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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mycobacterium indicus pranii and Mycobacterium bovis BCG lead to differential macrophage activation in Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is an atypical mycobacterial species possessing strong immunomodulatory properties. It is a potent vaccine candidate against tuberculosis, promotes Th1 immune response and protects mice from tumours. In previous studies, we demonstrated higher protective efficacy of MIP against experimental tuberculosis as compared with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Since macrophages play an important role in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases and cancer, in the present study, we evaluated the MIP in live and killed form for macrophage activation potential, compared it with BCG and investigated the underlying mechanisms. High levels of tumour necrosis factor-?, interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), IL-6 and nitric oxide were produced by MIP-stimulated macrophages as compared with BCG-stimulated macrophages. Prominent up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 was also observed in response to MIP. Loss of response in MyD88-deficient macrophages showed that both MIP and BCG activate the macrophages in a MyD88-dependent manner. MyD88 signalling pathway culminates in nuclear factor-?B/activator protein-1 (NF-?B/AP-1) activation and higher activation of NF-?B/AP-1 was observed in response to MIP. With the help of pharmacological inhibitors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) -deficient macrophages, we observed the role of TLR2, TLR4 and intracellular TLRs in MIP-mediated macrophage activation. Stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TLR2 in homodimeric or heterodimeric form showed that MIP has a distinctly higher level of TLR2 agonist activity compared with BCG. Further experiments suggested that TLR2 ligands are well exposed in MIP whereas they are obscured in BCG. Our findings establish the higher macrophage activation potential of MIP compared with BCG and delineate the underlying mechanism.
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Nanoparticle mediated co-delivery of paclitaxel and a TLR-4 agonist results in tumor regression and enhanced immune response in the tumor microenvironment of a mouse model.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Inefficiency of cancer chemotherapy to improve life expectancy in majority of patients raises serious concern and warrants development of novel therapeutic strategies. Immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy has shown promising outcomes in recent years. Herein, we report better tumor regression and enhancement of antitumor immune response at the tumor microenvironment by co-delivery of paclitaxel and a TLR4 agonist through a PLGA based nanoparticle preparation (TLNP). Particle characterization showed high encapsulation of both components and retention of their biological activities. In vivo tumor regression studies demonstrated clear benefit of TLNP over the paclitaxel. The mean tumor volume of the TLNP treated animals was found to be 40% less than that of the Paclitaxel treated animals. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells indicated activation of antigen presenting cells and T-cells providing evidence of Th1 immune response. In vivo results are promising and could pave way for novel chemo-immunotherapeutic treatment modality.
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Diagnosis of tuberculosis: the experience at a specialized diagnostic laboratory.
J Negat Results Biomed
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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This work describes the experience at a tuberculosis clinical laboratory where relatively new TB diagnosis technologies; nucleic acid detection of two target strands, IS6110 and devR, by PCR and microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) were used. The LJ culture was the gold standard. This evaluation was done from August 2007 to July 2009 on 463 sputum samples of tuberculosis suspects at a specialized tuberculosis clinic in Delhi, India.None of the tests we evaluated can accurately detect the presence or absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in all the samples and smear microscopy was found to be the most reliable assay in this study.The PCR assay could detect down to 2 pg of H37Rv DNA. Sensitivity, specificity was 0.40, 0.60 and 0.19, 0.81 for smear positive (n = 228) and negative samples (n = 235) respectively. In the MODS assay, sensitivity, specificity of 0.48, 0.52 and 0.38, 0.76 was observed for smear positive and negative samples. Sputum smear microscopy had sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.70.
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Activation of anti-tumor immune response and reduction of regulatory T cells with Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) therapy in tumor bearing mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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Role of immune system in protecting the host from cancer is well established. Growing cancer however subverts immune response towards Th2 type and escape from antitumor mechanism of the host. Activation of both innate and Th1 type response is crucial for host antitumor activity. In our previous study it was found, that Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) also known as M. w induces Th1 type response and activates macrophages in animal model of tuberculosis. Hence, we studied the immunotherapeutic potential of MIP in mouse tumor model and the underlying mechanisms for its antitumor activity.
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Combined chemo-immunotherapy as a prospective strategy to combat cancer: a nanoparticle based approach.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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The prime objective of this study was to develop a combined chemo-immunotherapeutic formulation which could directly kill cancer cells as well as activate the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment to mount a robust antitumor immune response. Paclitaxel (PTX) and SP-LPS (nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide) were selected as anticancer drug and immunostimulant respectively. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based PTX and SP-LPS containing nanoparticles (TLNP) were prepared by the double-emulsion method (w/o/w) and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The release behavior of PTX and SP-LPS from the TLNP exhibited a biphasic pattern characterized by an initial burst followed by slow continuous release. In vitro anticancer activity of TLNP was found to be higher compared to PTX when studied in a tumor cell-splenocyte coculture system. TLNP activated murine monocytes induced the secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines. After iv administration of TLNP in tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice, the amount of PTX in the tumor mass was found to be higher in TLNP treated mice as compared to commercial Taxol group at all time points studied. In vitro studies suggest that nanoparticles containing PTX and SP-LPS have both direct cytotoxicity and immunostimulatory activity. Hence this might have potential as a chemo-immunotherapeutic formulation against cancer with advantage over present day chemotherapy with Taxol, in terms of tumor targeting, less toxicity and immunostimulation.
