JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hope, Friends, and Subjective Well-Being: A Social Network Approach to Peer Group Contextual Effects.
Child Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research on adolescence has previously shown that factors like depression and burnout are influenced by friendship groups. Little research, however, has considered whether similar effects are present for variables such as hope and subjective well-being. Furthermore, there is no research that considers whether the degree of hope of an adolescent's friends is associated with well-being over the individual's level of hope. Data were collected in 2012 from a sample of 15-year-olds (N = 1,972; 62% Caucasian; 46% identified as Catholic; 25% had professional parents) from the East Coast of Australia. Findings suggest that individuals from the same friendship group were somewhat similar in hope and well-being. Multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that friendship group hope was significantly related to psychological and social well-being.
Related JoVE Video
Systematic regional variations in Purkinje cell spiking patterns.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In contrast to the uniform anatomy of the cerebellar cortex, molecular and physiological studies indicate that significant differences exist between cortical regions, suggesting that the spiking activity of Purkinje cells (PCs) in different regions could also show distinct characteristics. To investigate this possibility we obtained extracellular recordings from PCs in different zebrin bands in crus IIa and vermis lobules VIII and IX in anesthetized rats in order to compare PC firing characteristics between zebrin positive (Z+) and negative (Z-) bands. In addition, we analyzed recordings from PCs in the A2 and C1 zones of several lobules in the posterior lobe, which largely contain Z+ and Z- PCs, respectively. In both datasets significant differences in simple spike (SS) activity were observed between cortical regions. Specifically, Z- and C1 PCs had higher SS firing rates than Z+ and A2 PCs, respectively. The irregularity of SS firing (as assessed by measures of interspike interval distribution) was greater in Z+ bands in both absolute and relative terms. The results regarding systematic variations in complex spike (CS) activity were less consistent, suggesting that while real differences can exist, they may be sensitive to other factors than the cortical location of the PC. However, differences in the interactions between SSs and CSs, including the post-CS pause in SSs and post-pause modulation of SSs, were also consistently observed between bands. Similar, though less strong trends were observed in the zonal recordings. These systematic variations in spontaneous firing characteristics of PCs between zebrin bands in vivo, raises the possibility that fundamental differences in information encoding exist between cerebellar cortical regions.
Related JoVE Video
Spatially compressed dual-wavelength excitation Raman spectrometer.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The design and operation of a novel dual-laser excitation Raman instrument is described. The use of two lasers of differing wavelengths allows for a Raman spectrum covering all fundamental modes of vibration to be collected while minimizing fluorescence and allowing for spatial compression of the spectrum on an imaging detector. The use of diode lasers with integrated distributed Bragg reflector gratings facilitates the use of an integrated thermoelectric cooler to allow collection of shifted excitation spectra for both of the lasers, further enhancing the rejection of fluorescence. An example is given, which uses seven excitation wavelengths for each laser to reconstruct the Raman spectrum of a solvent in the presence of a highly fluorescent dye by using a sequentially shifted excitation Raman reconstruction algorithm.
Related JoVE Video
Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.
Related JoVE Video
Modulation of Purkinje cell complex spike waveform by synchrony levels in the olivocerebellar system.
Front Syst Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purkinje cells (PCs) generate complex spikes (CSs) when activated by the olivocerebellar system. Unlike most spikes, the CS waveform is highly variable, with the number, amplitude, and timing of the spikelets that comprise it varying with each occurrence. This variability suggests that CS waveform could be an important control parameter of olivocerebellar activity. The origin of this variation is not well known. Thus, we obtained extracellular recordings of CSs to investigate the possibility that the electrical coupling state of the inferior olive (IO) affects the CS waveform. Using multielectrode recordings from arrays of PCs we showed that the variance in the recording signal during the period when the spikelets occur is correlated with CS synchrony levels in local groups of PCs. The correlation was demonstrated under both ketamine and urethane, indicating that it is robust. Moreover, climbing fiber reflex evoked CSs showed an analogous positive correlation between spikelet-related variance and the number of cells that responded to a stimulus. Intra-IO injections of GABA-A receptor antagonists or the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone produced correlated changes in the variance and synchrony levels, indicating the presence of a causal relationship. Control experiments showed that changes in variance with synchrony were primarily due to changes in the CS waveform, as opposed to changes in the strength of field potentials from surrounding cells. Direct counts of spikelets showed that their number increased with synchronization of CS activity. In sum, these results provide evidence of a causal link between two of the distinguishing characteristics of the olivocerebellar system, its ability to generate synchronous activity and the waveform of the CS.
