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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: a case-crossover study in a tropical city.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for respiratory diseases including pneumonia, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and chronic time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased number of admissions for respiratory diseases were significantly associated with higher PM2.5 levels only on cool days (<25°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 50 (95% CI% = 45-55%), 40% (95% CI = 25-58%), and 46% (95% CI = 36-57%) elevation in frequency of admissions for pneumonia, asthma, and COPD, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 levels remained significant even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Taiwan.
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0077?Reconstruction of exposed cohort and cumulative dose of radio-contaminated building residents for epidemiological study - Updated information.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of this study is to reconstruct of RCB cohort and to survey occupancy factors for estimation of cumulative dose in study of health risk of Radio-contaminated building (RCB) occupants.
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0061?Epidemiological study of lung inflammation and oxidative damage in indium tin oxide workers.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is widely used in many kinds of touch panels nowadays. Workers could expose to ITO particles from sintering granules, splashing, pulverisation, cutting, and grinding processes. This study aimed to assess the relationship between ITO exposure and lung inflammation and oxidative damage in ITO workers.
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The dose-response relationship between cumulative lifting load and lumbar disk degeneration based on magnetic resonance imaging findings.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Lumbar disk degeneration (LDD) has been related to heavy physical loading. However, the quantification of the exposure has been controversial, and the dose-response relationship with the LDD has not been established.
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High job strain is associated with inflammatory markers of disease in young long-haul bus drivers.
J Occup Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The study was aimed to investigate the association between job strain and inflammation markers and to examine factors contributing to high strain. The long-haul bus drivers (n = 825) were recruited from a Taiwanese transportation company. The psychosocial work environment was measured by a validated job content questionnaire (JCQ). Plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) were analyzed as inflammation markers. Job strain effects and its interaction with age were analyzed by logistic regression. Explained variance (Nagelkerke R square) was applied to select important stressors. The crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the effect of high strain on high hs-CRP and Hcy were not significant. However, there was significant interaction between job strain and age (p = .014). The significantly increased risk of high strain on high hs-CRP was found among drivers younger than 35 years old (OR = 2.71), but not in driver groups age 35 to 49 and older than 50. The contributing factors to high strain were varied among the 3 age groups. The 3 stressors found for young drivers were having rest time less than 8 hours between 2 shifts, being physically inactive during leisure time, and frequent driving more than 12 hours a day. Job strain interacted with age influenced hs-CRP levels. The risk of inflammatory disease markers only increased in high strained group of young drivers. Appropriate work shift systems should be implemented to increase off-duty time, reduce sleep restrictions, and increase physical activity during leisure time.
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Cancer incidence of Taiwanese shipbreaking workers who have been potentially exposed to asbestos.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Shipbreaking remains one of the most dangerous jobs worldwide. Shipbreaking workers are exposed to many hazardous chemicals, especially asbestos. Unfortunately, long-term follow-up studies of cancer incidence patterns in shipbreaking workers are lacking. This study examines whether there is an increased risk of cancer among male shipbreaking workers over a 24-year follow-up period.
