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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Shorter Telomere Length Predicts Poorer Immunological Recovery in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Patients Treated with Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) does not always result in complete CD4+ T-cell recovery despite the effective control of HIV replication. Because telomere dysregulation can lead to an abnormal cell proliferation we hypothesized that lack of CD4 recovery may be related to telomere defects so we evaluated the association between telomere length (TL) and CD4+ T-cell recovery 48 weeks after cART initiation in virologically suppressed patients, and its possible relation with the oxidative (OS) and nitrosative stress (NOx) markers.
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Is There Enough Evidence to Use Bisphosphonates in HIV-Infected Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
AIDS Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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An increased prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been observed in HIV-infected cohorts. We investigated the effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in adults with HIV infection. Outcomes of interest were bone mineral density changes measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, and adverse events. Data were pooled using the fixed-effects model. We identified eight randomized controlled trials meeting our inclusion criteria, involving 328 participants. Five trials compared alendronate with placebo or no intervention; in three trials the intervention arm received zoledronate. A significant increase in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was observed in the bisphosphonate group at 48 weeks (MD: 2.84%; 95% CI: 2.11-3.57) and 96 weeks (MD: 6.76%; 95% CI: 4.98-8.54); analogously, bisphosphonates were associated with an increase in total hip bone mineral density at 48 weeks (MD: 2.12%; 95% CI: 1.43-2.81) and 96 weeks (MD: 3.2%; 95% CI: 1.52-4.88). Bisphosphonates were generally well tolerated; no drug-related withdrawals were reported in the five randomized controlled trials assessing alendronate, whereas two patients out of 104 receiving zoledronate experienced acute-phase reactions. In conclusion, administration of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates was associated with increased bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and total hip over two years in HIV-positive patients. However, none of the included trials were long enough to detect the impact of bisphosphonates on a clinically important outcome such as fracture risk. Larger studies with extended follow-up are warranted.
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NF-?B directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL.
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Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas with 6p25.3 rearrangement exhibit peculiar histological features.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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CD30-positive primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders include several entities with differing clinical presentation but overlapping histological features: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL). DUSP22-IRF4 locus translocation is present in 20-57% of C-ALCLs, and has also been described in a series of 11 lymphomatoid papulosis patients, where it exhibits a peculiar biphasic histological pattern, including a pagetoid reticulosis-type epidermal infiltration. We tried to study whether the presence of this translocation may define peculiar histological features in C-ALCL.
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Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in De Novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response, and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited.
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Childhood florid follicular hyperplasia with immunoglobulin light-chain restriction in the gastrointestinal tract.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Immunoglobulin light-chain expression is used routinely as an indirect marker of clonality for recognizing B cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
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Sperm characterization and identification of sperm sub-populations in ejaculates from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus).
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is a native endangered species. Knowledge of the basic spermiogram characteristics and the morphometric descriptors is necessary to effectively develop sperm cryopreservation. In other species, sperm sub-population is related to sperm cryo-resistance. The objective was to provide a general description of the sperm, including sperm head morphometric descriptors, its repeatability, and the existence of sperm sub-populations. Sperm were obtained from adult males by electroejaculation during the breeding season. The motility score was 3.4 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) and progressive motility was 59.4 ± 3.7%. Ejaculated volume was 413.9 ± 51.0 ?l, the total number of sperm ejaculated was 321.2 ± 55.4 × 10(6). Also, 63.3 ± 3.1% of the sperm were morphologically abnormal and 23.7 ± 2.3% had acrosome damage. The sperm head length was 7.6 ± 0.01 ?m, width 4.4 ± 0.01 ?m, area 28.1 ± 0.07 ?m(2) and the perimeter was 21.9 ± 0.04 ?m. There was a positive relationship among morphometric descriptors and the motility score, overall motility and progressive motility. Also length (P=0.011), width (P=0.003), area (P=0.006) and perimeter (P=0.009) of sperm head obtained in two different collections were positively related. Overall, the low concentration, volume, overall quality and abnormal morphology, and wide variation of these variables may be a limitation for the development of sperm cryopreserved banks. There were three sperm sub-populations with different morphometric characteristics. The morphometric descriptors are maintained similarly among different collections.
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Evaluation of rapid progressors in HIV infection as an extreme phenotype.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Rapid CD4 cell loss represents an HIV phenotype used to identify causal variants of accelerated disease progression. The optimal rate and threshold for identifying this extreme phenotype in recently infected individuals is unclear.
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The American Society of Peritoneal Surface Malignancies (ASPSM) Multiinstitution Evaluation of the Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS) in 1,013 Patients with Colorectal Cancer with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Extensive clinical experience suggests that hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) may play an important role in the management of colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRCPC). However, there remains no established nonsurgical process to rationally select patients for this management, either for inclusion/stratification in clinical trials or as a component of standard of care. The Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS) was introduced as a basis to improve patient selection.
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Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) using short equilibration time with glycerol.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of shortening the equilibration time with the cryoprotectant glycerol before freezing epididymal sperm recovered postmortem from Iberian ibex. In the first experiment, the standard equilibration time of 3 hours was compared with 2 hours, and subjective sperm motility and quality of movement were greater (P < 0.05) in the latter group. In the second experiment, reducing the equilibration time from 2 hours to 15 minutes did not affect sperm motility (evaluated subjectively and objectively), viability, acrosomal integrity, or membrane functional integrity. In conclusion, shortening the equilibration time can be used as a technique to simplify the cryopreservation process and this provides practical advantages under field conditions.
