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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Candidate selection for quadrant-based focal ablation through a combination of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and prostate biopsy.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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? To identify prostatic quadrants that could be preserved without intervention, using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and extended core biopsy, as a step toward implementation of quadrant-based focal ablation with potential preservation of erectile and ejaculatory functions, based on comparisons with unilateral hemigland ablation.
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Diagnostic performance and safety of a three-dimensional 14-core systematic biopsy method.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To investigate the diagnostic performance and safety of a three-dimensional 14-core biopsy (3D14PBx) method, which is a combination of the transrectal six-core and transperineal eight-core biopsy methods.
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A novel 3-dimensional image analysis system for case-specific kidney anatomy and surgical simulation to facilitate clampless partial nephrectomy.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To report our initial experience with the novel 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system Synapse Vincent in clampless partial nephrectomy (PN), describing its advantages with regard to short-term surgical outcomes and its usefulness as an informed consent tool.
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Intra-/inter-laboratory validation study on reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation using two different solar simulators.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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A previous multi-center validation study demonstrated high transferability and reliability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay for photosafety evaluation. The present validation study was undertaken to verify further the applicability of different solar simulators and assay performance. In 7 participating laboratories, 2 standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 non-phototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay using two different solar simulators (Atlas Suntest CPS series, 3 labs; and Seric SXL-2500V2, 4 labs). Irradiation conditions could be optimized using quinine and sulisobenzone as positive and negative standards to offer consistent assay outcomes. In both solar simulators, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) for quinine were found to be below 10%. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% (Atlas Suntest CPS) and 13.2% (Seric SXL-2500V2) for singlet oxygen and 17.0% (Atlas Suntest CPS) and 7.1% (Seric SXL-2500V2) for superoxide, suggesting high inter-laboratory reproducibility even though different solar simulators were employed for the ROS assay. In the ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals, some chemicals (ca. 19-29%) were unevaluable because of limited solubility and spectral interference. Although several false positives appeared with positive predictivity of ca. 76-92% (Atlas Suntest CPS) and ca. 75-84% (Seric SXL-2500V2), there were no false negative predictions in both solar simulators. A multi-center validation study on the ROS assay demonstrated satisfactory transferability, accuracy, precision, and predictivity, as well as the availability of other solar simulators.
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Long-term oncological outcome in men with T3 prostate cancer: radical prostatectomy versus external-beam radiation therapy at a single institution.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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This study was designed to compare the long-term oncological outcome of patients with clinical T3 (cT3) prostate cancer (PCA) treated with either radical prostatectomy (RP) or external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and to identify predictors of oncological outcomes.
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[Case of inflammatory lesion in urinary bladder showing high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted MRI: correlation with histopathological finding].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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A 66-year-old woman was referred to our department for thickening bladder wall incidentally found during postoperative follow-up of transverse colon cancer. Cystoscopy showed edematous tumor with a diameter of 5 cm on the right wall. Deep portion of the tumor showed high intensity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Transurethral resection and transvaginal needle biopsy was performed, and pathological examination revealed granulation tissues mainly consisted of inflammatory cells and fibrosis. DW-MRI is a functional imaging constructed by quantifying the diffusion of water molecules. Recently, the feasibility of this imaging in the diagnosis of bladder cancer has been reported. However, we should keep in mind that granulation tissues consisted of inflammatory cells and fibrosis is also possible to be positive for DW-MRI.
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Phase II trial of erlotinib for Japanese patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations: results of Lung Oncology Group in Kyushu (LOGiK0803).
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Erlotinib has been reported to be useful for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer harboring mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene EGFR-mt. However, no prospective trial has yet assessed the utility of erlotinib in Japanese patients.
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High diagnostic ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect anterior prostate cancer missed by transrectal 12-core biopsy.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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We clarified the diagnostic ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to reveal anterior cancer missed by transrectal 12-core prostate biopsy based on the results of 3-dimensional 26-core prostate biopsy, which is a combination of transrectal 12-core and transperineal 14-core biopsies.
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Impact of advanced age on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in Japanese men according to pathological stage.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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To determine the impact of advanced age as a predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients with regard to pathological stage.
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Successful reduction of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a urology ward: a 10-year study.
BMC Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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To eradicate hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a stepwise infection control strategy that includes an avoidance of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) based on surgical wound classification and an improvement in operative procedures in gasless single-port urologic surgery.
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Diagnostic performance of initial transperineal 14-core prostate biopsy to detect significant cancer.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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To investigate cancers missed by extended transperineal (TP) 14-core biopsy (TP14PBx) and examined its diagnostic performance.