Related JoVE Video
Do domestic dogs understand human actions as goal-directed?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding of other's actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other's actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual's actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution.
Related JoVE Video
Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.
Child Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (Mage  = 13.41 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test between a self-esteem antecedent model (self-esteem precedes changes in social support), self-esteem consequence model (social support precedes change in self-esteem), and a reciprocal influence model. Self-esteem reliably predicted increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time. In contrast, the consequence model was not supported. The implications of this for helping adolescents to develop higher quality social support structures are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Correspondence-Based Intervention for Carers of Relatives with Psychosis.
Clin Psychol Psychother
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Family members play a crucial role in supporting the recovery of loved ones with psychosis. The journey of recovery is not only traversed by the person experiencing the mental illness but also by their family. Interventions to support these families have traditionally either focused on psychoeducation or addressed problematic interactions or expressed emotion. Family programmes have far less frequently emphasized supporting family members adjustment to the challenges posed by their relatives disorder or their recovery from associated distress. The study compared a control condition that received only a psychoeducational booklet (Information) and a condition also receiving a correspondence-based interactive recovery-oriented intervention (Connections). The Connections group was expected to show greater improvements in recovery knowledge, well-being, experiences of caregiving, hopefulness and distress. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two correspondence-based family interventions delivered to 81 carers of relatives with psychosis. Results Intent-to-treat analyses showed no differential outcomes between conditions, but an analysis of participants who substantially completed their allocated treatment showed that carers receiving Connections had significantly more improvements in well-being, positive experiences of caregiving and distress. Conclusions Correspondence interventions that support carers recovery may result in more positive mental health for those who complete key elements of the programme compared with information alone. However, many carers do not complete a correspondence programme and this may limit its impact. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Measuring medical student attitudes and beliefs regarding patients who are obese.
Acad Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research shows obesity bias to undermine the patient-doctor relationship and lead to substandard care. The authors developed and tested an instrument to measure medical students attitudes and beliefs about obese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Stop the clots, but at what cost? Pharmacoeconomics of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke in subjects with atrial fibrillation: a systematic literature review.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dabigatran etexilate is a newly approved agent for prophylaxis of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Through narrative review, the authors assess evidence of the efficacy of dabigatran in stroke prevention, focusing on the multicenter, randomized trial RE-LY. The authors complement this with a review of the clinical efficacy of standard treatments (antiplatelet and warfarin). Finally, the authors present a systematic review of published studies describing the economics of dabigatran. Our systematic search gave six economic reviews from a variety of healthcare systems (the USA, Canada and the UK) and utilizing different economic models. Analyses suggest economic benefit of high- or sequential-dose dabigatran, particularly when stroke risk is high; intracerebral hemorrhage risk is high or warfarin control is poor. However, questions remain around dabigatran tolerability, compliance and possible unexpected adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
The association of body mass index with mortality in the California Teachers Study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although underweight and obesity have been associated with increased risk of mortality, it remains unclear whether the associations differ by hormone therapy (HT) use and smoking. The authors examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality within the California Teachers Study (CTS), specifically considering the impact of HT and smoking. The authors examined the associations of underweight and obesity with risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, among 115,433 women participating in the CTS, and specifically examined whether HT use or smoking modifies the effects of obesity. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression provided estimates of relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During follow up, 10,574 deaths occurred. All-cause mortality was increased for underweight (BMI <18.5; adjusted RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.20-1.47) and obese participants (BMI ? 30: RR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.19-1.37) relative to BMI of 18.5-24.9). Respiratory disease mortality was increased for underweight and obese participants. Death from any cancer, and breast cancer specifically, and cardiovascular disease was observed only for obese participants. The obesity and mortality association remained after stratification on HT and smoking. Obese participants remained at greater risk for mortality after stratification on menopausal HT and smoking. Obesity was associated with increased all-cause mortality, as well as death from any cancer (including breast), and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These findings help to identify groups at risk for BMI-related poor health outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Bilateral oophorectomy is not associated with increased mortality: the California Teachers Study.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy on mortality, in light of evidence that bilateral oophorectomy among premenopausal women rapidly reduces endogenous hormone levels, thereby modifying risks of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Menopausal hormone therapy and subsequent risk of specific invasive breast cancer subtypes in the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although it is well established that combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) increases breast cancer risk, questions remain regarding the effect of different formulations of hormones, whether certain women are at particularly high risk, and whether risk varies by tumor subtype.