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Nickel accumulation in lung tissues is associated with increased risk of p53 mutation in lung cancer patients.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Occupational exposure to nickel compounds has been associated with lung cancer. The correlation between high nickel levels and increased risk of lung cancer has been previously reported in a case-control study. This study assessed whether nickel exposure increased the occurrence of p53 mutations due to DNA repair inhibition by nickel. A total of 189 lung cancer patients were enrolled to determine nickel levels in tumor-adjacent normal lung tissues and p53 mutation status in lung tumors through atomic absorption spectrometry and direct sequencing, respectively. Nickel levels in p53 mutant patients were significantly higher than those in p53 wild-type patients. When patients were divided into high- and low-nickel subgroups by median nickel level, the high-nickel subgroup of patients had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.25 for p53 mutation risk relative to the low-nickel subgroup patients. The OR for p53 mutation risk of lifetime non-smokers, particularly females, in the high-nickel subgroup was greater than that in the low-nickel subgroup. To determine whether nickel affected DNA repair capacity, we conducted the host cell reactivation assay in A549 and H1975 lung cancer cells and showed that the DNA repair activity was reduced by nickel chloride in a dose-dependent manner. This was associated with elevated production of hydrogen peroxide-induced 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Therefore, increased risk of p53 mutation due to defective DNA repair caused by high nickel levels in lung tissues may be one mechanism by which nickel exposure contributes to lung cancer development, especially in lifetime female non-smokers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:624-632, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The effects of fine particulate air pollution on daily mortality: a case-crossover study in a subtropical city, Taipei, Taiwan.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between PM2.5 levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan, the largest metropolitan city with a subtropical climate. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2008. The relative risk of daily mortality was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model, PM2.5 showed association with total mortality both on warm (>23 °C) and cool days (<23 °C). There is no indication of an association between PM2.5 and risk of death due to respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. PM2.5 had effects on the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases only on cool days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained effects on the risk of mortality for all cause and cardiovascular disease after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that short-term exposure to PM2.5 increased the risk of death for all cause and cardiovascular disease.
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Sneezing and allergic dermatitis were increased in engineered nanomaterial handling workers.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to survey the work-relatedness of symptoms and diseases among engineered nanomaterials handling workers by questionnaire. A total of 258 exposed workers and 200 comparison workers were recruited from 14 nanomaterials handling factories in Taiwan. In addition to current disease status (prevalence), we classified the diseases worsened by employment (worsened by work). The control banding nanotool risk level matrix was adopted to categorize the severity and probability of nanomaterial exposure. The work-relatedness of symptoms was also self-reported in the questionnaire. The only symptom identified as significantly work-related was sneezing (5.88% in risk level 2 and 7.91% in risk level 1 vs. 2.00% in controls, p=0.04). The prevalences of work-related dry cough (p=0.06) and productive cough (p=0.09) in nanomaterials handling workers were also higher than those in controls. The only disease significantly worsened by work was allergic dermatitis (4.20% in risk level 2, 0% in risk level 1 vs. 0.50% in control, p=0.01). The incidence of angina in nanoworkers was also higher than in controls (p=0.06). In addition to allergic diseases, cardiopulmonary symptoms such as cough and angina may be used as screening tools for medical surveillance of people handling engineered nanomaterials.
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Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study.
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Effect of nanoparticles exposure on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in workers exposed to nanomaterials.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP) exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM). In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196) completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009-2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB) matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and NF-?B were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2). Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in pathogenesis.
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Six-month follow-up study of health markers of nanomaterials among workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the health hazards and possible exposure surveillance markers of workers exposed to nanoparticles during manufacturing and application in comparison to a group of unexposed workers. For this longitudinal study, we recruited 158 nanomaterial-handling workers and 104 non-exposed workers from 14 manufacturing plants in Taiwan (baseline). Among them, 124 nanomaterial-handling workers and 77 unexposed workers were monitored 6 months later. We investigated pulmonary and cardiovascular disease markers, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and genotoxicity markers. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and cardiovascular markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule, paraoxonase) were significantly associated with nanomaterial-handling during the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, the small airway damage marker (Clara cell protein 16) and lung function test parameters were also significantly associated with handling nanomaterials. The study markers and lung function tests are possible markers that could be useful for surveillance of nanomaterial-handling workers.
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Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NF?B activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NF?B activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NF?B activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NF?B by adenovirus-mediated I?B? expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced I?B-? phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NF?B in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NF?B activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease.
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Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a casecrossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and longterm time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased numbers of MI admissions were significantly associated with higher PM2.5 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and on cool days (<23°C). This was accompanied by an interquartile range elevation correlated with a 10% (95% CI = 6-15%) and 5% (95% CI = 1-9%) rise in number of MI admissions, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained significant after inclusion of SO2 or O3 on both warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of hospital admissions for MI.