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Antioxidants improve the phenotypes of dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle fatigue in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-deficient mice.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Redox imbalance elevates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in cells and promotes age-related diseases. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ROS. There are three SOD isoforms: SOD1/CuZn-SOD, SOD2/Mn-SOD, and SOD3/EC-SOD. SOD2, which is localized in the mitochondria, is an essential enzyme required for mouse survival, and systemic knockout causes neonatal lethality in mice. To investigate the physiological function of SOD2 in adult mice, we generated a conditional Sod2 knockout mouse using a Cre-loxP system. When Sod2 was specifically deleted in the heart and muscle, all mice exhibited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and died by six months of age. On the other hand, when Sod2 was specifically deleted in the skeletal muscle, mice showed severe exercise disturbance without morphological abnormalities. These provide useful model of DCM and muscle fatigue. In this review, we summarize the impact of antioxidants, which were able to regulate mitochondrial superoxide generation and improve the phenotypes of the DCM and the muscle fatigue in mice.
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Low-dose Hsp90 inhibitors tumor-selectively sensitize bladder cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Although radical cystectomy with urinary diversion is the standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), loss of native bladder frequently impairs patients quality of life (QOL). Bladder-sparing approach incorporating chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves QOL while not compromising survival outcomes in MIBC patients. In this approach, complete response to induction CRT is a prerequisite for bladder preservation and favorable oncological outcomes. We investigated a strategy to potentiate CRT response of bladder cancer cells by using Hsp90 inhibitors in preclinical models. Hsp90 inhibitors at low concentrations, which did not exert cytocidal effects but inactivated key anti-apoptotic proteins including erbB2, Akt, and NF-?B, efficiently sensitized bladder cancer cells (T24, 5637 and UM-UC-3 cells) to in vitro CRT by enhancing apoptosis. Importantly, the sensitizing effects were not observed in primarily cultured normal human urothelial cells. We also showed that CRT induces accumulation of nuclear phospho-Akt, which antagonizes apoptosis, and that Hsp90 inhibitors block the cellular process. Hsp90 inhibition sensitized bladder cancer cells to in vitro CRT more effectively than sole or combined inhibition of erbB2 and Akt. In mice UM-UC-3 tumor xenografts model, Hsp90 inhibitors successfully potentiated anti-tumor activity of CRT. These results encourage clinical trials of Hsp90 inhibitors to overcome CRT resistance in patients with MIBC.
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Perioperative complications of radical cystectomy after induction chemoradiotherapy in bladder-sparing protocol against muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a single institutional retrospective comparative study with primary radical cystectomy.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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To compare rates of early morbidity after radical cystectomy in patients treated with or without induction chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using a standardized reporting methodology.
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[Successful treatment with multidisciplinary therapy including low-dose chemoradiotherapy against metastatic recurrences of small cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a case report].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is a rare and aggressive disease; reportedly, a mean survival is only 8 months. A 78 year-old woman with chronic kidney disease was referred to our hospital complaining of asymptomatic gross hematoturia. On imaging studies and voided urine cytology, diagnosis of right renal pelvic cancer (cT2N0M0) was made. She underwent total nephroureterectomy. Pathological diagnosis was small cell carcinoma, infiltrating into the renal parenchyma, with lymphovascular invasion. Post-operatively, hemodialysis was introduced. Five months after the operation, new lesions developed in the right adrenal gland, aortocaval lymph nodes and subcutaneous layer of the right back. The subcutaneous mass was surgically removed and low-dose chemoradiotherapy (sigma 45 Gy/25 Fr/32 d + cisplatin 10 mg/d for 2 d x 2) was given to the other lesions. Although the lesions regressed to CR, new small masses emerged in the muscle layers of the right flank 14 months after total nephroureterectomy. Low-dose chemoradiotherapy (sigma 40 Gy/20 Fr/29 d + cisplatin 10 mg/d for 2 d x 2) to these lesions successfully brought CR. She is alive without any evidence of disease at 3 years after total nephroureterectomy.
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ErbB2 and NF?B overexpression as predictors of chemoradiation resistance and putative targets to overcome resistance in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients frequently impairs their quality of life (QOL) due to urinary diversion. To improve their QOL, a bladder-sparing alternative strategy using chemoradiation has been developed. In bladder-sparing protocols, complete response (CR) to induction chemoradiation is a prerequisite for bladder preservation and favorable survival. Thus predicting chemoradiation resistance and overcoming it would increase individual MIBC patients chances of bladder preservation. The aim of this study is to investigate putative molecular targets for treatment aimed at improving chemoradiation response. Expression levels of erbB2, NF?B, p53, and survivin were evaluated immunohistochemically in pretreatment biopsy samples from 35 MIBC patients in whom chemoradiation sensitivity had been pathologically evaluated in cystectomy specimens, and associations of these expression levels with chemoradiation sensitivity and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were investigated. Of the 35 patients, 11 (31%) achieved pathological CR, while tumors in the remaining 24 patients (69%) were chemoradiation-resistant. Multivariate analysis identified erbB2 and NF?B overexpression and hydronephrosis as significant and independent risk factors for chemoradiation resistance with respective relative risks of 11.8 (P?=?0.014), 15.4 (P?=?0.024) and 14.3 (P?=?0.038). The chemoradiation resistance rate was 88.5% for tumors overexpressing erbB2 and/or NF?B, but only 11.1% for those negative for both (P <0.0001). The 5-year CSS rate was 74% overall. Through multivariate analysis, overexpression of erbB2 and/or NF?B was identified as an independent risk factor for bladder cancer death with marginal significance (hazard ratio 21.5, P?=?0.056) along with chemoradiation resistance (P?=?0.003) and hydronephrosis (P?=?0.018). The 5-year CSS rate for the 11 patients achieving pathological CR was 100%, while that for the 24 with chemoradiation-resistant disease was 61% (P?=?0.018). Thus, erbB2 and NF?B overexpression are relevant to chemoradiation resistance and are putative targets aimed at overcoming chemoradiation resistance in MIBC.
