Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were dominant methanogens, and their maximum abundances were observed at days 60-90. Only four reads were characteristic of anaerobic methanotrophs, suggesting that anaerobic methane metabolism is negligible in this rice paddy system. After completing a multivariate canonical correspondence analysis of our integrated data set, we found normalized mcrA/pmoA transcript ratios to be a promising parameter for predicting net methane fluxes emitted from rice paddy soils.
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Association of pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor expression in ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with poor prognosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF) expression is elevated in both ovarian tumors and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, PAUF expression in ovarian tumors according to histologic subtype and grade has not been investigated. In this study, we examined various clinicopathologic features of 24 patients with mucinous cystadenoma (MCA), 36 with mucinous borderline tumors (MBTs), and 46 with mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) according to PAUF expression status assessed using immunohistochemistry. We found that MACs more frequently stained positive for PAUF than did MCAs and MBTs (P < 0.0001). Although there was no significant differences with respect to other clinicopathologic characteristics of MACs according to PAUF expression status, patients with PAUF-weakly positive and PAUF-strongly positive MACs tended to have a shorter overall survival (OS) than those with PAUF-negative MAC, determined using a Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = 0.1885). After adjusting for various clinicopathologic parameters, PAUF positivity of MACs was a significant predictive factor for disease-free survival (DFS) (negative vs. weakly positive: P = 0.045, hazard ratio [HR] = 57.406, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.090-3022.596; and negative vs. strongly positive: P = 0.034, HR = 97.890, 95% CI: 1.412-6785.925). In conclusion, PAUF was more frequently expressed in MAC than in its benign and borderline counterparts, and was associated with a poor OS and DFS in MAC patients. Therefore, we suggest that PAUF may be a practical biomarker for histopathological categorization and a prognostic marker for patients with an ovarian mucinous tumor.
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Accurate sequential detection of primary tumor and metastatic lymphatics using a temperature-induced phase transition nanoparticulate system.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Primary tumor and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics have emerged as new targets for anticancer therapy, given that these are difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy. In this study, docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles with Flamma (FPR-675, fluorescence molecular imaging dye; DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs) were prepared using a temperature-induced phase transition for accurate detection of metastatic lymphatics. Significant accumulation was seen at the primary tumor and in metastatic lymph nodes within a short time. Particle size, maximum drug loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs were approximately 10.34±4.28 nm, 3.84 wt%, and 94±2.67 wt%, respectively. Lymphatic tracking after local and systemic delivery showed that DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were more potent in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, and excised mouse lymphatics showed stronger near-infrared fluorescence intensity on the tumor-bearing side than on the non-tumor-bearing side at 60 minutes post-injection. In vivo cytotoxicity and efficacy data for the NPs demonstrated that the systemically administered NPs caused little tissue damage and had minimal side effects in terms of slow renal excretion and prolonged circulation in tumor-bearing mice, and rapid renal excretion in non-tumor-bearing mice using an in vivo real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. These results clearly indicate that docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs could provide a strategy to achieve effective cancer therapy by simultaneous delivery to primary tumors, tumor lymphatics, and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics.
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Liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: Risk factors for metastatic infection.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Abstract Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae-associated liver abscess (KPLA) is often accompanied by extrahepatic complications. We investigated the clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without metastatic infections and compared the 2 groups. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 161 patients with KPLA who were admitted to 2 tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. Results: In total, 9.9% had a metastatic infection. The most commonly involved distant sites were the eyes (n = 7) and the lungs (n = 6). In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus as an underlying disease (odds ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-9.51; p = 0.03) and a platelet count < 80,000/mm(3) (OR 11.60, 95% CI 2.53-53.26; p = 0.002) were associated with metastatic infection. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was not observed in K. pneumoniae from patients with metastatic infection, whereas 3.4% of the bacteria in patients without metastatic infection had ESBL production. However, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.45). The in-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different (0% vs. 2.8%; p = 0.52). By multivariate analysis, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was independently associated with mortality among patients with KPLA (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12-2.00; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Clinicians must be aware of potential metastatic infections in patients with KPLA, especially if they have diabetes mellitus and thrombocytopenia. The APACHE II score was predictive of mortality in patients with KPLA.