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Changing blood lead levels and oxidative stress with duration of residence among Taiwan immigrants.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Immigrants lack appropriate health care access and other resources needed to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental health risks. Little is known about the impact of lead exposure and oxidative stress among immigrants. Thus, this study was to examine the differences between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress levels of immigrants and non-immigrants, and to investigate the determinants of increased BLLs or oxidative stress levels among immigrants. We collected demographic data of 239 immigrant women and 189 non-immigrant women who resettled in the central area of Taiwan. Each study participant provided blood samples for genotyping and for measuring blood metal levels and oxidative stress. Recent immigrants were at risk for elevated BLLs. Decreased BLLs, malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased blood selenium levels were significantly associated with duration of residence in Taiwan. Elevated BLLs and MDA in recent immigrants may serve as a warning sign for the health care system. The nations health will benefit from improved regulation of living environments, thereby improving the health of immigrants.
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Mortality among shipbreaking workers in Taiwan--a retrospective cohort study from 1985 to 2008.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Shipbreaking workers are typically exposed to a wide range of hazardous chemicals. However, long-term follow-up studies of their mortality patterns are lacking. This study examined mortality among shipbreaking workers over a 24-year follow-up period.
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Rapid and intermediate N-acetylators are less susceptible to oxidative damage among 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed workers.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In this study, we explored the association between a marker of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and genetic polymorphism of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) among 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed workers.
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Androgenic Alopecia Is Associated with Less Dietary Soy, Higher Blood Vanadium and rs1160312 1 Polymorphism in Taiwanese Communities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors.
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Traffic air pollution and risk of death from gastric cancer in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of air pollutant exposure.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
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To investigate the relationship between air pollution and risk of death attributed to gastric cancer, a matched cancer case-control study was conducted using deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 2004 through 2008. Data for all eligible gastric cancer deaths were obtained and compared to a control group consisting of individuals who died from causes other than neoplasms and diseases that were associated with gastrointestinal (GIT) disorders. The controls were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was randomly selected from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data for the number of petrol stations in study municipalities were collected from two major petroleum supply companies. The petrol station density (per square kilometer) (PSD) for study municipalities was used as an indicator of a subjects exposure to benzene and other hydrocarbons present in ambient evaporative losses of petrol or to air emissions from motor vehicles. The exposed individuals were subdivided into three categories (?25th percentile; 25th-75th percentile; >75th percentile) according to PSD in the residential municipality. Results showed that individuals who resided in municipalities with the highest PSD were at an increased risk of death attributed to gastric cancer compared to those subjects living in municipalities with the lowest PSD. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of traffic air pollution exposure in the etiology of gastric cancer.
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Dose-response relationship between cumulative mercury exposure index and specific uptake ratio in the striatum on Tc-99m TRODAT SPECT.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Tc-99m TRODAT is an agent for dopamine transporters and measuring dopamine innervation of the striatum. An association between Parkinson disease and body burden mercury level has been reported in the scientific published data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mercury exposure on dopamine transporters in the striatum measured by Tc-99m TRODAT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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Rapid and simple one-step membrane extraction for the determination of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in human plasma by a combination of on-line solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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A quantitative analytical method using automated on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) in human plasma was developed and validated. A one-step membrane extraction method for the plasma sample preparation and a C18 SPE column with simple extraction and purification were used for the on-line extraction. A C18 column was employed for LC separation and ESI-MS/MS was utilized for detection. (15)N(5)-8-OHdG ((15)N(5)-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) was used as an internal standard for quantitative determination. The extraction, clean-up and analysis procedures were controlled by a fully automated six-port switch valve as one strategy to reduce the matrix effect and simultaneously improve detection sensitivity. Identification and quantification were based on the following transitions: m/z 284?168 for 8-OHdG and m/z 289?173 for (15)N(5)-8-OHdG. Satisfactory recovery was obtained, and the recovery ranged from 95.1 to 106.1% at trace levels in human plasma and urine, with a CV lower than 5.4%. Values for intraday and interday precision were between 2.3 and 6.8% for plasma and between 2.7 and 4.5% for urine, respectively. Values for the method accuracy of intraday and interday assays ranged from 93.0 and 100.5% for plasma and 110.2 and 119.4% for urine, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and LOQ were 0.008 ng/mL and 0.02 ng/mL, respectively.The applicability of this newly developed method was demonstrated by analysis of human plasma samples for an evaluation of the future risk of oxidative stress status in human exposure to nanoparticles and other diseases.