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Selective bladder-sparing protocol consisting of induction low-dose chemoradiotherapy plus partial cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection against muscle-invasive bladder cancer: oncological outcomes of the initial 46 patients.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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To evaluate oncological outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients who were treated with a selective bladder-sparing protocol consisting of induction low-dose chemoradiotherapy (LCRT) plus partial cystectomy (PC) with pelvic lymph node dissection.
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Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in the differentiation of angiomyolipoma with minimal fat from clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in differentiating between minimal fat angiomyolipoma (MFAML) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). Forty-one solid renal tumors without visible macroscopic fat on unenhanced computed tomography images were evaluated by MRI, including DW-MRI, and were diagnosed pathologically as CCRCC (n = 36) or MFAML (n = 5). To evaluate the heterogeneity of diffusion in each tumor, the signals of the tumors on DW-MRI were analyzed subjectively and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and histograms assessed objectively. Thirty-three of 36 CCRCC (92%) exhibited a heterogeneous signal on DW-MRI and several peaks in the ADC value histogram, whereas four of five MFAML exhibited a homogeneous signal on DW-MRI and a single prominent peak in the histogram. The standard deviations of the ADC values were significantly smaller for MFAML than for CCRCC (P = 0.0015). In conclusion, DW-MRI can be considered a useful and noninvasive addition to the preoperative differentiation of CCRCC and MFAML.
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Potential role of Hsp90 inhibitors in overcoming cisplatin resistance of bladder cancer-initiating cells.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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For metastatic bladder cancer patients, systemic cisplatin (CDDP)-based combination chemotherapy is the first-line choice of treatment. Although up to 70% of advanced bladder cancer patients initially show good tumor response to this form of combination chemotherapy, over 90% of good responders relapse and eventually die of the disease. According to the cancer stem cell theory, this phenomenon is attributable to the re-growth of bladder cancer-initiating cells (BCICs) that have survived chemotherapy. In this study, the authors have isolated BCICs from cultured human bladder cancer cells to analyze their sensitivity to CDDP and to investigate whether heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxicity of CDDP on BCICs. First, the authors have confirmed that a CD44+ subpopulation of 5637 cells met the requirements to be considered tumor-initiating cells. These BCICs were more resistant to CDDP and exhibited more activity in the Akt and ERK oncogenic signaling pathways when compared with their CD44- counterparts. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), which simultaneously inactivated both Akt and ERK signaling at noncytocidal concentrations, synergistically potentiated the cytotoxicity of CDDP against BCICs by enhancing CDDP-induced apoptosis in vitro. The potentiating effect of 17-DMAG was more effective than a combination of the two inhibitors specific for the Akt and ERK pathways. Finally, the authors have confirmed that, though human BCIC xenografts exhibited resistance to a single administration of CDDP and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), 17-AAG sensitized them to CDDP in a mouse model. These data encourage clinical trials of Hsp90 inhibitors as they may improve therapeutic outcomes of CDDP-based combination chemotherapy against advanced bladder cancer.
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Longitudinal change in renal function after radical nephrectomy in Japanese patients with renal cortical tumors.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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We investigated the longitudinal change in renal function after radical nephrectomy in Japanese patients with renal cortical tumors and compared it with that after partial nephrectomy.
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Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in bladder cancer: potential utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values as a biomarker to predict clinical aggressiveness.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in bladder cancer and the potential role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in predicting pathological bladder cancer phenotypes associated with clinical aggressiveness were investigated.
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Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI in diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic ability of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for detecting upper urinary tract cancer.
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Superoxide dismutase deficiency enhances superoxide levels in brain tissues during oxygenation and hypoxia-reoxygenation.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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To determine whether the mitochondria or cytoplasm produces superoxide during ischemia-reperfusion of the brain, we analyzed lucigenine-enhanced chemiluminescence emission in slices of brain tissue prepared from manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (Sod2-deficient) and copper and zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD)-deficient (Sod1-deficient) mice during oxygenation and hypoxia-reoxygenation. The steady-state level of chemiluminescence under oxygenated conditions was significantly enhanced by a lack of either Sod. We hypothesize that the enhanced chemiluminescence produced by Sod2 and Sod1 deficiency reflects in situ superoxide generation in the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. Based on this hypothesis, the major site of intracellular superoxide generation was assumed to be the cytoplasm. However, mitochondria occupy less cellular space than the cytoplasm. In terms of volume, the superoxide concentration is assumed to be higher in mitochondria than in the cytoplasm. Mn-SOD activity was 18% of the Cu,Zn-SOD activity observed in the wild-type mouse brain. However, when mitochondrial SOD activity was expressed as per volume, it was assumed to be equal to that observed in the cytoplasm. This imbalance between superoxide and SOD activity is expected to cause mitochondrial oxidative damage. The chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly during reoxygenation and was enhanced by Sod2 deficiency but was not significantly affected by Sod1 deficiency. The superoxide concentration in the reoxygenated brain would be higher in the mitochondria than in the cytoplasm. The present study indicated that the major site of intracellular superoxide generation in the brain during oxygenation is the cytoplasm, whereas it is the mitochondria during reoxygenation.
