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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intraosseous myoepithelioma: a rare, distinct tumor entity.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Primary musculoskeletal myoepithelial tumors (METs) are distinctly rare tumors and are being increasingly recognized as a result of improved diagnostic criteria and objective confirmation with immunohistochemical markers, including epithelial markers. Recent studies have unraveled distinct molecular mechanisms underlying these tumors. Herein, we present our second diagnosed case of an intraosseous MET that occurred in the tibia of a 37-year-old lady. The case is discussed with regards to current clinicopathological perspectives on these rather uncommon tumors, including our personal experience.
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Oncological and functional outcome of periosteal osteosarcoma.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Periosteal osteosarcoma is an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma which constitutes less than 2% of all osteosarcomas. Whereas adequate surgical excision remains the cornerstone of treatment, the role of chemotherapy in this tumor is still unclear. Existing literature contains very few single center studies on the outcomes for periosteal osteosarcomas and any additional information will help in better understanding of these uncommon lesions. This study aims to evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of treatment of periosteal osteosarcoma treated at our institute.
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Pulmonary adenofibroma: clinicopathological study of 3 cases of a rare benign lung lesion and review of the literature.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Pulmonary adenofibroma is a rare benign biphasic tumor of the lung composed of epithelial and stromal components. We report 3 cases of this unusual lesion of lung in a male (25 years old) and 2 female (40 and 55 years old) patients. Breathlessness on exertion and mild left-sided chest pain of 1 month's duration were the main concerns in 2 patients, whereas the third had cough and hemoptysis for 3 months. Chest radiograph and computed tomography scan revealed a well-circumscribed, subpleural homogenous mass in left lower chest fields in 2 cases and solid-cystic lesion in left upper lobe in the third patient. All 3 patients underwent lobectomy, following biopsy in 2 cases. Histology revealed a well-circumscribed lesion composed of complex glandlike spaces lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium surrounded by a hyalinized spindle-cell fibroblastic proliferation reminiscent of adenofibroma of the female genital tract or fibroadenoma of the breast. Immunohistochemical examination supported the diagnosis of a benign pulmonary adenofibroma. All 3 patients were are alive and doing well with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. Diagnosis on biopsy can be challenging and may be misinterpreted as well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with extensive fibrosis or low-grade sarcoma. Frozen-section consultation will be a valuable adjunct in planning for limited lung resection of this benign lung lesion. Although we described 3 cases of pulmonary adenofibroma, still this is the largest published series of this rare entity till date. The possible histogenesis and various differential diagnoses are discussed along with literature review.
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Primary non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma of the jaw in children: Results of surgical resection and primary reconstruction.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The rarity of Ewing sarcoma (ES) of the jaw coupled with the technical challenge of resection and associated functional and cosmetic impairment has resulted in deficient data on surgical management of these tumors. The purpose of this study is to describe the results of surgical excision and reconstruction of primary non-metastatic ES of the mandible and maxilla in children.
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Outcome and morbidity of surgical resection of primary cervical and cervicothoracic neuroblastoma in children: a comparative analysis.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Primary cervical (CN) and cervicothoracic neuroblastoma (CTN) is generally associated with good outcome; however, surgical resection can be challenging and not without morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the overall outcome and compare the clinico-radiological features, treatment, and complications of CN and CTN.
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Oesophageal carcinoma presenting with a synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma.
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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The advancement in diagnostic techniques has resulted in increased incidence of occult second primary in cancer patients. Here, we report a case of symptomatic oesophageal carcinoma and synchronous asymptomatic colon carcinoma diagnosed through Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography imaging.
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Extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma in children and adolescents: impact of narrow but negative surgical margin.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The aim of the study was to determine the impact of negative but close resection margins on local recurrence in children with extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES).
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Frequency of EGFR Mutations in 907 Lung Adenocarcioma Patients of Indian Ethnicity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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During the past decade, the incidence of EGFR mutation has been shown to vary across different ethnicities. It occurs at the rate of 10-15% in North Americans and Europeans, 19% in African-Americans, 20-30% in various East Asian series including Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese. Frequency of EGFR mutations in India however remains sparsely explored.
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EGFR mutations in Indian lung cancer patients: clinical correlation and outcome to EGFR targeted therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Screening for EGFR mutation is a key molecular test for management of lung cancer patients. Outcome of patients with mutation receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor is known to be better across different ethnic populations. However, frequency of EGFR mutations and the clinical response in most other ethnic populations, including India, remains to be explored. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Indian lung cancer patients who were managed with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Majority of the patients in the study had adenocarcinoma and were non-smokers. 39/111 patients tested positive for EGFR kinase domain mutations determined by Taqman based real time PCR. The overall response to oral TKI therapy was 30%. Patients with an activating mutation of EGFR had a response rate of 74%, while the response rate in patients with wild type EGFR was 5%, which was a statistically significant difference. Progression free survival of patients with EGFR mutations was 10 months compared to 2 months for EGFR mutation negative patients. Overall survival was 19 months for EGFR mutation patients and 13 months for mutation negative patients. This study emphasizes EGFR mutation as an important predictive marker for response to oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the Indian population.