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HIV-infected individuals with low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective antiretroviral therapy exhibit altered T cell subsets, heightened CD8+ T cell activation, and increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
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Pathology reporting of bone marrow biopsy in myelofibrosis; application of the Delphi consensus process to the development of a standardised diagnostic report.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) strongly relies on the bone marrow biopsy findings, but a report model has not been standardised. Our aim was to establish general recommendations for bone marrow evaluation and standardised reporting in a case suspicious of PMF.
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Hormone-free protocols for the control of reproduction and artificial insemination in goats.
Reprod. Domest. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The dairy goat industry is of great economic importance to certain rural areas of the European Union (EU), especially the Mediterranean region. Its sustainability, however, is severely affected by the seasonality of goat reproduction, which leads to fluctuations in the availability of final products. Classical hormone treatments based on progestagens and eCG are the main tools employed in the effort to achieve fertility outside of the normal breeding season. They are also used to induce and synchronize oestrus and ovulation in artificial insemination programs. The food safety policy of the EU is becoming ever stricter with regard to the use of hormonal treatments for reproductive purposes, pushing livestock-raising towards ever cleaner and greener production systems. Recent advances in the use of natural methods able to generate endocrine signals that induce the ovulatory process have improved our capacity to foster reproduction in the non-breeding season. When used in a fashion appropriate for the latitude at which animals live, their breed, and the management system under which they are raised, environmental (photoperiod), nutritional and sociosexual (the male effect) signals offer alternatives to classic hormonal techniques. This affords the fragile and heterogeneous goat production sector with new opportunities. This article describes the most representative advances made in the use of the male effect as a natural method of inducing ovulation during seasonal anoestrus. Its association with other methods for optimizing responses and synchronizing induced ovulation is also discussed; such associations allow it to be used as an alternative to hormonal treatment in artificial insemination programs.
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Intensification treatment based on early FDG-PET in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase II GELTAMO trial.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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We conducted a multicentre, phase II study of interim positron emission tomography (PET) as a guide to risk-adapted therapy in high-risk patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients achieving negative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET after three courses of R-MegaCHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) received three additional courses, whereas PET-positive patients received two courses of R-IFE (rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide) followed by BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). 71 patients (median age 55 years, range 25-69) were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 42·8 months (range 7·2-58·4), the estimated 4-year PFS and overall survival (OS) were 67% and 78%, respectively, for the global series. Patients in complete remission after interim PET (N = 36) had significantly better 3-year PFS than those with partial response (N = 30) [81% vs. 57%, Hazard ratio (HR) = 2·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·02-6·65] but not a statistically significant longer OS. A retrospective PET central review was done for 51 patients. According to semiquantitative analysis, 3-year PFS (81% vs. 33%; HR = 6·9, 95% CI = 2·35-20·6) and OS (95% vs. 33%, HR = 19·4, 95% CI = 3·89-97·0) were significantly better for negative than for positive interim PET patients. Early PET assessment is valuable for risk stratification in DLBCL; for this purpose semiquantitative evaluation is a better predictor than visual criteria.
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NF?B expression is a feature of both activated B-cell-like and germinal center B-cell-like subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B) transcription factor family is considered to have a key role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) pathogenesis and is associated with a specific molecular subtype, the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype. We evaluated the expression of NF?B by immunohistochemistry in a large series of DLBCL cases. The five different NF?B family members (NF?B1, NF?B2, RELA, RELB, and REL) showed a heterogeneous expression pattern with the vast majority of cases being positive for at least one factor. Two independent series of tumor samples were classified into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) or ABC subtypes using different approaches, immunohistochemistry, or gene expression profiling, and the expression of NF?B family members was assessed. Notably, no significant differences regarding the expression of the different NF?B members were detected between the two subtypes, suggesting that NF?B signaling is a prominent feature not only in the ABC subtype, but also in the GCB tumors. Of the five transcription factors, only REL expression had a significant clinical impact on R-CHOP-treated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, identifying a subgroup of patients with superior clinical outcome.
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Prevalence and clinical implications of epstein-barr virus infection in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Western countries.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV(+)) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is a variant of DLBCL with worse outcome that occurs most often in East-Asian countries and is uncommon in the Western hemisphere. We studied the largest cohort of EBV(+) DLBCL, independent of age, treated with rituximab combined with CHOP (R-CHOP) in developed Western countries.
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The reliability of immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor microenvironment in follicular lymphoma: a validation study from the Lunenburg Lymphoma Biomarker Consortium.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The cellular microenvironment in follicular lymphoma is of biological and clinical importance. Studies on the clinical significance of non-malignant cell populations have generated conflicting results, which may partly be influenced by poor reproducibility in immunohistochemical marker quantification. In this study, the reproducibility of manual scoring and automated microscopy based on a tissue microarray of 25 follicular lymphomas as compared to flow cytometry is evaluated. The agreement between manual scoring and flow cytometry was moderate for CD3, low for CD4, and moderate to high for CD8, with some laboratories scoring closer to the flow cytometry results. Agreement in manual quantification across the 7 laboratories was low to moderate for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 frequencies, moderate for CD21, low for MIB1 and CD68, and high for CD10. Manual scoring of the architectural distribution resulted in moderate agreement for CD3, CD4 and CD8, and low agreement for FOXP3 and CD68. Comparing manual scoring to automated microscopy demonstrated that manual scoring increased the variability in the low and high frequency interval with some laboratories showing a better agreement with automated scores. Manual scoring reliably identified rare architectural patterns of T-cell infiltrates. Automated microscopy analyses for T-cell markers by two different instruments were highly reproducible and provided acceptable agreement with flow cytometry. These validation results provide explanations for the heterogeneous findings on the prognostic value of the microenvironment in follicular lymphoma. We recommend a more objective measurement, such as computer-assisted scoring, in future studies of the prognostic impact of microenvironment in follicular lymphoma patients.