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Brain cancer associated with environmental lead exposure: evidence from implementation of a National Petrol-Lead Phase-Out Program (PLPOP) in Taiwan between 1979 and 2007.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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In 1981, a Petrol-Lead Phase-Out Program (PLPOP) was launched in Taiwan for the abatement of environmental lead emissions. The present study was intended to examine whether the high Petrol-Lead Emission Areas (PLEA) would result in an increase in the incidence rate of brain cancer based on a national data bank.
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Association of CYP2E1, GST and mEH genetic polymorphisms with urinary acrylamide metabolites in workers exposed to acrylamide.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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This study elucidates the association of acrylamide metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA), N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine (GAMA2), and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine (GAMA3) in urine with genetic polymorphisms of the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) in exon 3 and exon 4, glutathione transferase theta (GSTT1) and mu (GSTM1), involved in the activation and detoxification of acrylamide (AA) in humans. Eighty-five workers were recruited, including 51 AA-exposed workers and 34 administrative staffs serve as controls. Personal air sampling was performed for the exposed workers. Each subject provided pre- and post-shift urine samples and blood samples. Urinary AAMA, GAMA2 and GAMA3 levels were simultaneously quantified using liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). CYP2E1, mEH (in exon 3 and exon 4), GSTT1, and GSTM1 were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results reveal that AA personal exposures ranged from 4.37 × 10?³ to 113.61 ?g/m³ with a mean at 15.36 ?g/m³. The AAMA, GAMA2, and GAMA3 levels in the exposed group significantly exceeded those in controls. The GAMAs (the sum of GAMA2 and GAMA3)/AAMA ratios, potentially reflecting the proportion of AA metabolized to glycidamide (GA), varied from 0.003 to 0.456, and indicate high inter-individual variability in the metabolism of AA to GA in this study population. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrates that GSTM1 genotypes significantly modify the excretion of urinary AAMA and the GAMAs/AAMA ratio, exon 4 of mEH was significantly associated with the urinary GAMAs levels after adjustment for AA exposures. These results suggest that mEH and/or GSTM1 may be associated with the formation of urinary AAMA and GAMAs. Further study may be needed to shed light on the role of both enzymes in AA metabolism.
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Comparative analysis of urinary N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine for ethylene oxide- and non-exposed workers.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Ethylene oxide (EO), a direct alkylating agent and a carcinogen, can attack the nucleophilic sites of DNA bases to form a variety of DNA adducts. The most abundant adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), can be depurinated spontaneously or enzymatically from DNA backbone to form abasic sites. Molecular dosimetry of the excised N7-HEG in urine can serve as an EO exposure and potential risk-associated biomarker. This study was to analyze N7-HEG in urine collected from 89 EO-exposed and 48 nonexposed hospital workers and 20 exposed and 10 nonexposed factory workers by using our newly developed on-line solid-phase extraction isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method. Statistical analysis of data shows that the exposed factory workers excreted significantly greater concentrations of N7-HEG than both the nonexposed factory workers and hospital workers. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the EO-exposed factory workers had a significantly greater post-shift urinary N7-HEG than their nonexposed coworkers and hospital workers. These results demonstrate that analysis of urinary N7-HEG can serve as a biomarker of EO exposure for future molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the role of the EO-induced DNA adduct formation in EO carcinogenicity and certainly for routine surveillance of occupational EO exposure for the study of potential health impacts on workers.
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Biological monitoring of low-level 2-butoxyethanol exposure in decal transfer workers in bicycle manufacturing factories.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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In this study, exposures to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (or 2-butoxyethanol, 2-BE) in decal transfer workers in the bicycle manufacturing industry were investigated. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring were used to assess total uptake through inhalation and dermal exposure. Haemoglobin was also analysed to evaluate the effects of exposure on the haematopoietic system.