Related JoVE Video
Cessation of exercise in the institutionalized elderly: effects on physical function.
Physiother Can
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the effects of a 12-week exercise cessation period separating two 12-week exercise sessions on physical variables in an elderly institutionalized population and (2) to explore overall programme effectiveness.Methods: The functional mobility of 25 elderly institutionalized adults participating in an existing exercise programme was examined using a one-group, interrupted time-series design. Functional mobility was evaluated at four time points during two cycles of a 12-week exercise programme, alternating with a 12-week period of no formal exercise.Results: The primary outcome was the change in functional mobility scores, assessed at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks. In both the higher-functioning (HF) group and the lower-functioning (LF) group, the cessation of exercise was associated with deterioration in physical function. The overall non-continuous nature of the programming under study also seemed to be detrimental to the physical function of the LF group.Conclusions: Findings of this small-sample study support the need to modify common practices in exercise programming for older, institutionalized people.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacological treatment of painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Significant pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) affects ?40% of HIV infected individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The prevalence of HIV-SN has increased despite the more widespread use of ART. With the global HIV prevalence estimated at 33 million, and with infected individuals gaining increased access to ART, painful HIV-SN represents a large and expanding world health problem. There is an urgent need to develop effective pain management strategies for this condition.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a consumer constructed scale to evaluate mental health service provision.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most mental health outcome and satisfaction measures have been developed by academic researchers or service providers. Consumers have been limited to the role of participant or advisor. The validity and reliability of these satisfaction measures have been challenged. This paper reports the development of a consumer satisfaction questionnaire in which consumers work as collaborative researchers to increase its face validity and relevance.
Related JoVE Video
Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the association between hypertension, antihypertensive (AH) medication use, and breast cancer in a large prospective study, the California Teachers Study (CTS).
Related JoVE Video
Cancer incidence rates in Turkey in 2006: a detailed registry based estimation.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed report on cancer incidence in Turkey, a relatively large country with a population of 72 million. We present the estimates of the cancer burden in Turkey for 2006, calculated using data from the eight population based cancer registries which have been set up in selected provinces representative of sociodemographic patterns in their regions.
Related JoVE Video
Pregnancy-related factors and the risk of breast carcinoma in situ and invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although pregnancy-related factors such as nulliparity and late age at first full-term pregnancy are well-established risk factors for invasive breast cancer, the roles of these factors in the natural history of breast cancer development remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Recent breast cancer incidence trends according to hormone therapy use: the California Teachers Study cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent, international declines in breast cancer incidence are unprecedented, and the causes remain controversial. Few data sources can address breast cancer incidence trends according to pertinent characteristics like hormone therapy use history.