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Complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS) for cancer.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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Tumors begin with a single cell, but as each tumor grows and evolves, it becomes a wide collection of clones that display remarkable heterogeneity in phenotypic features, which has posed a big challenge to current targeted anticancer therapy. Intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity is attributable in part to genetic mutations but also to adaptation and evolution of tumors to heterogeneity in tumor microenvironments. If tumors are viewed not only as a disease but also as a complex adaptive system (CAS), tumors should be treated as such and a more systemic approach is needed. Some of many tumors therapeutic strategies are discussed here from a view of a tumor as CAS, which can be collectively called a complex adaptive therapeutic strategy (CATS). The central theme of CATS is based on three intermediate concepts: i) disruption of artifacts, ii) disruption of connections, and iii) reprogramming of cancer-immune dynamics. Each strategy presented here is a piece of the puzzle for CATS. Although each piece by itself may be neither novel nor profound, an assembled puzzle could be a novel and innovative cancer therapeutic strategy.
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Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of the Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Vancomycin versus Teicoplanin in Patients with Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of vancomycin to those of teicoplanin for the treatment of adult patients with health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) bacteremia. A multicenter observational study was prospectively conducted in 15 teaching hospitals in Korea between February 2010 and July 2011. Adult patients (?18 years old) with HA-MRSA bacteremia who were initially treated with vancomycin (VAN) (n = 134) or teicoplanin (TEC) (n = 56) were enrolled. Clinical and microbiological responses and drug-related adverse events were compared between the two treatment groups using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The vancomycin and teicoplanin MICs were determined by Etest. The MRSA-related mortality, duration of fever, and duration of MRSA bacteremia in the treatment groups were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of drug-related adverse events. Among the 190 MRSA isolates, the VAN MICs ranged from 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml (MIC50 and MIC90, 1.5 ?g/ml), and the TEC MIC ranged from 0.5 to 8 ?g/ml (MIC50, 3 ?g/ml; MIC90, 6 ?g/ml). In multivariate analyses, the antibiotic type (vancomycin or teicoplanin) was not associated with treatment outcomes. This study indicates that teicoplanin is an effective and safe alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of HA-MRSA bacteremia.
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Lymph Node Ratio of the Central Compartment is a Significant Predictor for Locoregional Recurrence After Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection in Patients with Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Lymph node ratio (LNR) is an important prognosis factor in many solid cancers, but there have been few reports of LNR in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study investigated LNR of the central compartment to determine whether LNR has clinical significance as a prognostic predictor for recurrence after prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in patients with PTC.
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Oligomeric bile acid-mediated oral delivery of low molecular weight heparin.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Intestinal transporters are limited to the transport of small molecular substrates. Here, we describe the development of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT)-targeted high-affinity oligomeric bile acid substrates that mediate the transmembrane transport of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Several oligomers of deoxycholic acid (oligoDOCA) were synthesized to investigate the substrate specificity of ASBT. To see the binding of oligoDOCA on the substrate-binding pocket of ASBT, molecular docking was used and the dissociation rate constants (KD) were measured using surface plasmon resonance. The KD for tetrameric DOCA (tetraDOCA) was 50-fold lower than that for monomeric DOCA, because tetraDOCA interacted with several hydrophobic grooves in the substrate-binding pocket of ASBT. The synthesized oligoDOCA compounds were subsequently chemically conjugated to macromolecular LMWH. In vitro, tetraDOCA-conjugated LMWH (LHe-tetraD) had highest selectivity for ASBT during its transport. Orally administered LHe-tetraD showed remarkable systemic anticoagulation activity and high oral bioavailability of 33.5±3.2% and 19.9±2.5% in rats and monkeys, respectively. Notably, LHe-tetraD successfully prevented thrombosis in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. These results represent a major advancement in ASBT-mediated LMWH delivery and may facilitate administration of many important therapeutic macromolecules through a non-invasive oral route.