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Young age as favorable prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival in localized renal cell carcinoma.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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To evaluate the prognostic effect of age in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and investigate the incidence of Xp11 translocation RCC in young patients who developed recurrence.
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[Successful long-term management of hepatic and lymph nodes metastases of ureteral cancer by multimodal treatment including radiofrequency ablation].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2010
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A 56-year-old man presented with asymptomatic gross hematuria. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed right hydronephrosis and a slightly enhanced invasive tumor in the right lower ureter, providing a diagnosis of ureteral cancer stage cT3NOM0. The patient underwent minimum incision endoscopic nephrouretectomy, and pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed urothelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with metastases to right obturator lymph nodes (pT3pN2). Ten months later, CT scan of the abdomen revealed two hepatic metastases. After three courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC), one tumor completely disappeared and another achieved a partial response. The patient underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the residual followed by GC chemotherapy. However, eighteen months later, CT scan of the abdomen revealed two metastatic foci in other hepatic lesion. The patient underwent RFA again followed by GC chemotherapy and then all hepatic metastases have not revealed enlargement. More than three years after surgery, the patient has achieved a high quality of life.
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Phase-II trial of combination treatment of interferon-?, cimetidine, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and renin-angiotensin-system inhibitor (I-CCA therapy) for advanced renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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We have recently reported favorable responses to a combination treatment comprising cimetidine, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and a renin-angiotensin-system inhibitor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In view of the potential synergistic effects of these three agents and interferon-? (I-CCA therapy), we conducted a phase-II trial to examine the efficacy and toxicity of I-CCA as first-line treatment. Fifty-one patients with advanced RCC received natural interferon-? (3-6 million U thrice/week) and cimetidine (800 mg), cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor meloxicam (10 mg), and renin-angiotensin-system inhibitor candesartan (4 mg) or perindopril (4 mg) orally daily. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic categories were favorable, intermediate and poor in 10 (20%), 31 (61%) and 10 (20%) patients, respectively. The primary end-point was the objective response rate (ORR) and the secondary end-points included clinical benefit, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. Median follow-up was 19 months. Complete response (CR) was observed in four patients (8%) and partial response in seven (14%), yielding an ORR of 22%. None of the four patients who achieved CR relapsed during the 16- to 81-month follow up. The ORR were 17% in the favorable- or intermediate-risk group and 40% in the poor-risk group. The other 24 patients (45%) had stable disease for at least 6 months, resulting in a clinical benefit rate of 67%. The median PFS and OS were 12 and 30 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities were never observed. The I-CCA therapy, providing favorable responses and low toxicity profiles, is worthy of further consideration as a first-line therapy for metastatic RCC.
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Model mice for tissue-specific deletion of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that converts toxic O(2)(-) to H(2)O(2). Previous studies have reported that a systemic deficiency in Mn-SOD causes neonatal lethality in mice. Therefore, no mouse model is available for the analysis of the pathological role of O(2)(-) injuries in adult tissues. To explore an adult-type mouse model, we generated tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice using a Cre-loxp system. First, we generated liver-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding with albumin-Cre transgenic mice. Mn-SOD proteins were significantly downregulated in the liver of liver-specific Mn-SOD knockout mice. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed no obvious morphological abnormalities or biochemical alterations in the liver, suggesting a redundant or less important physiological role for Mn-SOD in the liver than previously thought. Next, we generated heart/muscle-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice by crossbreeding muscle creatine kinase-Cre transgenic mice. The mutant mice developed progressive dilated cardiomyopathy with specific molecular defects in mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, brain-specific Mn-SOD-deficient mice that had been developed by crossbreeding with nestin-Cre transgenic mice developed a spongiform encephalopathy-like pathology associated with gliosis and died within 3 weeks of birth. These results imply that the superoxide generated in mitochondria plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of pathologies in the heart and brain, but not in the liver. In conclusion, we successfully generated various tissue-specific Mn-SOD conditional knockout mice that provide useful tools for the analysis of various oxidative stress-associated diseases.