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The association between total urinary arsenic concentration and renal dysfunction in a community-based population from central Taiwan.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Arsenic (As) is an important environmental toxicant that can cause cancer and cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between As exposure and renal dysfunction is not clear. The aim of this study is to examine the association between As exposure and renal dysfunction in a community-based population in central Taiwan. One thousand and forty-three subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2005. The risk for type 2 diabetes was increased by 2-fold (p<0.05) in subjects with total urinary As (U-As)>75 ?g g(-1) creatinine as compared with subjects whose U-As was ? 35 ?g g(-1) creatinine after the adjustment for potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio for an abnormal ?2 microglobulin (B2MG>0.154 mg L(-1)) was significantly higher in subjects with U-As>35 ?g g(-1) creatinine as compared with the reference group adjusted for age, sex, living area, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and hypertension. The risk for abnormal B2MG and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<90 mL min(-1)(1.73 m(2))(-1)) was both increased around 2-fold (p<0.05) in subjects with U-As>75 ?g g(-1) creatinine as compared with those with U-As ? 35 ?g g(-1) creatinine adjusted for all the risk factors plus lead (Pb), cadmium and nickel. The prevalence of abnormal B2MG was 4.82 times higher in subjects with both over the median levels of U-As (85.1 ?g L(-1)) and urinary Pb (18.9 ?g L(-1)) as compared to both lower than the median (p<0.001). These results indicate that U-As might relate to renal dysfunction even other important risk factors were taken into account. Follow-up studies for causal inference are warranted.
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Comparison of the quality of life between patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and healthy controls.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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We explored covariates of the quality of life (QOL) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and made a comparison with healthy controls.
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An engineering intervention resulting in improvement in lung function and change in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine among foundry workers in Taiwan.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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To assess changes in oxidative DNA damage and lung function amongst a group of foundry workers resulting from an engineering intervention to reduce air respirable dust in their working environment.
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Fast quantification of the exhaled breath condensate of oxidative stress 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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A method using automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of 8-iso-PGF2alpha in human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was developed and validated. A C18 SPE column with an affinity sorbent was used for on-line extraction. A C18 column was employed for LC separation and ESI-MS/MS was utilized for detection. 8-iso-PGF2alpha-d(4) was used as an internal standard for quantitative determination. The extraction, cleanup and analysis procedures were controlled by a fully automated six-port switch valve. Identification and quantification were based on the following transitions: m/z 353-->193 for 8-iso-PGF2alpha and m/z 357-->197 for 8-iso-PGF2alpha-d(4), respectively. Good recoveries from 98.94 to 99.86% were measured and satisfactory linear ranges for these analytical compounds were determined. Intra-day and inter-day precision showed that coefficients of variance (CV) ranged from 6.5 to 8.0% and 5.2 to 6.3%, respectively. The applicability of this newly developed method was demonstrated by analyzing human EBC samples for an evaluation of the future risk of human exposure to nanoparticles.
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Hematological abnormalities of acute exposure to hexachloroethane smoke inhalation.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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There has been no human epidemiological data regarding potential hematological effects of hexachloroethane-zinc oxide (HC/ZnO) inhalation. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate whether HC/ZnO inhalation exposure can induce hematological abnormalities in exposed soldiers. Twenty soldiers, who were exposed to a high concentration of HC/ZnO smoke for 3-10 min in a narrow tunnel (0.6 m in width) during military training, were recruited as the exposed group (n = 20). Another 64 soldiers, who were not visiting the explosion areas, were recruited as controls. Venous blood was collected from all participants for analyses of hematological parameters. After adjustment for potential confounders, there were significant differences in weekly mean hemoglobin (HB), red blood cell count (RBC), and hematocrit (HCT) between exposed soldiers and controls (p < .01) at the first follow-up through the first 4 weeks following exposure. In addition, mean white blood cell count (WBC) of exposed soldiers was significantly higher than that of controls at the 4-week follow-up. Further analysis showed HB, RBC, and HCT changes during the 1st week after exposure and reach lowest levels during the 2nd week. HB, RBC, HCT, and WBC returned to normal within 11 weeks after the HC/ZnO smoke exposure. All other hematological parameters remained unchanged at 72 weeks after the event. The authors concluded that inhalation of HC/ZnO smoke can induce acute, temporally related hematological abnormalities.