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Prolonged autophagy by MTOR inhibitor leads radioresistant cancer cells into senescence.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Radiotherapy is one of the well-established therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment. However, the emergence of cells refractory to radiation is a major obstacle to successful treatment with radiotherapy. Many reports suggest that inhibitors targeting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) can sensitize cancer cells to the effect of radiation, although by which mechanism MTOR inhibitors enhance the efficacy of radiation toward cancer cells remains to be elucidated. Our studies indicate that a potent and persistent activation of autophagy via inhibition of the MTOR pathway, even in cancer cells where autophagy is occurring, can trigger premature senescence, cellular proliferation arrest. Combined treatment of MTOR inhibitor and radiation induce heterochromatin formation, an irreversible growth arrest and an increase of senescence-associated GLB1 (?-galactosidase) activity, which appear to result from a constant activation of TP53 and a restoration in the activity of retinoblastoma 1 protein (RB1)-E2F1. Thus, this study provides evidence that promoting cellular senescence via inhibition of the MTOR pathway may serve as an avenue to augment radiosensitivity in cancer cells that initiate an autophagy-survival mode to radiotherapy.
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Effects of uterine manipulation on surgical outcomes in laparoscopic management of endometrial cancer: a prospective randomized clinical trial.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the influence of intrauterine manipulation on the surgical outcome in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with 2 different laparoscopic approaches.
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Technical considerations for large-scale parallel reaction monitoring analysis.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Targeted methods have gained acceptance among proteomics community to perform quantitative experiments. However, the current reference to conduct such experiments relies on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analyses performed on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, although it suffers from some limitations. First, the low resolution quadrupole mass analyzers do not present enough selectivity to discriminate the analytes from interferences commonly encountered in biological samples. Second, the number of peptides monitored in one single experiment often remains limited. The introduction of high resolution/accurate mass instruments with fast sequencing capabilities has enabled the development of novel quantitative methods. More specifically, the new quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer operated in parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mode showed detection and quantification performances similar or better than those obtained in SRM, due to the increased selectivity of the high-resolution orbitrap mass analyzer. The versatility of the instrument, with its ability to multiplex the selection of precursor ions and to operate with varying quadrupole isolation windows, has enabled the design of large-scale experiments, which require the optimization of several acquisition parameters to maintain high performance. It includes the adjustments of the fill time of the trapping device and the tight scheduling of elution times of the peptides, ideally adjusted on-the-fly.
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Learning curve analysis of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: initial experience at a single institution.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the learning curve and perioperative outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic procedure for cervical cancer.
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Comparison of carboplatin- and cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer patients with morbidity risks.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the activity and toxicity of primary carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CarboRT) and to compare CarboRT with cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CisRT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer and poor general condition.
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Second cancer incidence, risk factor, and specific mortality in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Second primary malignancies (SPMs) are common in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and have a negative impact on their survival. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for SPM occurrence and cause-specific mortality in Asian HNSCC patients.
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Prognostic factors in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with cN3 neck disease: a retrospective case-control study.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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This study examined prognostic factors in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with advanced neck disease.
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Prognostic significance of preoperative metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by (18)F-FDG PET/CT in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from (18)F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers; yet few studies have investigated their clinical and prognostic significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present retrospective study evaluated the utility of pretreatment MTV and TLG measured by (18)F-FDG PET/CT to predict survival and occult metastasis (OM) in OSCC.
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Basal cell adenocarcinoma of the salivary gland: a morphological and immunohistochemical comparison with basal cell adenoma with and without capsular invasion.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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It is often difficult to diagnose salivary gland tumors that exhibit basaloid features differentially. The aim of this study was to identify additional morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics that can aid the diagnosis of basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC) of the salivary gland. Methods and results: In total, 29 basal cell neoplasms [eight BCACs, 11 basal cell adenomas (BCAs) with capsular invasion, and 10 BCAs without capsular invasion] and 10 cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) were subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses for CK7, CK5/6, SMA, p63, calponin, p53, c-erbB2, CD117, beta-catenin, EGFR, VEGF, Ki-67, and S100P protein expression. Compared to BCA without capsular invasion, the BCACs and BCAs with capsular invasion were more likely to be larger and have solid or cribriform patterns. Most BCACs and BCAs exhibited nuclear beta-catenin expression. In all basal cell neoplasm cases, the clinical course after surgery with or without radiotherapy was indolent. beta-catenin, CK5/6, CD117, and S100P protein were helpful for differentiating basal cell neoplasms from ACC.
