Expression of the CTLA-4 gene is absolutely required for immune homeostasis, but aspects of its molecular nature remain undefined. In particular, the characterization of the soluble CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) protein isoform generated by an alternatively spliced mRNA of CTLA4 lacking transmembrane-encoding exon 3 has been hindered by the difficulty in distinguishing it from the transmembrane isoform of CTLA-4, Tm-CTLA-4. In the current study, sCTLA-4 has been analyzed using novel mAbs and polyclonal Abs specific for its unique C-terminal amino acid sequence. We demonstrate that the sCTLA-4 protein is secreted at low levels following the activation of primary human CD4(+) T cells and is increased only rarely in the serum of autoimmune patients. Unexpectedly, during our studies aimed to define the kinetics of sCTLA-4 produced by activated human CD4(+) T cells, we discovered that Tm-CTLA-4 is associated with microvesicles produced by the activated cells. The functional roles of sCTLA-4 and microvesicle-associated Tm-CTLA-4 warrant further investigation, especially as they relate to the multiple mechanisms of action described for the more commonly studied cell-associated Tm-CTLA-4.
Comorbid mental health problems have been shown to have an adverse effect on the quality of life of people with common eye disorders. This study aims to assess whether symptoms of anxiety and/or depression are more prevalent in people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) than in people without this condition.
We aimed to assess the clinical validity of circulating tumour cell (CTC) quantification for prognostication of patients with metastatic breast cancer by undertaking a pooled analysis of individual patient data.
E-cadherin is involved in cell-cell adhesion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions. In cancers, loss or inactivation of E-cadherin is associated with epithelial cell proliferation and invasion. Here, we sought to determine, if risk associations for 18 breast cancer susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) differed by E-cadherin tumor tissue expression in the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), using data on 1,347 invasive breast cancer cases and 2,366 controls. E-cadherin expression (low/high) was assessed using immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. Replication data on 2,006 cases and 6,714 controls from the Study of Epidemiology and Risk Factors in Cancer Heredity was used to follow-up promising findings from PBCS. In PBCS, we found the rs11249433 SNP at the 1p11.2 locus to be more strongly associated with risk of E-cadherin low tumors (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.08-1.56) than with E-cadherin high tumors [OR = 1.06, 95 % CI = 0.95-1.18; case-only p-heterogeneity (p-het) = 0.05]. Findings in PBCS for rs11249433 were replicated in SEARCH. Combined analyses of the two datasets for SNP rs11249433 revealed significant heterogeneity by E-cadherin expression (combined case-only p-het = 0.004). Further, among carriers of rs11249433, the highest risk was seen for E-cadherin low tumors that were ER-positive and of lobular histology. Our results in two independent data sets suggest that rs11249433, which is located between the NOTCH2 and FCGR1B genes within the 1p11.2 locus, is more strongly associated with risk of breast tumors with low or absent E-cadherin expression, and suggest that evaluation of E-cadherin tumor tissue expression may be useful in clarifying breast cancer risk factor associations.
Clinical communication and recognising and responding to a deteriorating patient are key current patient safety issues in healthcare. The aim of this literature review is to identify themes associated with aspects of the hospital clinical handover between paramedics and ED staff that can be improved, with a specific focus on the transfer of care of a deteriorating patient. Extensive searches of scholarly literature were conducted using the main medical and nursing electronic databases, including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline and PubMed, during 2011 and again in July 2012. Seventeen peer-reviewed English-language original quantitative and qualitative studies from 2001 to 2012 were selected and critically appraised using an evaluation tool based on published instruments. Relevant themes identified were: professional relationships, respect and barriers to communication; multiple or repeated handovers; identification of staff in the ED; significance of vital signs; need for a structured handover tool; documentation and other communication methods and education and training to improve handovers. The issues raised in the literature included the need to: produce more complete and concise handovers, create respectful and effective communication, and identify staff in the ED. A structured handover tool such as ISBAR (a mnemonic covering Introduction, Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendations) would appear to provide a solution to many of these issues. The recording of vital signs and transfer of these data might be improved with better observation systems incorporating early warning strategies. More effective teamwork could be achieved with further clinical communications training.