Related JoVE Video
Local changes in the excitability of the cerebellar cortex produce spatially restricted changes in complex spike synchrony.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complex spike (CS) synchrony patterns are modulated by the release of GABA within the inferior olive (IO). The GABAergic projection to most of the IO arises from the cerebellar nuclei, which are themselves subject to strong inhibitory control by Purkinje cells in the overlying cortex. Moreover, the connections between the IO and cerebellum are precisely aligned, raising the possibility that each cortical region controls its own CS synchrony distribution. This possibility was tested using multielectrode recordings of CSs and simple spikes (SSs) in crus 2a of anesthetized rats. Picrotoxin or muscimol was applied to the cerebellar cortex at the borders of the recording array. These drugs induced significant changes in CS synchrony and in CS and SS firing rates and changes in post-CS pauses and modulation of SS activity. The level of CS synchrony was correlated with SS firing rate in control, and application of picrotoxin increased both. In contrast, muscimol decreased CS synchrony. Furthermore, when picrotoxin was applied only at the lateral edge of the array, changes in CS synchrony occurred sequentially across the recording array, with cells located in the lateral half of the array having earlier and larger changes in CS synchrony than cells in the medial half. The results indicate that a double-inhibitory feedback circuit from Purkinje cells to the IO provides a mechanism by which SS activity may regulate CS synchrony. Thus, CS synchrony may be a physiologically controlled parameter of cerebellar activity, with the cerebellum and IO comprising a series of self-updating circuits.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for surgically removed fibroids in a large cohort of teachers.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe reproductive and lifestyle correlates of surgically confirmed fibroids.
Related JoVE Video
Mental health consumers perceptions of receiving recovery-focused services.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examines the experiences of mental health service consumers engaged in various recovery-focused support practices as well as examining consumer valuing of these activities.
Related JoVE Video
Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee.
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe our recent studies of imitation and cultural transmission in chimpanzees and children, which question late twentieth-century characterizations of children as imitators, but chimpanzees as emulators. As emulation entails learning only about the results of others actions, it has been thought to curtail any capacity to sustain cultures. Recent chimpanzee diffusion experiments have by contrast documented a significant capacity for copying local behavioural traditions. Additionally, in recent ghost experiments with no model visible, chimpanzees failed to replicate the object movements on which emulation is supposed to focus. We conclude that chimpanzees rely more on imitation and have greater cultural capacities than previously acknowledged. However, we also find that they selectively apply a range of social learning processes that include emulation. Recent studies demonstrating surprisingly unselective over-imitation in children suggest that childrens propensity to imitate has been underestimated too. We discuss the implications of these developments for the nature of social learning and culture in the two species. Finally, our new experiments directly address cumulative cultural learning. Initial results demonstrate a relative conservatism and conformity in chimpanzees learning, contrasting with cumulative cultural learning in young children. This difference may contribute much to the contrast in these species capacities for cultural evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Agility and search and rescue training differently affects pet dogs behaviour in socio-cognitive tasks.
Behav. Processes
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both genetic factors and life experiences appear to be important in shaping dogs responses in a test situation. One potentially highly relevant life experience may be the dogs training history, however few studies have investigated this aspect so far. This paper briefly reviews studies focusing on the effects of training on dogs performance in cognitive tasks, and presents new, preliminary evidence on trained and untrained pet dogs performance in an unsolvable task. Thirty-nine adult dogs: 13 trained for search and rescue activities (S&R group), 13 for agility competition (Agility group) and 13 untrained pets (Pet group) were tested. Three solvable trials in which dogs could obtain the food by manipulating a plastic container were followed by an unsolvable trial in which obtaining the food became impossible. The dogs behaviours towards the apparatus and the people present (owner and researcher) were analysed. Both in the first solvable and in the unsolvable trial the groups were comparable on actions towards the apparatus, however differences emerged in their human-directed gazing behaviour. In fact, results in the solvable trial, showed fewer S&R dogs looking back at a person compared to agility dogs, and the latter alternating their gaze between person and apparatus more frequently than pet dogs. In the unsolvable trial no difference between groups emerged in the latency to look at the person however agility dogs looked longer at the owner than both pet and S&R dogs; whereas S&R dogs exhibited significantly more barking (always occurring concurrently to looking at the person or the apparatus) than both other groups. Furthermore, S&R dogs alternated their gaze between person and apparatus more than untrained pet dogs, with agility dogs falling in between these two groups. Thus overall, it seems that the dogs human-directed communicative behaviours are significantly influenced by their individual training experiences.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with failed polyp retrieval at screening colonoscopy.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colonoscopy reduces colorectal cancer mortality and morbidity principally by the detection and removal of colon polyps. It is important to retrieve resected polyps to be able to ascertain their histologic characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Carers hope, wellbeing and attitudes regarding recovery.