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Influence of oxidative stress on D-aspartyl endopeptidase activity.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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It is strongly suggested that D-aspartic acid (D-Asp)-containing proteins are spontaneously generated by oxidative stress and would cause many aging-related misfolding diseases, such as cataracts, prion disease, and Alzheimers disease. We have identified a D-Asp-containing protein-specific protease, D-aspartyl endopeptidase (DAEP), from mammalian mitochondria, serving as a scavenger against the noxious D-Asp-containing protein. Recently, it has been shown that the activity of Lon, an ATP-dependent protease degrading oxidatively damaged proteins in mitochondria, decreases with aging by oxidative stress. However, an obvious relation between DAEP activity and oxidative stress with aging remains to be demonstrated. In the present study, we showed that there was a remarkable decrease in DAEP activity in superoxide dismutase-deficient mice, which formed excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our result suggests that a decrease in DAEP activity by oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of D-Asp-containing protein, leading to mitochondria-associated diseases.
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A novel repeat biopsy nomogram based on three-dimensional extended biopsy.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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To develop a nomogram based on a cohort examined with 3-dimensional (3D) protocol for diagnosis of prostate cancer on repeat biopsy.
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Feasibility of antegrade radical prostatectomy for clinically locally advanced prostate cancer: a comparative study with clinically localized disease.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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To investigate intraoperative and early postoperative complications of antegrade radical prostatectomy with intended wide resection (aRP) for clinically locally advanced prostate cancer (cLAD) and to compare with those of aRP for clinically localized prostate cancer (cLD).
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Oxidative stress in skeletal muscle causes severe disturbance of exercise activity without muscle atrophy.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels that occurs during intense exercise has been proposed to be one of the major causes of muscle fatigue. In addition, the accumulation of cellular damage due to ROS is widely regarded to be one of the factors triggering age-related pathological conditions in skeletal muscle. To investigate the pathological significance of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, we generated skeletal muscle-specific manganese superoxide dismutase-deficient (muscle-Sod2(-/-)) mice. The mutant mice showed severe disturbances in exercise activity, but no atrophic changes in their skeletal muscles. In histological and histochemical analyses, the mutant mice showed centralized nuclei in their muscle fibers and selective loss of enzymatic activity in mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. In addition, the mutant mice displayed increased oxidative damage and reduced ATP content in their muscle tissue. Furthermore, a single administration of the antioxidant EUK-8 significantly improved exercise activity and increased the cellular ATP level in skeletal muscle. These results imply that the superoxide anions generated in mitochondria play a pivotal role in the progression of exercise intolerance.
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Loss of DeltaNp63alpha promotes invasion of urothelial carcinomas via N-cadherin/Src homology and collagen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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p63 plays a critical role in normal development and maintenance of stratified epithelia, including the urothelium. In the normal urothelium, urothelial cells in the basal layers abundantly express the predominant p63 isoform DeltaNp63alpha. We previously showed that (a) DeltaNp63alpha expression at the similar level to the normal urothelium is retained in most low-grade papillary noninvasive (LPN) tumors, whereas frequently lost in high-grade invasive carcinomas, and that (b) loss of DeltaNp63alpha is associated with poor prognosis of invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma patients. However, a functional role of DeltaNp63alpha in progression of urothelial carcinomas remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that loss of DeltaNp63alpha expression promotes invasion of urothelial carcinoma cells. In 5637 cells substantially expressing only DeltaNp63alpha isoform at the protein level, knockdown of endogenous p63 upregulated N-cadherin, which recruited more Src homology and collagen to N-cadherin and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, and consequently potentiated cell motility, excretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9, and invasion. In T24 cells originally lacking endogenous DeltaNp63alpha expression, exogenous expression of DeltaNp63alpha attenuated invasion by downregulating N-cadherin expression and ERK activity, confirming an invasion-suppressive role of DeltaNp63alpha in urothelial carcinoma cells. We further documented loss of DeltaNp63 expression accompanied by N-cadherin upregulation during muscle-invasive recurrence in patients whose bladder cancer had progressed from LPN tumors to muscle-invasive disease. These results suggest that loss of DeltaNp63alpha and subsequent upregulation of N-cadherin is one of the mechanisms underlying progression of bladder cancer.
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Impact of C-reactive protein kinetics on survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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Pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) level has been shown to be prognostic for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
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Simple prophylactic procedure of inguinal hernia after radical retropubic prostatectomy: isolation of the spermatic cord.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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To reduce the incidence of inguinal hernia (IH) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), a simple prophylactic procedure was carried out during RRP. A consecutive 82 patients who had undergone RRP for clinically localized prostate cancer between July 2002 and October 2006 at Toride Kyodo General Hospital were enrolled. From July 2002 to November 2003, 20 patients underwent conventional RRP. Thereafter, 62 patients underwent conventional RRP with blunt dissection of the peritoneum at the internal inguinal ring and isolation of the spermatic cord from the peritoneum as a prophylactic procedure for IH. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics between the two groups. In the conventional RRP group, IH occurred in 10 patients during a median range follow-up period of 41 (1 to 73) months. In contrast, in the RRP plus prophylactic procedure group, IH occurred in one patient (1.6%) during a median range follow-up period of 41 (25 to 59) months. The incidence of IH after RRP plus the prophylactic procedure was significantly lower than that after conventional RRP, indicating the efficacy of the presented procedure.
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Safety of transperineal 14-core systematic prostate biopsy in diabetic men.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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To examine whether the transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 14-core prostate biopsy can be carried out safely in diabetic men and to determine adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis protocol in this setting.