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B-cell lymphoma mutations: improving diagnostics and enabling targeted therapies.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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B-cell lymphomas comprise an increasing number of clinicopathological entities whose characterization has historically been based mainly on histopathological features. In recent decades, the analysis of chromosomal aberrations as well as gene and miRNA expression profile studies have helped distinguish particular tumor types and also enabled the detection of a number of targets with therapeutic implications, such as those activated downstream of the B-cell receptor. Our ability to identify the mechanisms involved in B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis has been boosted recently through the use of Next Generation Sequencing techniques in the analysis of human cancer. This work summarizes the recent findings in the molecular pathogenesis of B-cell neoplasms with special focus on those clinically relevant somatic mutations with the potential to be explored as candidates for the development of new targeted therapies. Our work includes a comparison between the mutational indexes and ranges observed in B-cell lymphomas and also with other solid tumors and describes the most striking mutational data for the major B-cell neoplasms. This review describes a highly dynamic field that currently offers many opportunities for personalized therapy, although there is still much to be gained from the further molecular characterization of these clinicopathological entities.
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Sperm selection by Capripure(®) density-gradient centrifugation versus the dextran swim-up procedure in wild mountain ruminants.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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This study compares the effectiveness of two methods of sperm selection - Capripure(®) density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) and dextran swim-up (DSU) - in semen samples from Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and European mouflon (Ovis musimon). During the increasing photoperiod, Capripure(®) DGC improved the percentage of sperm with progressive motility (P<0.05) in ibexes, and selected 60.6% of the initial total number of spermatozoa contained in the ejaculate samples. In mouflon, Capripure(®) DGC selection was unaffected by photoperiod, had no influence on any sperm variable, and selected 47.8% of the initial total number of mouflon spermatozoa in ejaculate samples. Photoperiod had no influence on the effectiveness of DSU in either ibexes or mouflons. In the ibexes, DSU reduced (P<0.05) the percentage of sperm cells with morphological abnormalities, but only selected 11.3% of the initial total number of spermatozoa in ejaculate samples. In the mouflons, DSU had no significant influence on any sperm variable, and selected 27.8% of the initial total number. Capripure(®) DGC improved ibex and mouflon sperm motility (P<0.05) following 30min and 2h of post-centrifugation, stress-inducing incubation, respectively. In both ibexes and mouflon, sperm cells showing non-progressive motility were found after only 20 h of post-centrifugation incubation following Capripure(®) DGC selection. In conclusion, Capripure(®) DGC would seem a useful method for selecting the best spermatozoa from both ibex and mouflon ejaculates.
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Executive summary of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (updated January 2014).
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation varies with clinical circumstances, number of CD4 cells, comorbid conditions and prevention of transmission of HIV. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial ART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a third drug from a different family (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, or integrase inhibitor). This update presents the causes and criteria for switching ART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load and in cases of virological failure. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid conditions (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer).
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Sperm characteristics and heterologous in vitro fertilisation capacity of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) epididymal sperm, frozen in the presence of the enzymatic antioxidant catalase.
Cryobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of catalase (CAT) on frozen/thawed ibex epididymal sperm recovered post mortem, and to detect any harmful effect this might have on sperm fertilisation capacity. Epididymal spermatozoa were diluted using a Tris-citric acid-glucose medium (TCG) composed of 3.8% Tris (w/v), 2.2% citric acid (w/v), 0.6% glucose (w/v), 5% glycerol (v/v), and 6% egg yolk (v/v). Sperm masses from the right epididymis were diluted with TCG medium, while those from the left were diluted with TCG medium supplemented with 200IU/mL CAT. Heterologous in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was used to assess the fertilisation capacity of this sperm. The addition of CAT to the extender did not improve frozen/thawed sperm variables. Moreover, a reduced fertilisation capacity was detected: sperm diluted with TCG provided 25.5% 2PN zygotes, while just 13.2% was recorded for that diluted with TCG-CAT (P<0.01). The percentage of cleaved embryos at 48hpi was higher (P<0.01) with the TCG sperm than with the TCG-CAT sperm (16.7% vs. 7.6%). The use of 200IU/mL CAT as an additive cannot, therefore, be recommended for the preservation of ibex epididymal sperm. Other antioxidants should, however, be tested in both this and related wild mountain ungulates.
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Prevalence and clinical implications of cyclin D1 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Cyclin D1 expression has been reported in a subset of patients with diffuse large B-cell leukemia (DLBCL), but studies have been few and generally small, and they have demonstrated no obvious clinical implications attributable to cyclin D1 expression.
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Dolutegravir in antiretroviral-experienced patients with raltegravir- and/or elvitegravir-resistant HIV-1: 24-week results of the phase III VIKING-3 study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The pilot phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor (INI), would be efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice daily (BID) dose.
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Central nervous system antiretroviral penetration and cognitive functioning in largely pretreated HIV-infected patients.