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Multilayer nanoparticles for sustained delivery of exenatide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
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A method for the sustained delivery of exenatide was proposed using nanoparticles (NPs) with a core/shell structure. The interactions between lipid bilayers and Pluronics were utilized to form various NPs using a layer-by-layer approach. Transmittance electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine the morphology of the NPs. The in vitro release pattern was observed as a function of changes in the structure of the NPs, and the structural integrity of exenatide released was examined by SDS-PAGE analysis. Pharmacokinetics and antidiabetic effects were also observed with the structural change of NPs using in vivo animal models. In vitro-in vivo correlation was discussed in relation to manipulation of the NP structures.
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Radioresistant cancer cells can be conditioned to enter senescence by mTOR inhibition.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Autophagy is frequently activated in radioresistant cancer cells where it provides a cell survival strategy. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin activates autophagy but paradoxically it also enhances radiosensitivity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of these opposing actions in radiation-resistant glioma or parotid carcinoma cells. Radiation treatment transiently enhanced autophagic flux for a period of 72 hours in these cells and treatment with rapamycin or the mTOR inhibitor PP242 potentiated this effect. However, these treatments also increased heterochromatin formation, irreversible growth arrest, and premature senescence, as defined by expression of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity. This augmentation in radiosensitivity seemed to result from a restoration in the activity of the tumor suppressor RB and a suppression of RB-mediated E2F target genes. In tumor xenografts, we showed that administering rapamycin delayed tumor regrowth after irradiation and increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining in the tumor. Our findings suggest that a potent and persistent activation of autophagy by mTOR inhibitors, even in cancer cells where autophagy is occurring, can trigger premature senescence as a method to restore radiosensitivity.
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Two-port access laparoscopic surgery in gynecologic oncology.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of 2-port access (TPA) laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology.
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Prognostic value of preoperative metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT in salivary gland carcinomas.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from (18)F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in various human cancers. This study examined the prognostic value of these metabolic tumor parameters measured by pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients with salivary gland carcinomas.
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Experience of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous core biopsy for renal masses.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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We evaluated the safety and accuracy of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous core biopsy collection in patients with renal masses.
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Applications of medial sural perforator free flap for head and neck reconstructions.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Oropharyngeal defects left after tumor resection are usually reconstructed with radial forearm or anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator free flaps, but these flaps can be too thin or too thick. In this study, medial sural perforator free flaps with intermediate volumes were used for oropharyngeal reconstruction. Of the 243 patients with oropharyngeal cancer who underwent head and neck reconstruction between October 2006 and October 2011, the medial sural perforator free flap was used 20 times. The number and locations of the main sizable perforators, the dimensions and thickness of the flap, and the length of the pedicle were recorded. Satisfactory results were achieved in 18 patients. The flaps in the two remaining cases failed. The vertical locations of the main sizable medial sural perforators were 6 to 15 cm away from the popliteal crease. The medial sural perforator free flaps ranged from 4 to 10 mm in thickness. Medial sural perforator free flaps may be an alternative for medium-sized defects that cannot be properly reconstructed with radial forearm or ALT perforator free flaps because of their inappropriate flap volume.
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Risk stratification of abdominopelvic failure for FIGO stage III epithelial ovarian cancer patients: implications for adjuvant radiotherapy.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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To analyze patterns of abdominopelvic failures and to define subgroups for the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
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Cases report of unicentric Castlemans disease: revisit of radiotherapy role.
Radiat Oncol J
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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Castlemans disease or angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. Complete surgical resection was recommended in unicentric Castlemans disease. Radiotherapy was considered alternative therapeutic option. However, there have been consistent favorable responses to radiotherapy. We also experienced two cases of uncentric Castlemans disease salvaged successfully with radiotherapy. This paper described these cases and reviewed the literature about Castlemans disease treated with radiotherapy. Reviewed cases showed that radiotherapy is a successful treatment option in unicentric Castlemans disease. Furthermore, our report confirms the radiotherapy role in uncentric Castlemans disease.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.