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Antioxidant, EUK-8, prevents murine dilated cardiomyopathy.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Mice lacking manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity exhibit the typical pathology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, presymptomatic and symptomatic mutant mice were treated with the SOD/catalase mimetic, EUK-8.
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Gasless single-port access endoscopic surgery in urology: minimum incision endoscopic surgery, MIES.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Abstract Minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES) is a gasless, single-port access, cost-effective, and minimally invasive surgery that has been in development since the late 1990s. Use of MIES has steadily increased in Japan and Asia and has been introduced into Europe and the USA. In 2006, MIES was certified by the Japanese government as an advanced surgery and since 2008 it has been covered by the Japanese universal health insurance system as a new surgical technique. Briefly, MIES involves an initial minimum incision (a single port) that permits extraction of the target specimen. A wide working space through the port is then made by separating the anatomical plane extraperitoneally. This is maintained with special retractors instead of gas insufflation. All instruments including an endoscope are inserted through the port and the operation is completed. The size of the port can be tailored to the situation if necessary, which contributes to preclusion of patient selection. The procedure uses only two disposable devices that are inexpensive, resulting in low equipment costs. Surgeons have the benefits of magnified vision through endoscopy as well as stereovision and panoramic vision of naked eyes through the port, which reduces the technical demands of the procedure. Techniques for two basic MIES procedures allow MIES to be performed for most urological organs and in extraordinary cases by their modifications. Thus, the MIES system permits minimally invasive surgery without use of CO(2) gas, which is ideal from medical, environmental and economic perspectives, is cost-effective and minimizes patient selection.
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Simple and effective local anesthesia for transperineal extended prostate biopsy: application to three-dimensional 26-core biopsy.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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We developed a local anesthetic procedure for three-dimensional 26-core prostate biopsy (3D26PBx), a combination of transperineal 14-core biopsy (TP14PBx) and transrectal 12-core biopsy (TR12PBx). At first, a periapical triangle, confined by the levator ani, the rhabdosphincter and the external anal sphincter muscle, was made visible by transrectal ultrasound. After administration of 1 mL of 1%-lidocaine into the midline perineal skin 1.5 cm above the anus, we inserted a spinal needle toward the periapical triangle for injection of 1.5-2.0 mL of 1%-lidocaine and performed the TP14PBx. After administration of the periprostatic nerve block with 10 mL of 1%-lidocaine, we performed the TR12PBx. The efficacy of the procedure was evaluated prospectively in 45 consecutive men undergoing the 3D26PBx. The 3D26PBx was completed with just local anesthesia in all patients. The pain levels, assessed by an 11-point visual analog scale, were not different between the TP14PBx and the TR12PBx.
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Risk stratification of high-grade prostate cancer treated with antegrade radical prostatectomy with intended wide resection.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess the surgical outcome of high-grade prostate cancer (PCA) treated with antegrade radical prostatectomy with intended wide resection (aRP) and to establish the risk stratification.
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[Case of infective endocarditis diagnosed with renal infarction].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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A 46-year-old woman with sudden on set strong right flank pain was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right renal infarction. Cardiac ultrasonography revealed a vegetation on the posterior cusp of the mitral valve, and the renal infarction was thought to be caused by renal artery embolism from infective endocarditis. Since the vegetation remained after antimicrobial therapy as conservative management, the patient was surgically treated by mitral annuloplasty. It has been known that infective endocarditis can cause renal infarction. Infective endocarditis requires immediate and adequate treatment because of high mortality. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis of infective endocarditis is needed for patients with renal infarction without any other disorder causing renal infarction.
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Initial experience of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to assess therapeutic response to induction chemoradiotherapy against muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in predicting therapeutic response to low-dose chemoradiotherapy (LCRT) against muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Accurate assessment of response to induction therapy is an essential part of bladder-sparing therapeutic protocols against MIBC. However, conventional imaging studies are not useful in evaluating therapeutic response because of their inability to distinguish residual cancer from changes secondary to the treatment.
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Rolipram, a specific type-4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, inhibits cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis in rats.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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To investigate the protective roles of type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitor in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced haemorrhagic cystitis, as the PDE4 inhibitor has anti-inflammatory effects but its characterization is still unknown in urinary tract diseases.
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Skin atrophy in cytoplasmic SOD-deficient mice and its complete recovery using a vitamin C derivative.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Intrinsic skin ageing is characterized by atrophy and loss of elasticity. Although the skin hypertrophy induced by photoageing has been studied, the molecular mechanisms of skin atrophy during ageing remain unclear. Here, we report that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD)-deficient mice show atrophic morphology in their skin. This atrophy is accompanied by the degeneration of collagen and elastic fibers, and skin hydroxyproline is also significantly reduced in deficient mice. These imply that the dysfunction of collagen and elastin biosynthesis are involved in the progression of skin thinning. Furthermore, transdermal administration of a vitamin C derivative which can permeate through the membrane, completely reversed the skin thinning and deterioration of collagen and elastin in the mutant mice. These indicate that the vitamin C derivative is a powerful agent for alleviating skin ageing through regeneration of collagen and elastin. The CuZn-SOD-deficient mice might be applicable to evaluation of therapeutic medicines against skin ageing.
