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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status and risk of hemolysis in Plasmodium falciparum-infected African children receiving single-dose primaquine.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme function and genotype were determined in Ugandan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria enrolled in a primaquine trial after exclusion of severe G6PD deficiency by fluorescent spot test. G6PD A- heterozygotes and hemizygotes/homozygotes experienced dose-dependent lower hemoglobin concentrations after treatment. No severe anemia was observed.
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The practice of 'doing' evaluation: lessons learned from nine complex intervention trials in action.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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There is increasing recognition among trialists of the challenges in understanding how particular 'real-life' contexts influence the delivery and receipt of complex health interventions. Evaluations of interventions to change health worker and/or patient behaviours in health service settings exemplify these challenges. When interpreting evaluation data, deviation from intended intervention implementation is accounted for through process evaluations of fidelity, reach, and intensity. However, no such systematic approach has been proposed to account for the way evaluation activities may deviate in practice from assumptions made when data are interpreted.
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Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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BACKGROUND In Uganda, community services for febrile children are expanding from presumptive treatment of fever with anti-malarials through the home-based management of fever (HBMF) programme, to include treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia through Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM). To understand the level of support available, and the capacity and motivation of community health workers to deliver these expanded services, we interviewed community medicine distributors (CMDs), who had been involved in the HBMF programme in Tororo district, shortly before ICCM was adopted. METHODS Between October 2009 and April 2010, 100 CMDs were recruited to participate by convenience sampling. The survey included questionnaires to gather information about the CMDs' work experience and to assess knowledge of fever case management, and in-depth interviews to discuss experiences as CMDs including motivation, supervision and relationships with the community. All questionnaires and knowledge assessments were analysed. Summary contact sheets were made for each of the 100 interviews and 35 were chosen for full transcription and analysis. RESULTS CMDs faced multiple challenges including high patient load, limited knowledge and supervision, lack of compensation, limited drugs and supplies, and unrealistic expectations of community members. CMDs described being motivated to volunteer for altruistic reasons; however, the main benefits of their work appeared related to 'becoming someone important', with the potential for social mobility for self and family, including building relationships with health workers. At the time of the survey, over half of CMDs felt demotivated due to limited support from communities and the health system. CONCLUSIONS Community health worker programmes rely on the support of communities and health systems to operate sustainably. When this support falls short, motivation of volunteers can wane. If community interventions, in increasingly complex forms, are to become the solution to improving access to primary health care, greater attention to what motivates individuals, and ways to strengthen health system support are required.
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Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Standard therapy for malaria in Uganda changed from chloroquine to chloroquine + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in 2000, and artemether-lumefantrine in 2004, although implementation of each change was slow. Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms are associated with alterations in drug sensitivity. We followed the prevalence of drug resistance-mediating P. falciparum polymorphisms in 982 samples from Tororo, a region of high transmission intensity, collected from three successive treatment trials conducted during 2003-2012, excluding samples with known recent prior treatment. Considering transporter mutations, prevalence of the mutant pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, and pfmdr1 1246Y alleles decreased over time. Considering antifolate mutations, the prevalence of pfdhfr 51I, 59R, and 108N, and pfdhps 437G and 540E were consistently high; pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G were uncommon, but most prevalent during 2008-2010. Our data suggest sequential selective pressures as different treatments were implemented, and they highlight the importance of genetic surveillance as treatment policies change over time.
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Impact of intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on malaria in Ugandan schoolchildren: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in schoolchildren offers a promising option for malaria control. However, the optimal drug and dosing regimens for IPT remain to be determined.
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Estimating the annual entomological inoculation rate for Plasmodium falciparum transmitted by Anopheles gambiae s.l. using three sampling methods in three sites in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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The Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR) is a measure of exposure to infectious mosquitoes. It is usually interpreted as the number of P. falciparum infective bites received by an individual during a season or annually (aPfEIR). In an area of perennial transmission, the accuracy, precision and seasonal distribution (i.e., month by month) of aPfEIR were investigated. Data were drawn from three sites in Uganda with differing levels of transmission where falciparum malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Estimates of aPfEIR derived from human-landing catches--the classic method for estimating biting rates--were compared with data from CDC light traps, and with catches of knock down and exit traps separately and combined.