J. Neurovirol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Prolonged time on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be associated with a low incidence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We investigated the rate of NCI in 162 largely pretreated patients with HIV RNA suppression according to CNS antiretroviral drug penetration in comparison with 67 patients on their first ART line. Cognitive performance (Trailmaking A, B, Digit Symbol, Grooved Pegboard; demographically adjusted and converted to Z scores, NPZ4) was evaluated, and CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) ranks of 1 to 4 were assigned and summed per regimen. After a median of 173.2 months on therapy (1,909.3 patients-year), the rate of NCI was similar in both groups (mean NPZ4, -0.24 vs -0.2). Pretreated patients received regimens with a CPE <7 in a large proportion (30 vs 9 %; p?
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A clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the combination of etravirine plus raltegravir in HIV patients with expanded intolerance or resistance.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The combination of etravirine (ETR) plus raltegravir (RAL) could be an option for HIV patients with resistance, intolerance or important interactions with other drugs. However, there are few data on the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of this dual therapy, taking into account the effect of HCV co-infection or the possible induction of ETR in the drug metabolism of RAL.
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Lamivudine plus darunavir boosted with ritonavir as simplification dual regimen in HIV-infected patients.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The combination of lamivudine plus a protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir (PI/r) has become an alternative as simplification strategy in HIV-infected patients with toxicity/intolerance to other nucleoside analogues (NA). Lamivudine plus darunavir/r (DRV/r) could be an adequate once daily option.
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Comparison of routine versus targeted HIV testing strategies: coverage and estimated missed infections in emergency room and primary care centre.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Different HIV Testing Strategies (TS) and clinical care settings had not been face to face evaluated (1). We compared coverage, Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection (NDHI) and Estimated Missing HIV Infections (MHI) in Hospital Emergency Room (HER) and Primary Care Center (PCC), in DRIVE study (Spanish acronym of HIV infection Rapid Diagnosis) and in clinical practice the year before DRIVE.
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Incremental cost per newly diagnosed HIV infection (NDHI): routine (RTS), targeted (TTS), and current clinical practice testing strategies (CPTS).
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although RTS as HIV Diagnosis was considered cost effectiveness [1], overall budget may be unaffordable for some countries. We explore Incremental cost per NDHI associated with different TS.
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Efficacy, safety, and lack of interactions with the use of raltegravir in HIV-infected patients undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Concomitant use of combination antiretroviral regimen (cART) and cancer chemotherapy is difficult due to complex interactions and increased toxicity. Raltegravir could be an adequate option through its favourable drug-drug interaction profile.
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Efficacy and safety of etravirine-containing regimens in a large cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients according to liver fibrosis.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Etravirine has become an alternative in HIV/HCV coinfected patients because of safety and lack of interactions with anti-HCV drugs. The aim of this study was to establish the risk of liver toxicity in HIV/HCV coinfected patients receiving etravirine in the clinical setting, according to the degree of liver fibrosis and different accompanying drugs.
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Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health.
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Increased risk of serious non-AIDS-related events in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy associated with a low CD4/CD8 ratio.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A low CD4/CD8 ratio has been identified in the general population as a hallmark of inmmunosenescence and a surrogate of all-cause mortality. We aimed to investigate in treated HIV-infected individuals the relationship between the CD4/CD8 ratio and serious non-AIDS events.
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Fertilization capacity of cryopreserved Iberian ibex epididymal sperm in a heterologous in vitro fertilization assay.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Summary In vitro fertilization (IVF) can be used to assess the fertilization capacity of sperm. Heterologous IVF may be useful when assessing that of wild animals as it is often difficult to obtain adequate numbers of naturally corresponding oocytes. The aim of the present study was to assess the fertilization capacity of frozen-thawed ibex epididymal spermatozoa via heterologous IVF involving the oocytes of prepubertal domestic goats. The effect on fertilization and embryo development of adding oestrous sheep serum (ESS) to the fertilization medium was also examined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in TCM-199 for 24-27 h at 38.5°C in a 5% CO2 in air atmosphere. Frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa were selected by density gradient centrifugation. After maturation, the oocytes were co-incubated with spermatozoa in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with different concentrations of ESS: SOF-C (0%), SOF-2 (2%) and SOF-20 (20%). At 17 h post-insemination (hpi), zygotes with one female and one male pronucleus (2PN) were categorised as normal; zygotes with 3PN were recorded as polyspermic, and oocytes with 1PN as asynchronous. Cleavage and blastocyst development were assessed at 48 and 168 hpi respectively. The percentage of zygotes with 2PN was higher in the SOF-2 than in the SOF-20 treatment group (27.7% versus 2.9% P < 0.05). The percentage of blastocysts formed with the SOF-C, SOF-2 and SOF-20 treatments were 1.1%, 7.5% and 0% respectively. These results show that the presence of 2% ESS achieves better results than the use of no serum or the standard 20% concentration. Heterologous IVF may be an effective method for predicting the fertilization capacity of ibex spermatozoa, and therefore perhaps that of other wild mountain ungulates.
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[Potential role of rilpivirine in simplification regimens].