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Effects of mixology courses and blood lead levels on dental caries among students.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Dental caries can be affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption also increases blood lead levels (BLLs) in humans and BLLs have been correlated with caries. Culinary students participate in mixology courses on either an elective or a mandatory basis. Therefore, we conducted this study to elucidate the effects of mixology courses and elevated BLLs on dental caries among students.
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Mortality and cancer incidence among physicians of traditional Chinese medicine: a 20-year national follow-up study.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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To study the risks of mortality and cancer incidence in physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) who had frequent exposure to herbal medicine.
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Biological monitoring for occupational acrylamide exposure from acrylamide production workers.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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We conducted a repeated-measurement study to (1) investigate the correlation between occupational exposure to airborne acrylamide (AA) and the time-dependent behavior of urinary AAMA, GAMA2, and GAMA3 and (2) calculate the estimated biological exposure index at the permissible exposure limit (PEL) level of 30 ?g/m(3).
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An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Hazardous waste sites are major environmental concerns, but few studies have quantified their expected utility loss on health.
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Combined effects of MDM2 SNP 309 and p53 mutation on oral squamous cell carcinomas associated with areca quid chewing.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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The recently identified single nucleotide polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter (SNP 309) may contribute to the early onset of both sporadic and hereditary malignancies in patients with defective p53. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of combined MDM2 polymorphisms and somatic p53 mutations on 351 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) associated with areca quid chewing. We found that the G allele of MDM2 SNP 309 was associated with early age of onset (p=0.02) and poor differentiation of OSCC tumors (p=0.01). The frequency of lymph node extracapsular spread (LNECS) was increased in individuals having both the MDM2 SNP 309 GG genotype and p53 mutation (chi(2) for trend p=0.04). MDM2 GG genotype and p53 mutations were associated with poor disease-free survival in both early and lymph node positive advanced stage OSCC patients (Hazard ratio=2.77 and 1.93, respectively). Taken together, an interaction between MDM2 SNP 309 and p53 with respect to tumor behaviors (including disease onset, tumor differentiation, LNECS and disease-free survival) was observed in sporadic Taiwanese OSCCs.
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Assessment of airborne and dermal exposure to 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in an occupational environment.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Because of its chemical-physical properties, 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEAc) can penetrate through the skin. However, no actual occupational environmental studies or empirical dermal exposure measurements have been performed.
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Changing blood lead levels and DNA damage (comet assay) among immigrant women in Taiwan.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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International marriage has had a rapid growth in recent years in Taiwan. However, little is known about the blood lead levels and DNA damage levels among immigrant women from resource-limited countries.
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Sulfotransferase 1A1 haplotypes associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in male Taiwanese.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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We have previously demonstrated that betel quid containing safrole induced DNA adducts are highly associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Taiwan. Sulfotransferase (SULT) is essential for the formation of these adducts. To elucidate the effects of SULT1A1 haplotypes on OSCC susceptibility, 160 male OSCC cases and 218 age- and sex-matched controls were screened for single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding region of SULT1A1 by sequencing. We found that 445C>T (His149Tyr) and 507C>T polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased risk of OSCC. Based on the genotype analysis, haplotypes were constructed for 445C>T (His149Tyr), 507C>T, 600G>C and 638G>A (Arg213His) using GENECOUNTING software. After adjustment for age, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing, we found that haplotype c containing 445C>T (His149Tyr), 507C>T or 600G>C but not 638G>A (Arg213His) variant was significantly associated with increased risk of OSCC (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-6.68) when compared with the haplotype a (wild-type). We analyzed the activity in sulfonation of 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxysafrole of recombinant His149Tyr (445C>T) variant, which led to 51 and 33% reduced activity, respectively; Arg213His (638G>A) variant led to 72 and 54% reduced activity, respectively, when compared with the wild-type. Taken together, haplotype analysis provides a novel evaluation of the SULT1A1 gene as a risk modifier on environmental carcinogen in OSCC and the association of SULT1A1 haplotypes with the risk of OSCC might be modified by betel quid chewing.