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Differential prevalence of transporter polymorphisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic falciparum malaria infections in Uganda.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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We explored associations between Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance-mediating polymorphisms and clinical presentations in parasitemic children enrolled in a cross-sectional survey in Tororo, Uganda, using a retrospective case-control design. All 243 febrile children (cases) and 243 randomly selected asymptomatic children (controls) were included. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, complexity of infection, and parasite density, the prevalence of wild-type genotypes was significantly higher in febrile children compared to asymptomatic children (pfcrt K76T: odds ratio [OR] 4.41 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.28-15.1]; pfmdr1 N86Y: OR 4.08 [95% CI, 2.01-8.31], and pfmdr1 D1246Y: OR 4.90 [95% CI, 1.52-15.8]), suggesting greater virulence for wild-type parasites.
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Adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of malaria: a systematic review of the evidence.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Increasing access to and targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is a key component of malaria control programmes. To maximize efficacy of ACT and ensure adequate treatment outcomes, patient and caregiver adherence to treatment guidelines is essential. This review summarizes the current evidence base on ACT adherence, including definitions, measurement methods, and associated factors.
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Single dose primaquine for clearance of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in children with uncomplicated malaria in Uganda: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Primaquine is the only available drug that clears mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in infected human hosts, thereby preventing transmission of malaria to mosquitoes. However, concerns about dose-dependent haemolysis in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencies have limited its use. We assessed the dose-response association of single-dose primaquine for gametocyte clearance and for safety in P falciparum malaria.
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The PROCESS study: a protocol to evaluate the implementation, mechanisms of effect and context of an intervention to enhance public health centres in Tororo, Uganda.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Despite significant investments into health improvement programmes in Uganda, health indicators and access to healthcare remain poor across the country. The PRIME trial aims to evaluate the impact of a complex intervention delivered in public health centres on health outcomes of children and management of malaria in rural Uganda. The intervention consists of four components: Health Centre Management; Fever Case Management; Patient- Centered Services; and support for supplies of malaria diagnostics and antimalarial drugs.
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The PRIME trial protocol: evaluating the impact of an intervention implemented in public health centres on management of malaria and health outcomes of children using a cluster-randomised design in Tororo, Uganda.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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In Africa, inadequate health services contribute to the lack of progress on malaria control. Evidence of the impact of interventions to improve health services on population-level malaria indicators is needed. We are conducting a cluster-randomised trial to assess whether a complex intervention delivered at public health centres in Uganda improves health outcomes of children and treatment of malaria, as compared to the current standard of care.
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Anti-malarial prescription practices among outpatients with laboratory-confirmed malaria in the setting of a health facility-based sentinel site surveillance system in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Most African countries have adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. The World Health Organization now recommends limiting anti-malarial treatment to those with a positive malaria test result. Limited data exist on how these policies have affected ACT prescription practices.
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How experiences become data: the process of eliciting adverse event, medical history and concomitant medication reports in antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Accurately characterizing a drugs safety profile is essential. Trial harm and tolerability assessments rely, in part, on participants reports of medical histories, adverse events (AEs), and concomitant medications. Optimal methods for questioning participants are unclear, but different methods giving different results can undermine meta-analyses. This study compared methods for eliciting such data and explored reasons for dissimilar participant responses.
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Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and cognition among primary schoolchildren in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Asymptomatic parasitemia is common among schoolchildren living in areas of high malaria transmission, yet little is known about its effect on cognitive function in these settings. To investigate associations between asymptomatic parasitemia, anemia, and cognition among primary schoolchildren living in a high malaria transmission setting, we studied 740 children enrolled in a clinical trial in Tororo, Uganda. Parasitemia, measured by thick blood smears, was present in 30% of the children. Infected children had lower test scores for abstract reasoning (adjusted mean difference [AMD] -0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.01 to -0.21) and sustained attention (AMD -1.6 95% CI -2.40 to -0.81) compared with uninfected children. There was also evidence for a dose-response relationship between parasite density and scores for sustained attention. No associations were observed between anemia and either test of cognition. Schoolchildren in high transmission settings may experience cognitive benefits, from interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia.