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Desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the pancreas: An unusual primary site for an uncommon tumor.
J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Pancreas is a rare location for desmoplastic small round cell tumor. The present case highlights the dilemma in diagnosis and ascertaining the site of tumor origin. Morphologic and immunohistochemical features were complemented with the molecular markers and tumor origin which was initially nebulous was subsequently confirmed on exploratory laparotomy.
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Epidermoid cyst in the kidney.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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We report an extremely rare case of an epidermoid cyst in the kidney of a 74-year-old man who had presented with painless hematuria. Radiologic examination revealed a cyst in the kidney that was thought to be neoplastic. The patient underwent surgery to remove the cyst, and we received the nephrectomy specimen. A 6-cm cyst with no solid areas was seen. On histologic examination, this was an epidermoid cyst. We reviewed the published data and discuss the possible theories of origin of this rare condition.
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Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone--a clinicopathologic study of 8 uncommon cases with immunohistochemical analysis and clinical outcomes.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone is a rare and a diagnostically challenging tumor entity. Over a 7-year period, we identified 8 such cases that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria in 6 men and 2 women, with age ranging from 25 to 59 years (mean, 42.7 years). All cases were noted in the lower limbs, including femur and tibia as the commonly involved bones in 4 and 3 cases, respectively. On radiography, the most consistent feature was a solitary osteolytic lesion with cortical destruction, unassociated with matrix formation. On histopathology, all cases showed spindly sarcomatous cells, mostly arranged in fascicles and whorls. Of 8 cases, 6 (75%) were of high grade. Prominent vasculature was noted in 5 cases. Two cases displayed focal mineralization, including calcification and heterotropic woven bone formation in 1 case each, but lacked malignant osteoid or chondroid matrix. One case showed osteoclast-like giant cells. On immunohistochemistry, smooth muscle actin was diffusely positive in all cases (100%), desmin was positive in 6 (75%) of 8 cases, and h-caldesmon was positive in 5 (83.3%) of 6 cases. Five cases underwent surgery, including 3 amputations and 2 wide excisions. One case underwent chemotherapy. On follow-up, 5 cases developed metastasis, including 1 case with another, who died within 17 and 5 months. Leiomyosarcoma of bone is uncommon and diagnostically challenging. An index of suspicion is necessary for this diagnosis, especially in cases of lytic, destructive bone lesions, unassociated with matrix production, that show spindly sarcomatous cells on histopathology. Immunohistochemical analysis, including an optimum panel formed by smooth muscle actin (diffuse positivity), desmin, and h-caldesmon, is necessary for substantiating this diagnosis. Surgery forms the treatment mainstay. The prognosis appears to be dismal.
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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy in thigh of an infant--a rare case report with diagnostic implications.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is an uncommon tumor of neural crest origin, almost invariably identified in the head and neck region. It is a relatively benign tumor but can recur and rarely metastasize. Herein, a rare case of MNTI in the thigh of an infant is documented. Radiographic imaging showed a sclerotic and lytic lesion in the metadiaphyseal region of the right femur with a soft tissue component. The clinicoradiological impression was of a malignant round cell tumor and osteomyelitis. The patients urinary vanil mandelic acid (VMA) level was elevated. FNAC smears revealed a tumor with round to polygonal cells, focally containing black melanin pigment. Biopsy and tumor excision revealed a tumor with cells in cords and nests embedded in a fibrocollagenous stroma and showed bone and soft tissue infiltration. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells displayed immunoreactivity to vimentin, cytokeratin (CK), CK7, CK19, and MIC2, and focal reactivity for synaptophysin and HMB45. Diagnosis of an MNTI was made. The patient underwent induction chemotherapy with extracorporeal radiotherapy, followed by a soft tissue excision that revealed residual tumor. Surgically, free marrow margins were accomplished, and the patient is currently being followed-up. To the best of our knowledge this case is the fifth documented case in the English literature of MNTI in the thigh. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications are discussed.
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Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with chondromyxoid fibroma-like feature: an unusual morphological appearance.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is a rare and distinctive tumor almost always associated with oncogenic osteomalacia. This tumor is often misdiagnosed due to its widely varied histomorphological spectrum. More recently the term PMT or its variants has been used whatever the histomorphological features. Herein, we present a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of oncogenic osteomalacia. The clinical examination failed to detect any tumor. The F-18 FDG PET scan and subsequent MRI revealed a tumor in the soft tissues of the right popliteal fossa. The histological features resembled a chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF), a feature documented only in two cases so far.
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Epithelioid variant of a pleomorphic liposarcoma displaying arborizing vascular arrangements on cytology smears: a case report of an interesting cytomorphologic pattern in an uncommon tumor.
Acta Cytol.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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There is limited documentation on cytologic features of liposarcomas, especially pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLPSs), in view of their rarity.