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Antiretroviral simplification is a useful strategy to improve adherence and quality of life and prevent or reverse adverse effects in patients with HIV infection. The availability of new drugs with high efficacy and better tolerability in once-daily formulations or in fixed-dose combinations may be a better option for prolonged treatment. Rilpivirine, a new nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has shown high antiviral efficacy in clinical trials with treatment-naïve patients, with a lower incidence of adverse effects and good tolerability. Its use in simplification regimens has been evaluated after the switch from efavirenz, demonstrating that dose adjustment is not required. In a large randomized study in patients who were receiving protease inhibitors, virological efficacy was maintained, with a lower incidence of adverse effects and improved lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk score. Given the ease of administration and good tolerability of this drug, recent communications at congresses have shown the rapid applicability of the results of studies in daily clinical practice in this scenario.
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Dynamics of the HIV-1 latent reservoir after discontinuation of the intensification of antiretroviral treatment: results of two clinical trials.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) intensification has been shown to reduce the reservoir of latently infected CD4 T cells. However, it is currently unknown whether this effect is maintained after discontinuation of the intensifying drug.
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Raltegravir pharmacokinetics in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C).
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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To describe raltegravir pharmacokinetics at steady-state in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients under antiretroviral (ARV) treatment with (n?=?5) and without (n?=?5) advanced liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C).
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Correlation between different methods to measure microbial translocation and its association with immune activation in long-term suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Microbial translocation (MT) has been proposed as one of the triggering mechanisms of persistent immune activation associated to HIV-1 infection. Our objectives were to determine the correlation between different measurements of MT in suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals and to evaluate its correlation with immune activation.
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MDM2 phenotypic and genotypic profiling, respective to TP53 genetic status, in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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MDM2 is a key negative regulator of the tumor suppressor p53, however, the prognostic significance of MDM2 overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been defined convincingly. In a p53 genetically-defined large cohort of de novo DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy, we assessed MDM2 and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry (n = 478), MDM2 gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 364), and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter, SNP309, by SNP genotyping assay (n = 108). Our results show that MDM2 overexpression, unlike p53 overexpression, is not a significant prognostic factor in overall DLBCL. Both MDM2 and p53 overexpression do not predict for an adverse clinical outcome in patients with wild-type p53 but predicts for significantly poorer survival in patients with mutated p53. Variable p53 activities may ultimately determine the survival differences, as suggested by the gene expression profiling analysis. MDM2 amplification was observed in 3 of 364 (0.8%) patients with high MDM2 expression. The presence of SNP309 did not correlate with MDM2 expression and survival. This study indicates that evaluation of MDM2 and p53 expression correlating with TP53 genetic status is essential to assess their prognostic significance and is important for designing therapeutic strategies that target the MDM2-p53 interaction.
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Role of Sperm Velocity Variables Associated with Poultry Breed in Last Male Precedence
Reprod. Domest. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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It is well known that when a hen mates with multiple roosters, it is the sperm of the last male that usually fertilizes most of the eggs (last male precedence). Sperm quality varies between males within a breed, but also between breeds, and thus, sperm competitiveness after mating may depend on the breeds of the roosters involved. The aim of the present work was to identify differences in sperm competitiveness between breeds, especially with respect to motility. A multibreed mating model was used. Blue Andaluza (BA) and Black Castellana (BC) hens left for 21 days with BA and BC roosters, respectively, were then left with Black-barred Andaluza (Bb) roosters for another 21 days (experimental groups hBA-rBC-rBb and hBC-rBA-rBb). Bb roosters (as the second breed replacing the first) fertilized the majority of eggs in both the hBC-rBA-rBb and hBA-rBC-rBb groups. The percentage of offspring sired by BA roosters (8.0%) was higher (p < 0.05) than the percentage of chicks sired by BC roosters (2.1%). The fertility of the BC hens in the hBC-rBA-rBb group was higher (p < 0.01) than that of the BA hens in the hBA-rBC-rBb group. No difference in sperm concentration was seen between the breeds. Within the rapid sperm subpopulation (sperm velocity, >50 ?m/s), Bb sperm showed a higher straight-line velocity (VSL) and average path velocity (VAP) (p < 0.05) than BC sperm. The VSL and VAP values for Bb and BA sperm were similar. In conclusion, the present results show that the sperm of the BA breed, traditionally regarded as of moderate fertility, compensates for this drawback via sperm movement characteristics that afford it an advantage in competition scenarios involving males of other breeds. The VSL and VAP of the rapid sperm subpopulation may play the most important role in securing last male precedence.
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Different trends of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Madrid, Spain, among risk groups in the last decade.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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The presence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) threatens the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. We aimed to assess the changes in TDR prevalence over the last decade in Madrid, Spain, to verify the role of the patients risk groups in these changes. We analysed the trends of TDR between 2000 and 2011 in a cohort of 1,022 naïve HIV-infected patients in Madrid, Spain, whose pol sequences were available. They included, among others, 369 heterosexuals, 340 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 90 injection drug users (IDUs). TDR was reported following the WHO mutation list. The TDR rate in the whole cohort was 8.3 %, being the highest in MSM (9.1 %) and the lowest in IDUs (4.4 %). Over time, this rate decreased significantly (to 5.4 % in 2009-2011) since the period 2004-2006, when it peaked (10.7 %). Heterosexuals and IDUs showed similar trends, but in the 2009-2011 period, the TDR rate among MSM rebounded to 9.0 % (being absent among IDUs). TDR stabilized in the last years (2007-2011) for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The risk group also determined differences in the mutational profile, sex distribution, proportion of immigrants, and viral variants. In conclusion, the risk group caused different HIV sub-epidemics, determined by the patients profiles. Despite the general decreasing trend in TDR, we observed a non-significant increase in TDR rate among MSM, a tendency that needs confirmation. Periodic TDR surveillance is important to prevent the widespread distribution of resistance, especially in MSM, given the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in this high-risk population.