Mild cerebral ventricular enlargement is associated with schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Fetal ventriculomegaly is the most common central nervous system (CNS) abnormality affecting 1% of fetuses and is associated with cognitive, language, and behavioral impairments in childhood. Neurodevelopmental outcome is partially predictable by the 2-dimensional size of the ventricles in the absence of other abnormalities. We hypothesized that isolated fetal ventriculomegaly is a marker of altered brain development characterized by relative overgrowth and aimed to quantify brain growth using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. Fetal brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 60 normal fetuses and 65 with isolated ventriculomegaly, across a gestational age range of 22-38 weeks. Volumetric analysis of the ventricles and supratentorial brain structures was performed on 3-dimensional reconstructed datasets. Fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly had increased brain parenchyma volumes when compared with the control cohort (9.6%, P < 0.0001) with enlargement restricted to the cortical gray matter (17.2%, P = 0.002). The extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid and third and fourth ventricles were also enlarged. White matter, basal ganglia, and thalamic volumes were not significantly different between cohorts. The presence of relative cortical overgrowth in fetuses with ventriculomegaly may represent the neurobiological substrate for cognitive, language, and behavioral deficits in these children.
The management of metastatic breast cancer requires monitoring of the tumor burden to determine the response to treatment, and improved biomarkers are needed. Biomarkers such as cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and circulating tumor cells have been widely studied. However, circulating cell-free DNA carrying tumor-specific alterations (circulating tumor DNA) has not been extensively investigated or compared with other circulating biomarkers in breast cancer.
Cancers acquire resistance to systemic treatment as a result of clonal evolution and selection. Repeat biopsies to study genomic evolution as a result of therapy are difficult, invasive and may be confounded by intra-tumour heterogeneity. Recent studies have shown that genomic alterations in solid cancers can be characterized by massively parallel sequencing of circulating cell-free tumour DNA released from cancer cells into plasma, representing a non-invasive liquid biopsy. Here we report sequencing of cancer exomes in serial plasma samples to track genomic evolution of metastatic cancers in response to therapy. Six patients with advanced breast, ovarian and lung cancers were followed over 1-2 years. For each case, exome sequencing was performed on 2-5 plasma samples (19 in total) spanning multiple courses of treatment, at selected time points when the allele fraction of tumour mutations in plasma was high, allowing improved sensitivity. For two cases, synchronous biopsies were also analysed, confirming genome-wide representation of the tumour genome in plasma. Quantification of allele fractions in plasma identified increased representation of mutant alleles in association with emergence of therapy resistance. These included an activating mutation in PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha) following treatment with paclitaxel; a truncating mutation in RB1 (retinoblastoma 1) following treatment with cisplatin; a truncating mutation in MED1 (mediator complex subunit 1) following treatment with tamoxifen and trastuzumab, and following subsequent treatment with lapatinib, a splicing mutation in GAS6 (growth arrest-specific 6) in the same patient; and a resistance-conferring mutation in EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor; T790M) following treatment with gefitinib. These results establish proof of principle that exome-wide analysis of circulating tumour DNA could complement current invasive biopsy approaches to identify mutations associated with acquired drug resistance in advanced cancers. Serial analysis of cancer genomes in plasma constitutes a new paradigm for the study of clonal evolution in human cancers.
Breast cancer is a group of heterogeneous diseases that show substantial variation in their molecular and clinical characteristics. This heterogeneity poses significant challenges not only in breast cancer management, but also in studying the biology of the disease. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the genomic diversity of breast cancer. These advances led to the characterisation of a new genome-driven integrated classification of breast cancer, which substantially refines the existing classification systems currently used. The novel classification integrates molecular information on the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of breast cancer to define 10 integrative clusters, each associated with distinct clinical outcomes and providing new insights into the underlying biology and potential molecular drivers. These findings have profound implications both for the individualisation of treatment approaches, bringing us a step closer to the realisation of personalised cancer management in breast cancer, but also provide a new framework for studying the underlying biology of each novel subtype.
Structured mentor-led training programmes permit the safe introduction of novice trainees to robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP). We outline the first description of parallel learning curves for individual surgical steps and quantify the relative difficulty of each step to propose an order of training in our structured mentoring programme.