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Adult Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma diagnosed by cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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To determine the incidence of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in adult patients using cytogenetics and immunohistochemstry.
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[Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra treated by multimodal therapy].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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A 64-year old female presented with urinary retention. Physical examination revealed a firm mass on the anterior vaginal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor surrounding the urethra, which invaded to the vesical triangle and the anterior vaginal wall. Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated, but squamous cell carcinoma antigen and prostate specific antigen were within normal limits. Pathological examinations of the transurethral and transvaginal needle biopsy specimen suggested mucinous adenocarcinoma. First, the patient received local chemoradiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy using a fluoropyrimidine drug TS-1 and cisplatin. The tumor markers declined to within normal limits after this preoperative therapy. Then she underwent total cysto-urethrectomy with anterior vaginal wall resection, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and urinary diversion with ureterocutaneous fistula. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen showed mutinous adenocarcinoma invading to the vesical triangle and the anterior vaginal wall. No metastasis was found in the lymph nodes. The final diagnosis was urethral adenocarcinoma, pT4N0, Stage IV. Five months after surgery, local recurrence and distant metastases appeared, and she died 14 months after surgery.
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A novel technique to prevent postradical retropubic prostatectomy inguinal hernia: the processus vaginalis transection method.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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To present a novel technique to prevent inguinal hernias after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). The incidence of inguinal hernia after RRP has been reported to occur in the range 12%-21%. Indirect hernias are more common than direct hernias after RRP.
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Surgical practices for urological tumors: a nation-wide survey in Japan in 2005.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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To clarify how popularly the minimally invasive surgeries for urological tumors are currently conducted in Japan and to predict future trends.
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Favourable outcomes of patients with clinical stage T3N0M0 bladder cancer treated with induction low-dose chemo-radiotherapy plus partial or radical cystectomy vs immediate radical cystectomy: a single-institutional retrospective comparative study.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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To address the role of neoadjuvant concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer, by comparing retrospectively the oncological outcomes between a low-dose CRT (LCRT) plus partial cystectomy (PC) or radical cystectomy (RC) protocol and an immediate RC protocol.
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Development and external validation of a new outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein and TNM classification: the TNM-C score.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
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C-reactive protein has been shown to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma. We developed a new prediction model including C-reactive protein in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
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Discarding antimicrobial prophylaxis for transurethral resection of bladder tumor: a feasibility study.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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To evaluate the feasibility of discarding antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).
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Body mass index influences prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men.
Int. J. Urol.
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To determine the relationship between body mass index and prostate cancer risk at biopsy in Japanese men, and to compared the risk with that of Caucasian men.
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Combination of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and extended prostate biopsy predicts lobes without significant cancer: application in patient selection for hemiablative focal therapy.
Eur. Urol.
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Significant cancer in contralateral sides of the prostate that was missed on prostate biopsy (PBx) is a concern in hemiablative focal therapy (FT) of prostate cancer (PCa). However, extended PBx, a common diagnostic procedure, has a limited predictive ability for lobes without significant cancer.
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Receptive field characteristics of stretch-insensitive mechanosensitive units in the rat urinary bladder.
Auton Neurosci
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The pelvic, hypogastric and pudendal nerves carry sensory information from the urinary bladder. The pelvic nerve is reported to be the most important one of these afferent nerves in producing urinary bladder sensation. The primary types of mechanoreceptors in the bladder can be divided into stretch-sensitive and stretch-insensitive units. The former is considered to be more important in producing bladder sensation. However, little is known about the precise receptive field properties of the stretch-insensitive mechanoreceptors in the urinary bladder. Therefore, in this study, we systematically investigated the receptive field characteristics of the pelvic single unit innervating the rat bladder wall.
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A novel equation and nomogram including body weight for estimating prostate volumes in men with biopsy-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Asian J. Androl.
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Anthropometric measurements, e.g., body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), as well as serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and percent-free PSA (%fPSA) have been shown to have positive correlations with total prostate volume (TPV). We developed an equation and nomogram for estimating TPV, incorporating these predictors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 1852 men, including 1113 at Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) Hospital as a training set and 739 at Cancer Institute Hospital (CIH) as a validation set, with PSA levels of up to 20 ng ml(-1), who underwent extended prostate biopsy and were proved to have BPH, were enrolled in this study. We developed an equation for continuously coded TPV and a logistic regression-based nomogram for estimating a TPV greater than 40 ml. Predictive accuracy and performance characteristics were assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration plots. The final linear regression model indicated age, PSA, %fPSA and BW as independent predictors of continuously coded TPV. For predictions in the training set, the multiple correlation coefficient was increased from 0.38 for PSA alone to 0.60 in the final model. We developed a novel nomogram incorporating age, PSA, %fPSA and BW for estimating TPV greater than 40 ml. External validation confirmed its predictive accuracy, with AUC value of 0.764. Calibration plots showed good agreement between predicted probability and observed proportion. In conclusion, TPV can be easily estimated using these four independent predictors.