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The significance of antiretroviral-associated acute kidney injury in a cohort of ambulatory human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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To determine the incidence and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with splenomegaly: histologic description of 2 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a stable, polyclonal CD19-positive CD5-negative lymphocytosis, the presence of binucleated lymphocytes in peripheral blood, and a polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulin-M that may occasionally be accompanied by splenomegaly. Histopathologic diagnosis of these splenectomy specimens is difficult because of the massive spleen infiltration and the rarity of the descriptions of this condition. We describe the histopathologic findings from 2 splenectomy specimens. These included a partially preserved architecture with infiltration of the red pulp by small lymphocytes and partial replacement of the white pulp. Suggestions for identifying the disorder are made.
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Social isolation in HIV-infected patients according to subjective patient assessment and DEXA-confirmed severity of lipodystrophy.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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This study was designed to investigate the persistence of lipodystrophy (LD)-related social distress and isolation in HIV-infected patients in the current era, according to confirmatory dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements. Cross-sectional interview data were collected from 168 HIV-positive adult patients taking more than 2 years of antiretroviral therapy (133 cases with LD diagnosed a mean of 7.2 years before; 35 without LD, controls). Mean time of HIV infection was 16.2 years (2.1-27.3), and the mean time of exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy of 11.7 years (2.1-21.1). The presence and severity of LD, confirmed by DEXA measurements, correlated with social isolation through a validated scale, including avoidance of social relationships, sex, work, or sport activities. In comparison with control patients, social distress was observed for patients having moderate body changes. The significant correlation between LD and social isolation was irrespective of age, CD4+ count, HIV RNA level, AIDS diagnosis, time of HIV infection, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. These results confirm that patient assessment of LD is correlated with whole-body DEXA scan, and they highlight the role of LD as an independent cause of social isolation even after years of the diagnosis.
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Hepatitis C virus-related lymphoproliferative disorders encompass a broader clinical and morphological spectrum than previously recognized: a clinicopathological study.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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We describe a retrospective series of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with hepatitis C virus infection. In addition to splenic marginal zone lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, all of which showed some specific features, we found two poorly described groups of cases. The first featured disseminated marginal zone lymphoma without splenic marginal zone lymphoma features, defying the current marginal zone lymphoma classification; the other consisted of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow or other tissues, with no clinical or histological evidence of lymphoma, and exhibiting a pattern that requires proper identification in order to avoid the misdiagnosis of the lymphoma. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection-associated lymphoproliferative disorders requires the integration of clinical, pathological and molecular findings to establish an adequate diagnosis and decide the appropriate therapy to be applied.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 9 August 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.120.
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Photoperiod and melatonin treatments for controlling sperm parameters, testicular and accessory sex glands size in male Iberian ibex: A model for captive mountain ruminants.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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This study examines whether photoperiod and/or melatonin treatments can improve sperm variables outside the breeding season in the Iberian ibex-a model species for wild mountain ruminants-thus helping in the collection of high quality sperm beyond the normal breeding season for depositing in genetic resource banks. Adult Iberian ibex males (n=17) were divided into four treatment groups: (1) controls under the natural photoperiod (control group; n=4), (2) treatment with melatonin implants on December 22nd, February 22nd and April 22nd (group WS-M; n=5), (3) treatment with short photoperiod cycles, i.e., 2 months of long days followed by melatonin implants (to emulate 2 months of short days) throughout the year (group PHPld+M; n=4), and (4) treatment with melatonin implants on June 22nd and August 22nd (group SS-M; n=4). The interaction treatment x season had a strong influence on testis size (P<0.05), the size of the seminal vesicles (P<0.001), the percentage of abnormal sperms (P<0.05), and percentage non-progressive (P<0.05) and progressive (P<0.001) sperm motility. In groups WS-M and PHPld+M, the normal springtime physiological reductions in testis size, non-progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity were prevented. The values for the studied sperm variables were, however, reduced in the natural breeding season at the end of the experimental period in group PHPld+M, although not in group WS-M. The pattern of melatonin administration in group SS-M conferred no advantages on reproductive functionality. These results suggest that lengthening the short day period after the winter solstice (the WS-M treatment) extends reproductive activity in this species, allowing good quality sperm to be recovered for conservation purposes during the non-breeding season.
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Neutropenia during therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin in HIV-infected subjects with chronic hepatitis C and the risk of infections.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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It is unclear whether pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) -induced neutropenia in subjects coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with increased risk of serious infections.
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NIK controls classical and alternative NF-?B activation and is necessary for the survival of human T-cell lymphoma cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are a heterogeneous entity of neoplasms with poor prognosis, a lack of effective therapies, and a largely unknown molecular pathology. Deregulated NF-?B activity has been associated with several lymphoproliferative diseases, but its importance in T-cell lymphomagenesis is poorly understood. We investigated the function of the NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK), in this pathway and its role as a potential molecular target in T-cell lymphomas.