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Pathology of Ewings sarcoma/PNET: Current opinion and emerging concepts.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Ewings sarcoma/PNET are small round cell tumors showing a varying degree of neuroectodermal differentiation. They are one of the commonest tumors of childhood and occur in bone and within soft tissues. Traditionally, light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemical stains was suitable for diagnosis. But now translocation analyses are being used not only for the diagnosis and classification of small round cell tumors, but to ascertain their prognostic significance, detect micrometastasis, and monitor minimal residual disease, with potential for targeted therapy. This article analyzes the pathology, biology, and molecular aspects of Ewings sarcoma/PNET and discusses their clinical and therapeutic implications.
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Cystic primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma presenting as recurrent pneumothorax: report of 4 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy that often presents like any other thoracic tumor with symptoms such as chest pain or cough. Here we describe 4 young adults who underwent surgery for apparently benign recurrent pneumothoraces and who, unexpectedly, were found upon histologic and molecular examination of the resection specimen to have cystic primary pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma. These cases highlight (a) the importance of cytogenetic analysis in making the diagnosis, as confusion with other spindle cell sarcomas or cystic neoplasms can occur and (b) the importance of thorough examination of all resected tissue in cases of recurrent pneumothorax.
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Secondary vascular changes in pulmonary sequestrations.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Whilst parenchymal changes in pulmonary sequestrations are well described, there are comparatively little data on associated vascular changes and their extent. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review morphological changes within sequestrations, concentrating on vascular changes and associations with clinical parameters.
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Rhinosporidiosis isolated to the distal clavicle: a rare presentation clinicoradiologically mimicking a bone tumor.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, which commonly affects young men and predominantly involves the mucous membranes of the nose, nasopharynx and eyes. Involvement of extranasal sites including bone has been reported, but rarely. We present a case of a 32-year-old farmer, who presented with a non-tender, fixed swelling over his right shoulder. Radiography and CT imaging showed an expansile, lytic, destructive lesion involving the lateral end of the right clavicle with soft tissue extension. The clinicoradiological impression was that of a primary bone tumor. Biopsy and wide excision of the lesion revealed features of rhinosporidiosis. There were no mucocutaneous lesions. Involvement of bone without associated mucocutaneous lesions is exceedingly rare in rhinosporidiosis. Involvement of the clavicle, as seen in the present case, has not been reported in the English language-peer reviewed literature, to the best of our knowledge.
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How does knowledge of three-dimensional excision margins following breast conservation surgery impact upon clinical target volume definition for partial-breast radiotherapy?
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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To compare partial-breast clinical target volumes generated using a standard 15 mm margin (CTV(standard)) with those generated using three-dimensional surgical excision margins (CTV(tailored 30)) in women who have undergone wide local excision (WLE) for breast cancer.
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Unusual presentation of primary cardiac lymphoma.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Cardiac lymphomas are rare neoplasms and account for a minor proportion of primary cardiac malignancies. Secondary involvement of the heart and pericardium by systemic lymphoma is well documented, but primary lymphomas of heart and pericardium are extremely rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all primary cardiac tumours. Most cases are diagnosed at autopsy, but nowadays, with modern imaging technologies, early diagnosis and treatment is possible. Here, we present two unique incidental presentations of primary cardiac lymphomas (PCL), one in an atrial myxoma and other involving a valvular homograft and discuss the potential pitfalls and prognosis of this rare entity.
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Osteosarcoma of the femur mimicking Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour on biopsy and metastatic carcinoma on resection.
Skeletal Radiol.
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is known to have several morphological appearances, small cell osteosarcoma and epithelioid osteosarcoma being two well recognized patterns. The former can be mistaken for a Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour (ES/PNET), whereas the latter mimics metastatic carcinoma. Herein we present an osteosarcoma in a 17-year-old girl that was diagnosed as an ES/PNET on biopsy; however, the resected specimen revealed a very unusual morphology mimicking a metastatic carcinoma with a sex cord stromal tumour-like pattern.
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Chemotherapy compliance in patients with osteosarcoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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Histological response (HR) to neoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NACT) is considered as a robust prognostic marker in treated osteosarcomas. Chemotherapy compliance can affect both, dose intensity and density and may affect the final outcome in these cases. This vital aspect has been inadequately addressed and therefore merits further investigation.
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Sudden cardiac death: look closely at the coronaries for spontaneous dissection which can be missed. A study of 9 cases.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol
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Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of death seen largely in young women, with many cases occurring in the early postpartum period. Nine cases with this condition were examined from our histopathology records comprising 6 women and 3 men with an age range of 26 to 47 years. All deaths were sudden, and only one patient complained of chest pain and she was 8 weeks postpartum. All cases showed dissection macroscopically, though 4 of the 6 cases, which were sent for a second opinion, were described as having normal coronaries by the referring pathologists. One heart seemed to have postmortem coronary artery thrombus and dissection was difficult to discern on gross examination. All cases were examined histologically and confirmed acute dissection of the coronary arteries, with more than 2 arteries affected in 2 cases. Histologic features of myocardial ischemia/infarction were noted in 4 cases so the explanation for the sudden death in the other 4 cases remains a possible fatal arrhythmia. The macroscopic changes in the heart of acute coronary artery dissection can be difficult to detect and can be easily mistaken for postmortem clot or a thrombus overlying an atheromatous plaque. All such cases with thrombus in the arteries, even the normal-looking coronary arteries, in young adults should be examined microscopically for dissection
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.