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Exposure to heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage in taiwanese traffic conductors.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals, has been associated with the etiology and prognosis of many illnesses. However, the specific causal agents and underlying mechanisms for different health outcomes remain unclear. The aims of this study were to assess the relations between urinary biomarkers of exposure to PAHs (1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide, 1-OHPG) and heavy metals (cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; arsenic, As; lead, Pb; and copper, Cu) and the effect of their interaction on DNA damage (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine, 8-oxodG).
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The modifying effect of CYP2E1, GST, and mEH genotypes on the formation of hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide in workers exposed to acrylamide.
Toxicol. Lett.
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This study assesses the association of acrylamide (AA) and glycidamide (GA) hemoglobin adducts (AAVal and GAVal) and their ratios with genetic polymorphisms of the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), exon 3 and 4 of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH3 and mEH4), glutathione transferase theta (GSTT1), and mu (GSTM1) or/and the combinations of these polymorphisms, involved in the activation and detoxification of AA in humans. Fifty-one AA-exposed workers and 34 controls were recruited and provided a post-shift blood sample. AAVal and GAVal were determined simultaneously using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-electronspray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, mEH3 and 4, GSTT1, and GSTM1 were also analyzed. Our results reveal that the GAVal/AAVal ratio, potentially reflecting the proportion of AA metabolized to GA, ranged from 0.13 to 0.45 with a mean at 0.27. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrates that the joint effect of CYP2E1, GSTM1, and mEH4 genotypes was significantly associated with AAVal and GAVal levels after adjustment for AA exposures. These results suggest that mEH4 and the combined genotypes of CYP2E1, GSTM1 and mEH4 may be associated with the formation of AAVal and GAVal. Further studies may be needed to shed light on the roles that phase I and II enzymes play in AA metabolism.
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A road map toward a globally harmonized approach for occupational health surveillance and epidemiology in nanomaterial workers.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
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Few epidemiological studies have addressed the health of workers exposed to novel manufactured nanomaterials. The small current workforce will necessitate pooling international cohorts.
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Exposure to cooking oil fumes and oxidative damages: a longitudinal study in Chinese military cooks.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
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Cooking oil fumes (COF) contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde, which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to COF and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient (?), ?=0.06, 95% CI 0.001-0.12) and (?=0.07, 95% CI 0.001-0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.
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Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
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We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.
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Traffic-related air pollution and DNA damage: a longitudinal study in Taiwanese traffic conductors.
PLoS ONE
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There is accumulating epidemiologic evidence that exposure to traffic-related air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and polyaromatic hydro carbons (PAHs), plays a role in etiology and prognosis of a large scale of illnesses, although the role of specific causal agents and underlying mechanisms for different health outcomes remains unknown.
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Estimation of benefit of prevention of occupational cancer for comparative risk assessment: methods and examples.
Occup Environ Med
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To quantify the life years gained and financial savings by preventing a case of occupational cancer.
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Air pollution and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction: are there potentially sensitive groups?
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
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Recent studies showed that air pollution is a risk factor for hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited evidence to suggest which subpopulations are at higher risk for MI arising from air pollution. This study was undertaken to examine the modifying effects of specific secondary cardiovascular diagnosis (including hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias) on the relationship between hospital admissions for MI and exposure to ambient air pollutants. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period 1999-2009. The relative risk of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a case-crossover approach. None of the secondary diagnosis examined showed significant evidence of effect modification. It would appear that the correlation between air pollutant exposure and MI occurrence is not affected by predisposing factors present in other cardiovascular diseases.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.