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Single nucleotide variation in the TP53 3 untranslated region in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-CHOP: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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We identified multiple single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the TP53 3 untranslated region (3UTR) in tumor specimens from 244 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients carrying a wild-type TP53 coding sequence (CDS) and 1 or more 3UTR SNVs had a better 5-year survival rate than patients carrying a wild-type CDS and the reference 3UTR, yet there is no statistically significance difference in overall survival (OS). In contrast, 3UTR variation predicted poorer OS for patients with a mutant TP53 CDS. We then sequenced TP53 3UTR in 247 additional DLBCL patients as a validation set. Altogether, we identified 187 novel SNVs; 36 occurred at least twice. Most of the newly identified 3UTR SNVs were located at sites that are complementary to seed sequences of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are predicted or experimentally known to target TP53. Three SNVs disrupt the seed match between miR-125b and the TP53 3UTR, thereby impeding suppression of p53 by this miRNA. In addition, a germline SNV (rs78378222) located in the TP53 polyadenylation signal resulted in downregulation of both p53 messenger RNA and protein levels and reduction of cellular apoptosis. This study is the first to demonstrate the prognostic value of the TP53 3UTR in cancer.
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MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.
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The CD4/CD8 ratio as a marker T-cell activation, senescence and activation/exhaustion in treated HIV-infected children and young adults.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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We explored the associations of the CD4/CD8 ratio with markers of immunoactivation, immunosenescence and T-cell subsets, in 37 vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents. CD4/CD8 ratio inversion was associated with higher frequencies of activated, senescent and activated/exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and a skewed T-cell phenotype from naive toward effector memory which persisted after the multivariate analysis. Thus, the CD4/CD8 ratio may identify patients with higher immunoactivation despite ART.
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All-cause mortality in the cohorts of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (RIS) compared with the general population: 1997-2010.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has produced significant changes in mortality of HIV-infected persons. Our objective was to estimate mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios and excess mortality rates of cohorts of the AIDS Research Network (RIS) (CoRIS-MD and CoRIS) compared to the general population.
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Prevalence of primary resistance mutations to integrase inhibitors in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients infected with B and non-B HIV-1 variants.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Raltegravir (RAL) constitutes the first available integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) available in clinical practice. Three independent pathways have been described to confer resistance to RAL. Secondary mutations with little effect on INSTI susceptibility and additional substitutions with an uncertain role have also been described especially in HIV-1 non-B variants.
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Lipid-lowering effect and efficacy after switching to etravirine in HIV-infected patients with intolerance to suppressive HAART.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Etravirine (ETR) has shown a good lipid profile in previous studies. The aim of this study was to determine the virologic, immunologic, and lipid outcome in HIV-infected patients switching to an ETR-based antiretroviral regimen due to intolerance or toxicity.
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[The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].
Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.
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TCR-? expression in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Primary cutaneous ?? T-cell lymphomas (PCGD-TCLs) are considered a subgroup of aggressive cytotoxic T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). We have taken advantage of a new, commercially available antibody that recognizes the T-cell receptor-? (TCR-?) subunit of the TCR in paraffin-embedded tissue. We have analyzed a series of 146 primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas received for consultation or a second opinion in the CNIO Pathology Department. Cases were classified according to the World Health Organization 2008 classification as mycosis fungoides (MF; n=96), PCGD-TCLs (n=5), pagetoid reticulosis (n=6), CD30(+) primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas (n=5), primary cutaneous CD8 aggressive epidermotropic CTCLs (n=3), primary cutaneous CTCL, not otherwise specified (n=4), and extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas primarily affecting the skin or subcutaneous tissue (n=11). Sixteen cases of the newly named lymphomatoid papulosis type D (LyP-D; n=16) were also included. In those cases positive for TCR-?, a further panel of 13 antibodies was used for analysis, including TIA-1, granzyme B, and perforin. Clinical and follow-up data were recorded in all cases. Twelve cases (8.2%) were positive for TCR-?, including 5 PCGD-TCLs, 2 MFs, and 5 LyP-Ds. All 5 PCGD-TCL patients and 1 MF patient died of the disease, whereas the other MF patient and all those with LyP-D were alive. All cases expressed cytotoxic markers, were frequently CD3(+)/CD8(+), and tended to lose CD5 and CD7 expressions. Eight of 12 and 5 of 11 cases were CD30(+) and CD56(+), respectively. Interestingly, 5/12 TCR-?-positive cases also expressed TCR-BF1. All cases analyzed were negative for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. In conclusion, TCR-? expression seems to be rare and is confined to cytotoxic primary cutaneous TCLs. Nevertheless, its expression is not exclusive to PCGD-TCLs, as TCR-? protein can be found in other CTCLs. Moreover, its expression does not seem to be associated with bad prognosis by itself, as it can be found in cases with good and bad outcomes.
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CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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CD30, originally identified as a cell-surface marker of Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is also expressed by several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the prognostic and biological importance of CD30 expression in DLBCL is unknown. Here we report that CD30 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in a cohort of 903 de novo DLBCL patients. CD30 was expressed in ?14% of DLBCL patients. Patients with CD30(+) DLBCL had superior 5-year overall survival (CD30(+), 79% vs CD30(-), 59%; P = .001) and progression-free survival (P = .003). The favorable outcome of CD30 expression was maintained in both the germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes. Gene expression profiling revealed the upregulation of genes encoding negative regulators of nuclear factor ?B activation and lymphocyte survival, and downregulation of genes encoding B-cell receptor signaling and proliferation, as well as prominent cytokine and stromal signatures in CD30(+) DLBCL patients, suggesting a distinct molecular basis for its favorable outcome. Given the superior prognostic value, unique gene expression signature, and significant value of CD30 as a therapeutic target for brentuximab vedotin in ongoing successful clinical trials, it seems appropriate to consider CD30(+) DLBCL as a distinct subgroup of DLBCL.