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Tools for mass screening of G6PD deficiency: validation of the WST8/1-methoxy-PMS enzymatic assay in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The distribution of the enzymopathy glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is linked to areas of high malaria endemicity due to its association with protection from disease. G6PD deficiency is also identified as the cause of severe haemolysis following administration of the anti-malarial drug primaquine and further use of this drug will likely require identification of G6PD deficiency on a population level. Current conventional methods for G6PD screening have various disadvantages for field use.
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Aspirations for quality health care in Uganda: How do we get there?
Hum Resour Health
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Despite significant investments and reforms, health care remains poor for many in Africa. To design an intervention to improve access and quality of health care at health facilities in eastern Uganda, we aimed to understand local priorities for qualities in health care, and factors that enable or prevent these qualities from being enacted.
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Study protocol for a randomised controlled double-blinded trial of the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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For the purpose of blocking transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria from humans to mosquitoes, a single dose of primaquine is recommended by the WHO as an addition to artemisinin combination therapy. Primaquine clears gametocytes but causes dose-dependent haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Evidence is needed to inform the optimal dosing of primaquine for malaria elimination programmes and for the purpose of interrupting the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria. This study investigates the efficacy and safety of reducing doses of primaquine for clearance of gametocytes in participants with normal G6PD status.
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Patterns of anti-malarial drug treatment among pregnant women in Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Prompt use of an effective anti-malarial drug is essential for controlling malaria and its adverse effects in pregnancy. The World Health Organization recommends an artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The study objective was to determine the degree to which presumed episodes of uncomplicated symptomatic malaria in pregnancy were treated with a recommended anti-malarial regimen in a region of Uganda.
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Validity of verbal autopsy procedures for determining malaria deaths in different epidemiological settings in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Verbal autopsy (VA) procedures can be used to estimate cause of death in settings with inadequate vital registries. However, the sensitivity of VA for determining malaria-specific mortality may be low, and may vary with transmission intensity. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of VA procedures as compared to hospital medical records for determining cause of death in children under five in three different malaria transmission settings in Uganda, including Tororo (high), Kampala (medium), and Kisoro (low).
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Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination: I. Epidemiology and current control efforts.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Malaria remains one of the leading health problems of the developing world, and Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease. Our understanding is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality from severe malaria all remain very high. Uganda has made progress in implementing key malaria control measures, in particular distribution of insecticide-impregnated bednets, indoor residual spraying of insecticides, utilization of artemisinin-based combination therapy to treat uncomplicated malaria, and provision of intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women. However, despite enthusiasm regarding the potential for the elimination of malaria in other areas, there is no convincing evidence that the burden of malaria has decreased in Uganda in recent years. Major challenges to malaria control in Uganda include very high malaria transmission intensity, inadequate health care resources, a weak health system, inadequate understanding of malaria epidemiology and the impact of control interventions, increasing resistance of parasites to drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides, inappropriate case management, inadequate utilization of drugs to prevent malaria, and inadequate epidemic preparedness and response. Despite these challenges, prospects for the control of malaria have improved, and with attention to underlying challenges, progress toward the control of malaria in Uganda can be expected.
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Likely health outcomes for untreated acute febrile illness in the tropics in decision and economic models; a Delphi survey.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Modelling is widely used to inform decisions about management of malaria and acute febrile illnesses. Most models depend on estimates of the probability that untreated patients with malaria or bacterial illnesses will progress to severe disease or death. However, data on these key parameters are lacking and assumptions are frequently made based on expert opinion. Widely diverse opinions can lead to conflicting outcomes in models they inform.
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Heterogeneities and consequences of Plasmodium species and hookworm coinfection: a population based study in Uganda.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2010
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Previous studies have suggested that helminth infection exacerbates malaria, but few existing epidemiological studies adequately control for infection heterogeneities and confounding factors. In this study, we investigate spatial and household heterogeneities, predictors, and consequences of Plasmodium species and hookworm coinfection in rural communities in Uganda.