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Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of "Mycobacterium w" against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice immunized with live versus heat-killed M. w by the aerosol or parenteral route.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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As the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be a burden, there is a concerted effort to find new vaccines to combat this problem. One of the important vaccine strategies is whole bacterial vaccines. This approach relies on multiple antigens and built-in adjuvanticity. Other mycobacterial strains which share cross-reactive antigens with M. tuberculosis have been considered as alternatives to M. bovis for vaccine use. One such strain, "Mycobacterium w", had been evaluated for its immunomodulatory properties in leprosy. A vaccine against leprosy based on killed M. w is approved for human use, where it has resulted in clinical improvement, accelerated bacterial clearance, and increased immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. M. w shares antigens not only with M. leprae but also with M. tuberculosis, and initial studies have shown that vaccination with killed M. w induces protection against tuberculosis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG responder, as well as BCG nonresponder, strains of mice. Hence, we further studied the protective potential of M. w and the underlying immune responses in the mouse model of tuberculosis. We analyzed the protective efficacy of M. w immunization in both live and killed forms through the parenteral route and by aerosol immunization, compared with that of BCG. Our findings provide evidence that M. w has potential protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis. M. w activates macrophage activity, as well as lymphocytes. M. w immunization by both the parenteral route and aerosol administration gives higher protection than BCG given by the parenteral route in the mouse model of tuberculosis.
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Protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii against tuberculosis and underlying local lung immune responses in guinea pig model.
Vaccine
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Tuberculosis kills two million people each year. As the current vaccine BCG fails to prevent adult cases of TB, an improved vaccine and/or vaccination strategy is urgently needed to combat TB. Previously we reported the higher protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), formerly known as Mycobacterium w (M.w) as compared to BCG in murine model of TB. In this study we further evaluated the protective efficacy of MIP in guinea pig model of TB. Modulation of post infection immune response was analyzed in the lungs of MIP immunized and control groups. We found reduced bacterial loads, improved pathology and organized granulomatous response at different post infection time points in the MIP-immunized group as compared to the BCG-immunized group. Combined results suggest that MIP-immunization results in heightened protective Th1 response as compared to BCG group, early after infection with M.tb and a balanced Th1 versus immunosuppressive response at late chronic stage of infection. The study demonstrates the higher antigen presenting cells function both inside the granuloma as well as in the single cell suspension of the lung in the MIP-immunized group. We further demonstrate that live MIP is safe to use in vivo as we observed quick clearance of MIP from the body and no untoward reaction was found. Aerosol route of immunization provided higher protection. Further this study provides evidence that MIP-immunization gives significantly better long term protection as compared to BCG against TB.
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Efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis and underlying immune responses in the lung.
PLoS ONE
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The 9-month-long chemotherapy of tuberculosis often results in poor compliance and emergence of drug-resistant strains. So, improved therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Immunotherapy could be beneficial for the effective management of the disease. Previously we showed the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) when given as prophylactic vaccine in animal models of tuberculosis.
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Anticancer and immunostimulatory activity by conjugate of paclitaxel and non-toxic derivative of LPS for combined chemo-immunotherapy.
Pharm. Res.
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Cancer is a multifactorial syndrome; hence, multidimensional therapy with a chemo-immunotherapeutic conjugate could be more effective in curing the disease.
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Adjuvant properties of thermal component of hyperthermia enhanced transdermal immunization: effect on dendritic cells.
PLoS ONE
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Hyperthermia enhanced transdermal (HET) immunization is a novel needle free immunization strategy employing application of antigen along with mild local hyperthermia (42°C) to intact skin resulting in detectable antigen specific Ig in serum. In the present study, we investigated the adjuvant effect of thermal component of HET immunization in terms of maturation of dendritic cells and its implication on the quality of the immune outcome in terms of antibody production upon HET immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT). We have shown that in vitro hyperthermia exposure at 42°C for 30 minutes up regulates the surface expression of maturation markers on bone marrow derived DCs. This observation correlated in vivo with an increased and accelerated expression of maturation markers on DCs in the draining lymph node upon HET immunization in mice. This effect was found to be independent of the antigen delivered and depends only on the thermal component of HET immunization. In vitro hyperthermia also led to enhanced capacity to stimulate CD4+ T cells in allo MLR and promotes the secretion of IL-10 by BMDCs, suggesting a potential for Th2 skewing of T cell response. HET immunization also induced a systemic T cell response to TT, as suggested by proliferation of splenocytes from immunized animal upon in vitro stimulation by TT. Exposure to heat during primary immunization led to generation of mainly IgG class of antibodies upon boosting, similar to the use of conventional alum adjuvant, thus highlighting the adjuvant potential of heat during HET immunization. Lastly, we have shown that mice immunized by tetanus toxoid using HET route exhibited protection against challenge with a lethal dose of tetanus toxin. Thus, in addition to being a painless, needle free delivery system it also has an immune modulatory potential.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.