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Symptomatic Illness and Low CD4 Cell Count at HIV Seroconversion as Markers of Severe Primary HIV Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The risk/benefit of initiating ART in primary HIV infection (PHI) is unclear. The benefits are more likely to outweigh the risks in patients with severe PHI. An accepted definition of severe PHI is, however, lacking.
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Safety and pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in HIV/HCV coinfected patients with advanced liver disease.
HIV Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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There are few data about the safety and pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in HIV/HCV coinfected patients with very advanced liver disease.
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Epstein-Barr virus-positive systemic NK/T-cell lymphomas in children: report of six cases.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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The World Health Organization lymphoma classification recognizes two different Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of childhood: systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood, and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma, which is more prevalent in Asia and Latin America. The aim of this study was to characterize six cases of paediatric EBV-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma with distinct features.
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Very late initiation of HAART impairs treatment response at 48 and 96 weeks: results from a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with low CD4 lymphocyte counts is associated with AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related events and increased mortality. However, no clear association has been found with an increased rate of treatment failure.
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Nodal marginal zone lymphoma: gene expression and miRNA profiling identify diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a small B-cell neoplasm whose molecular pathogenesis is still essentially unknown and whose differentiation from other small B-cell lymphomas is hampered by the lack of specific markers. We have analyzed gene expression, miRNA profile, and copy number data from 15 NMZL cases. For comparison, 16 follicular lymphomas (FLs), 9 extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, and 8 reactive lymph nodes and B-cell subtypes were included. The results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in an independent series, including 61 paraffin-embedded NMZLs. NMZL signature showed an enriched expression of gene sets identifying interleukins, integrins, CD40, PI3K, NF-?B, and TGF-?, and included genes expressed by normal marginal zone cells and memory B cells. The most highly overexpressed genes were SYK, TACI, CD74, CD82, and CDC42EP5. Genes linked to G(2)/M and germinal center were down-regulated. Comparison of the gene expression profiles of NMZL and FL showed enriched expression of CHIT1, TGFB1, and TACI in NMZL, and BCL6, LMO2, and CD10 in FL. NMZL displayed increased expression of miR-221, miR-223, and let-7f, whereas FL strongly expressed miR-494. Our study identifies new candidate diagnostic molecules for NMZL and reveals survival pathways activated in NMZL.
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Relationship among fluctuating asymmetry, morphological traits, and sperm quality in layers.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and the mean value of several bilateral traits (toe, leg, wing, and wattle lengths, and leg width) and sperm quality variables (volume, appearance, concentration, motility, morphological abnormalities, and acrosome and membrane integrities) in different breeds of layers. In total, 165 roosters were sampled at 36 wk of age. There was no significant correlation between fluctuating asymmetry and sperm quality variables. There was a positive association (P < 0.01) between sperm motility and concentration, and between sperm concentration and volume. Sperm motility was positively correlated (P < 0.001) with morphologically normal sperm. The membrane integrity did not correlate with motility. This study shows different results for the association between sperm quality variables and morphological traits. There was a negative association (P < 0.05) between toe length and membrane integrity and between leg length and sperm motility. In disagreement with the expected results, wattle length did not correlate with any sperm quality parameter. In general, roosters with longer legs had longer toes and wings, whereas those with longer wattles had longer toes, legs, and wings. Breed effect was significant for the sperm motility index (P < 0.001), concentration and membrane integrity (P < 0.05), and morphologically normal sperm (P < 0.01). Spanish breeds had similar sperm quality variables to the White Leghorn population, although the Blue Andaluza (a Spanish breed) showed smaller values for sperm motility index and concentration and membrane integrity. Breed effect was not significant for any fluctuating asymmetry, with values ranging from 1 to 6% of the trait value; however, breed effect was significant for all of the morphological traits (P < 0.001). The CV was higher for ejaculate volume and concentration, intermediate for semen appearance, motilities, and morphologically normal sperm, and smaller for membrane and acrosome integrity. In conclusion, the results suggest that fluctuating asymmetry is of limited use for assessment of rooster sperm quality. Some morphological traits (toe length, leg length, and leg width) might be associated with some sperm quality variables (motility and membrane integrity).
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Influence of season on the freezability of free-range poultry semen.
Reprod. Domest. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the seasonal variation in freezing damage in free-range rooster sperm. Over a period of 1 year, heterospermic semen samples were collected weekly by massage from the roosters of 14 Spanish chicken breeds, all housed under natural photoperiod and climatic conditions. All samples were frozen in straws using DMA as a cryoprotectant, placing them first in nitrogen vapour and then plunging them into liquid nitrogen. No seasonal effects on fresh sperm quality were found. Neither did season affect the percentage of viable frozen-thawed spermatozoa nor the percentage with an intact acrosome. However, the collection season influenced (p < 0.05) most frozen-thawed sperm motility values. The percentage of immotile frozen-thawed spermatozoa was lower (p < 0.05) in spring-collected sperm than in summer- or autumn-collected samples. The percentage of spermatozoa showing progressive motility was higher in spring-collected sperm compared with winter-, summer- or autumn-collected samples (p < 0.05). The curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL) and average path velocity (VAP) values of spring-collected sperm were also higher (p < 0.05). In conclusion, spring would appear to be the best season for collecting and freezing the semen of free-range Mediterranean chicken breeds.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.