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Extended biopsy based criteria incorporating cumulative cancer length for predicting clinically insignificant prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? The criteria used for selecting patients with prostate cancer for active surveillance (AS) are still not satisfactory due to the difficulty in predicting the significance of the prostate cancer. Urologists could predict insignificant prostate cancer by incorporating cumulative cancer length and biopsy Gleason score, derived from extended biopsy. The present study has added new criteria for predicting insignificant prostate cancer, which would lead to a better selection of candidates for AS.
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Establishment and intra-/inter-laboratory validation of a standard protocol of reactive oxygen species assay for chemical photosafety evaluation.
J Appl Toxicol
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A reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay was previously developed for photosafety evaluation of pharmaceuticals, and the present multi-center study aimed to establish and validate a standard protocol for ROS assay. In three participating laboratories, two standards and 42 coded chemicals, including 23 phototoxins and 19 nonphototoxic drugs/chemicals, were assessed by the ROS assay according to the standardized protocol. Most phototoxins tended to generate singlet oxygen and/or superoxide under UV-vis exposure, but nonphototoxic chemicals were less photoreactive. In the ROS assay on quinine (200?µm), a typical phototoxic drug, the intra- and inter-day precisions (coefficient of variation; CV) were found to be 1.5-7.4% and 1.7-9.3%, respectively. The inter-laboratory CV for quinine averaged 15.4% for singlet oxygen and 17.0% for superoxide. The ROS assay on 42 coded chemicals (200?µm) provided no false negative predictions upon previously defined criteria as compared with the in vitro/in vivo phototoxicity, although several false positives appeared. Outcomes from the validation study were indicative of satisfactory transferability, intra- and inter-laboratory variability, and predictive capacity of the ROS assay. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Performance of prostate-specific antigen mass in estimation of prostate volume in Japanese men with benign prostate hyperplasia.
Int. J. Urol.
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Obese men with benign prostate hyperplasia might have lower serum prostate-specific antigen because of hemodilution, resulting in underestimation of total prostate volume by serum prostate-specific antigen. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of prostate-specific antigen mass as the absolute amount of prostate-specific antigen protein secreted into circulation with that of serum prostate-specific antigen in the prediction of total prostate volume.
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Effect of diabetes mellitus on high-grade prostate cancer detection among Japanese obese patients with prostate-specific antigen less than 10 ng/mL.
Urology
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To investigate the association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with prostate cancer (PCa) risk and grade among Japanese patients undergoing extended biopsy and to investigate how obesity modifies these relationships.
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Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in predicting sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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In chemoradiation (CRT)-based bladder-sparing approaches for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), patients who respond favorably to induction CRT enjoy the benefits of bladder preservation, whereas nonresponders do not. Thus, accurate prediction of CRT sensitivity would optimize patient selection for bladder-sparing protocols. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is a functional imaging technique that quantifies the diffusion of water molecules in a noninvasive manner. We investigated whether DW-MRI predicts CRT sensitivity of MIBC.
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Sensitivity to chemoradiation predicts development of metastasis in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients.
Urol. Oncol.
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In bladder-sparing approaches for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) involving transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and chemoradiation, survival outcomes are excellent for patients who achieve tumor-free state after TURBT and chemoradiation but poor for those with persistent disease. Since metastatic disease accounts for most bladder cancer deaths, we hypothesized that tumor sensitivity to chemoradiation may reflect metastatic potential in MIBC.
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Prostate-specific antigen response to deferred combined androgen blockade therapy using bicalutamide predicts survival after subsequent oestrogen and docetaxel therapies in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? The additional use of anti-androgen (deferred combined androgen blockade [CAB] therapy) for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with androgen deprivation monotherapy (ADMT) can provide a clinical response, although the reported response rates vary widely. Our previous study, which reported a response rate of 66% to deferred CAB therapy, suggested that deferred CAB responders would also respond better to subsequent therapies than non-responders because the difference in cancer-specific survival between the deferred CAB responders and the non-responders was much larger than the progression-free survival rates for the responders. The present study showed that PSA response to deferred CAB therapy predicts clinical outcomes after subsequent oestrogen and docetaxel therapy. We propose that PSA response to deferred CAB be used for planning individualized treatment that includes secondary hormonal therapy and chemotherapy.
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Pathology-based risk stratification of muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients undergoing cystectomy for persistent disease after induction chemoradiotherapy in bladder-sparing approaches.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? In bladder-sparing approach incorporating TURBT and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) to MIBC, patients who clinically achieve complete response to induction CRT enjoy favourable prognosis and quality of life with preserved functioning bladder, whereas those with persisting disease have poor prognosis despite salvage radical cystectomy. Risk factors for cancer death among the non-responders remain fully unknown. The current study showed that survival of the non-responders is clearly stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on pathology of cystectomy specimens; 5-yr CSS rates for low- (pTO-2pNO) and high-risk (pT3-4a or pN+) patients were 85% and 20%, respectively.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.