Inhibition of the activity of the human bile salt export pump (BSEP: ABCB11) has been proposed to play a role in drug-induced liver injury (DILI). To enhance understanding of the relationship between BSEP inhibition and DILI, inhibition of human BSEP (hBSEP) and its rat ortholog (rBsep) by 85 pharmaceuticals was investigated in vitro. This was explored using assays that quantified inhibition of ATP-dependent [(3)H]taurocholate uptake into inverted plasma membrane vesicles from Sf21 insect cells, which expressed the proteins. Of the pharmaceuticals, 40 exhibited evidence of in vitro transporter inhibition and overall a close correlation was observed between potency values for inhibition of hBSEP and rBsep activity (r(2) = 0.94), although 12 drugs exhibited >2-fold more potent inhibition of hBSEP than rBsep. The median potency of hBSEP inhibition was higher among drugs that caused cholestatic/mixed DILI than among drugs that caused hepatocellular or no DILI, as was the incidence of hBSEP inhibition with IC(50) <300 ?M. All drugs with hBSEP IC(50) <300 ?M had molecular weight >250, ClogP >1.5, and nonpolar surface area >180?. A clear distinction was not evident between hBSEP IC(50) or unbound plasma concentration (C(max, u)) of the drugs in humans and whether the drugs caused DILI. However, all 17 of the drugs with hBSEP IC(50) <100 ?M and C(max, u) >0.002 ?M caused DILI. Overall, these data indicate that inhibition of hBSEP/rBsep correlates with the propensity of numerous pharmaceuticals to cause cholestatic DILI in humans and is associated with several of their physicochemical properties.
The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis states that tumours consist of a cellular hierarchy with CSCs at the apex driving tumour recurrence and metastasis. Hence, CSCs are potentially of profound clinical importance. We set out to establish the clinical relevance of breast CSC markers by profiling a large cohort of breast tumours in tissue microarrays (TMAs) using immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer.
There is an urgent need to improve prognostic classifiers in breast cancer. Ki67 and B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL2) are established prognostic markers which have traditionally been assessed separately, in a dichotomous manner. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that combinatorial assessment of these markers would provide superior prognostic information and improve their clinical utility. Tissue microarrays were used to assess the expression of Ki67 and BCL2 in 2749 cases of invasive breast cancer. We devised a Ki67/BCL2 index representing the relative expression of each protein and assessed its association with breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) using a Cox proportional-hazards model. Based on our findings, an independent cohort of 3992 cases was used to validate the prognostic significance of the Ki67/BCL2 index. All survival analyses were conducted on complete data as well as data where missing values were resolved using multiple imputation. This study complied with reporting recommendations for tumour marker prognostic studies (REMARK) criteria. The Ki67/BCL2 index showed a significant association with BCSS at 10 years in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. In multivariate analysis, adjusting for major clinical and molecular markers, the Ki67/BCL2 index retained prognostic significance, robustly classifying cases into three risk groups [intermediate- versus low-risk hazard ratio (HR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.0-2.0; p = 0.031; high- versus low-risk HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0; p = 0.005]. This finding was validated in an independent cohort of 3992 tumours containing 2761 ER-positive tumours (intermediate- versus low-risk HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; p < 0.001; high- versus low-risk HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9; p < 0.001). Ki67 and BCL2 can be effectively combined to produce an index which is an independent predictor of BCSS in ER-positive breast cancer, enhancing their potential prognostic utility.
Immunohistochemical markers are often used to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently. The aim of this study was to estimate mortality for patients with the major subtypes of breast cancer as classified using five immunohistochemical markers, to investigate patterns of mortality over time, and to test for heterogeneity by subtype.
IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by the newly identified Th17 subset of T-cells. We have isolated a human monoclonal antibody to IL-17A (CAT-2200) that can potently neutralize the effects of recombinant and native human IL-17A. We determined the crystal structure of IL-17A in complex with the CAT-2200 Fab at 2.6 A resolution in order to provide a definitive characterization of the epitope and paratope regions. Approximately a third of the IL-17A dimer is disordered in this crystal structure. The disorder occurs in both independent copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit and does not appear to be influenced by crystal packing. The complex contains one IL-17A dimer sandwiched between two CAT-2200 Fab fragments. The IL-17A is a disulfide-linked homodimer that is similar in structure to IL-17F, adopting a cystine-knot fold. The structure is not inconsistent with the previous prediction of a receptor binding cavity on IL-17 family members. The epitope recognized by CAT-2200 is shown to involve 12 amino acid residues from the quaternary structure of IL-17A, with each Fab contacting both monomers in the dimer. All complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) in the Fab contribute to a total of 16 amino acid residues in the antibody paratope. In vitro affinity optimization was used to generate CAT-2200 from a parental lead antibody using random mutagenesis of CDR3 loops. This resulted in seven amino acid changes (three in VL-CDR3 and four in VH-CDR3) and gave an approximate 30-fold increase in potency in a cell-based neutralization assay. Two of the seven amino acids form part of the CAT-2200 paratope. The observed interaction site between CAT-2200 and IL-17A is consistent with data from hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and mutagenesis approaches.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by the progressive narrowing and occlusion of small pulmonary arteries. Current therapies fail to fully reverse this vascular remodeling. Identifying key pathways in disease pathogenesis is therefore required for the development of new-targeted therapeutics. We have previously reported tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) immunoreactivity within pulmonary vascular lesions from patients with idiopathic PAH and animal models. Because TRAIL can induce both endothelial cell apoptosis and smooth muscle cell proliferation in the systemic circulation, we hypothesized that TRAIL is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of PAH. We demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL is a potent stimulus for pulmonary vascular remodeling in human cells and rodent models. Furthermore, antibody blockade or genetic deletion of TRAIL prevents the development of PAH in three independent rodent models. Finally, anti-TRAIL antibody treatment of rodents with established PAH reverses pulmonary vascular remodeling by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis, improves hemodynamic indices, and significantly increases survival. These preclinical investigations are the first to demonstrate the importance of TRAIL in PAH pathogenesis and highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target to direct future translational therapies.
Plasma of cancer patients contains cell-free tumor DNA that carries information on tumor mutations and tumor burden. Individual mutations have been probed using allele-specific assays, but sequencing of entire genes to detect cancer mutations in circulating DNA has not been demonstrated. We developed a method for tagged-amplicon deep sequencing (TAm-Seq) and screened 5995 genomic bases for low-frequency mutations. Using this method, we identified cancer mutations present in circulating DNA at allele frequencies as low as 2%, with sensitivity and specificity of >97%. We identified mutations throughout the tumor suppressor gene TP53 in circulating DNA from 46 plasma samples of advanced ovarian cancer patients. We demonstrated use of TAm-Seq to noninvasively identify the origin of metastatic relapse in a patient with multiple primary tumors. In another case, we identified in plasma an EGFR mutation not found in an initial ovarian biopsy. We further used TAm-Seq to monitor tumor dynamics, and tracked 10 concomitant mutations in plasma of a metastatic breast cancer patient over 16 months. This low-cost, high-throughput method could facilitate analysis of circulating DNA as a noninvasive "liquid biopsy" for personalized cancer genomics.
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in a range of human malignancies, many have been shown to act either as tumour supressors or oncogenes and several have been implicated in breast cancer. However, breast cancer is a diverse disease and little is known about the relationships between miRNA expression, clinical outcome and tumour subtype. We used locked nucleic acid probe in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) to visualize, in tissue micro-arrays (TMAs) of 2919 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival breast tumours, the expression of two key miRNAs that are frequently lost in a range of solid malignancies, let-7b and miR-205. These miRNAs were also quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in cores of FFPE tissue from 40 of these cases, demonstrating that LNA-ISH is semi-quantitative. The tumours in the TMAs were assigned to subtypes based on their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. let-7b expression was shown to be associated with luminal tumours and to have an independent significant positive prognostic value in this group. miR-205 is associated with tumours of ductal morphology and is of significant positive prognostic value within these tumours. We propose that the expression of miR-205 may contribute to ductal tumour morphology.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.