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Determinants of use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: Jinja, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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Maternal malaria is associated with serious adverse pregnancy outcomes. One recommended means of preventing malaria during pregnancy is intermittent preventive therapy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP). We sought to identify determinants of preventive use of SP during pregnancy among recently pregnant women in Uganda. Additionally, we characterized the timing of and indications for the administration of SP at antenatal care (ANC) visits and missed opportunities for SP administration.
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Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of three regimens for prevention of malaria: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Ugandan schoolchildren.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a promising malaria control strategy; however, the optimal regimen remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a single course of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), amodiaquine + SP (AQ+SP) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) among schoolchildren to inform IPT.
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An economic evaluation of home management of malaria in Uganda: an interactive Markov model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Home management of malaria (HMM), promoting presumptive treatment of febrile children in the community, is advocated to improve prompt appropriate treatment of malaria in Africa. The cost-effectiveness of HMM is likely to vary widely in different settings and with the antimalarial drugs used. However, no data on the cost-effectiveness of HMM programmes are available.
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Incidence of malaria and efficacy of combination antimalarial therapies over 4 years in an urban cohort of Ugandan children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Combination therapies are now recommended to treat uncomplicated malaria. We used a longitudinal design to assess the incidence of malaria and compare the efficacies of 3 combination regimens in Kampala, Uganda.
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Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population.
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Home management of malaria with artemether-lumefantrine compared with standard care in urban Ugandan children: a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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Home management of malaria-the presumptive treatment of febrile children with antimalarial drugs-is advocated to ensure prompt effective treatment of the disease. We assessed the effect of home delivery of artemether-lumefantrine on the incidence of antimalarial treatment and on clinical outcomes in children from an urban setting with fairly low malaria transmission.
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Predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure in children presenting with malaria and prolonged seizures in Kampala, Uganda.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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In endemic areas, falciparum malaria remains the leading cause of seizures in children presenting to emergency departments. In addition, seizures in malaria have been shown to increase morbidity and mortality in these patients. The management of seizures in malaria is sometimes complicated by the refractory nature of these seizures to readily available anti-convulsants. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of anti-convulsant treatment failure and seizure recurrence after initial control among children with malaria.
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Determinants of use of insecticide treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: Jinja, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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One established means of preventing the adverse consequences of malaria during pregnancy is sleeping under an insecticide treated net (ITN) throughout pregnancy. Despite increased access to this intervention over time, consistent ITN use during pregnancy remains relatively uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa.
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Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
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The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality and quantity of drug safety reports as new medicines are scaled-up.
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Improving access to health care for malaria in Africa: a review of literature on what attracts patients.
Malar. J.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing access to health care services is considered central to improving the health of populations. Existing reviews to understand factors affecting access to health care have focused on attributes of patients and their communities that act as barriers to access, such as education level, financial and cultural factors. This review addresses the need to learn about provider characteristics that encourage patients to attend their health services. METHODS: This literature review aims to describe research that has identified characteristics that clients are looking for in the providers they approach for their health care needs, specifically for malaria in Africa. Keywords of malaria and treatment seek* or health seek* and Africa were searched for in the following databases: Web of Science, IBSS and Medline. Reviews of each paper were undertaken by two members of the team. Factors attracting patients according to each paper were listed and the strength of evidence was assessed by evaluating the methods used and the richness of descriptions of findings. RESULTS: A total of 97 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review of these papers identified several characteristics that were reported to attract patients to providers of all types, including lower cost of services, close proximity to patients, positive manner of providers, medicines that patients believe will cure them, and timeliness of services. Additional categories of factors were noted to attract patients to either higher or lower-level providers. The strength of evidence reviewed varied, with limitations observed in the use of methods utilizing pre-defined questions and the uncritical use of concepts such as quality, costs and access. Although most papers (90%) were published since the year 2000, most categories of attributes had been described in earlier papers. CONCLUSION: This paper argues that improving access to services requires attention to factors that will attract patients, and recommends that public services are improved in the specific aspects identified in this review. It also argues that research into access should expand its lens to consider provider characteristics more broadly, especially using methods that enable open responses. Access must be reconceptualized beyond the notion of barriers to consider attributes of attraction if patients are to receive quality care quickly.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.