Community Ment Health J
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carers are important to the recovery of their relatives with serious mental disorder however, it is unclear whether they are aware of, or endorse recent conceptualisations of recovery. This study compared carers and mental health workers recovery attitudes, and undertook multivariate predictions of carers wellbeing, hopefulness and recovery attitudes. Participants were 82 Australian family members caring for a relative with psychosis. Carers average recovery attitudes were less optimistic than for previously surveyed staff. Carers recovery attitudes were predicted by perceptions that their relatives negative symptoms were more severe. Hopefulness and wellbeing was predicted by more positive and less negative caregiving experiences. Hopefulness was also predicted by less frequent contacts with their affected relative, and unexpectedly, by perceptions of more severe psychotic symptoms. Carers wellbeing was further predicted by having a partner and having no lifetime history of a mental disorder. Hope and wellbeing are affected by everyday challenges and positive experiences of caregiving.
Related JoVE Video
Dogs social referencing towards owners and strangers.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informants identity on the dogs referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dogs behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dogs behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.
Related JoVE Video
Physical activity increases gains in and prevents loss of physical function: results from the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physical activity (PA) appears to have a positive effect on physical function, however, studies have not examined multiple indices of physical function jointly nor have they conceptualized physical functioning as a state rather than a trait.
Related JoVE Video
Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) make counterproductive choices because they are sensitive to human ostensive cues?
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dogs appear to be sensitive to human ostensive communicative cues in a variety of situations, however there is still a measure of controversy as to the way in which these cues influence human-dog interactions. There is evidence for instance that dogs can be led into making evaluation errors in a quantity discrimination task, for example losing their preference for a larger food quantity if a human shows a preference for a smaller one, yet there is, so far, no explanation for this phenomenon. Using a modified version of this task, in the current study we investigated whether non-social, social or communicative cues (alone or in combination) cause dogs to go against their preference for the larger food quantity. Results show that dogs evaluation errors are indeed caused by a social bias, but, somewhat contrary to previous studies, they highlight the potent effect of stimulus enhancement (handling the target) in influencing the dogs response. A mild influence on the dogs behaviour was found only when different ostensive cues (and no handling of the target) were used in combination, suggesting their cumulative effect. The discussion addresses possible motives for discrepancies with previous studies suggesting that both the intentionality and the directionality of the action may be important in causing dogs social biases.
Related JoVE Video
Health literacy in Ireland: reading between the lines.
Perspect Public Health
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health literacy may be defined as the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. While health literacy has become a vibrant area of international research, Ireland has lagged behind and to date few data exist. This article summarises the research that has been carried out in Ireland, highlighting key findings and recommendations. With several new initiatives in place such as the Crystal Clear health literacy Awards, it is expected that Ireland will lag behind in this field no longer. Inadequate health literacy is at epidemic levels in Ireland and is fast becoming recognised as a national issue. Simplification of the healthcare system, in its entirety is required but the much needed financial investment will only be made after original research, demonstrating successful interventions has been conducted. With a trend worldwide towards personalized medicine, this theme should be extended to include tailor-made personalized health care information. An investment in health literacy will ultimately increase a patients self-esteem, compliance, capacity to self-manage and most importantly patient outcomes and safety.
Related JoVE Video
Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment.
BMC Public Health
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.