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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Analysis of differential expression patterns of mRNA and protein during cold- and de-acclimation in Arabidopsis.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Overwintering plants are capable of exhibiting high levels of cold tolerance, which is acquired through the process of cold acclimation (CA). In contrast to CA, the acquired freezing tolerance is rapidly reduced during cold de-acclimation (DA) and plants resume growth after sensing warm temperatures. In order to better understand plant growth and development, and to aid in the breeding of cold-tolerant plants, it is important to decipher the functional mechanisms of the DA process. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses during CA and DA. As revealed by shotgun proteomics, we identified 3,987 peptides originating from 1,569 unique proteins and the corresponding mRNAs were analyzed. Among the 1,569 genes, 658 genes were specifically induced at the transcriptional level during the process of cold acclimation. In order to investigate the relationship between mRNA and the corresponding protein expression pattern, a Pearson correlation was analyzed. Interestingly, 199 genes showed a positive correlation of mRNA and protein expression pattern, indicating that both their transcription and translation occurred during CA. However, 226 genes showed a negative correlation of mRNA and protein expression pattern, indicating that their mRNAs were transcribed during CA and were stored for the subsequent DA step. Under this scenario, those proteins were specifically increased during DA without additional transcription of mRNA. In order to confirm the negative correlation of mRNA and protein expression patterns, qRT-PCR and western blot analyses were performed. Mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase1 (mMDH1) exhibited a negative correlation of mRNA and protein levels, which was characterized by CA-specific mRNA induction and protein accumulation specifically during DA. These data indicate that the expression of specific mRNAs and subsequent accumulation of corresponding proteins are not always in accordance under low temperature stress conditions in plants.
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Myeloablative unrelated cord blood transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison with other graft sources from related and unrelated donors.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a distinct clinical entity among ALL and is associated with adverse outcomes and higher rates of relapse when conventional chemotherapy is used alone. Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with Ph+ALL, the impact of graft sources, particularly cord blood transplantation (CBT), on allo-HSCT for patients with Ph+ALL has yet to be clarified. We retrospectively compared clinical outcomes after unrelated CBT (n?=?20), unrelated bone marrow transplantation (n?=?7), and related bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantations (n?=?13) following myeloablative conditioning in 40 patients with Ph+ALL. Although graft source had no significant impact on survival or relapse, disease status at transplantation did significantly affect outcomes. These data suggest that unrelated CBT is feasible and should be considered early in the course of patients with Ph+ALL when HLA-compatible related and unrelated donors are not available.
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Urethral polyp-like lesions on prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection: A case report.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Urethral polyp is one of differential diagnoses for the male patients complain of gross-hematuria and/or hematospermia. However, there have been limited numbers of case reports including infectious etiology. Here we reported clinical course and pathological findings of one rare case who was diagnosed and treated as urethral polyp-like lesions on the prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A 25 year-old man who had a past history of frequent sexual intercourse with unspecified female sexual partner visited the clinic. His chief complaint was gross-hematuria and hematospermia. Endoscopic findings showed that non-specific hemorrhagic polyp-like lesions. To determine the pathological findings including malignant diseases and diagnosis, transurethral resection was performed. Because the pathological findings were similar to those of chlamydial proctitis, additional examination was done. As the results, nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen was positive and immunohistochemical staining of specific chlamydia antigen in resected specimen was also positive. Treatment by orally minocyline 100 mg twice daily for 4 weeks was introduced. After the treatment, symptom was disappeared and nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen turned to be negative. No recurrence was reported 2 years posttreatment.
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Expression of a novel stress-inducible protein, sestrin 2, in rat glomerular parietal epithelial cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Sestrin 2, initially identified as a p53 target protein, accumulates in cells exposed to stress and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In normal rat kidneys, sestrin 2 was selectively expressed in parietal epithelial cells (PECs), identified by the marker protein gene product 9.5. In adriamycin nephropathy, sestrin 2 expression decreased in PECs on day 14, together with increased expression of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (P-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR. Sestrin 2 expression was markedly decreased on day 42, coinciding with glomerulosclerosis and severe periglomerular fibrosis. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy, decreased sestrin 2 expression, increased P-S6RP expression, and periglomerular fibrosis were observed on day 9, when massive proteinuria developed. These changes were transient and nearly normalized by day 28. In crescentic glomerulonephritis, sestrin 2 expression was not detected in cellular crescents, whereas P-S6RP increased. In conditionally immortalized cultured PECs, the forced downregulation of sestrin 2 by short hairpin RNA resulted in increased expression of P-S6RP and increased apoptosis. These data suggest that sestrin 2 is involved in PEC homeostasis by regulating the activity of mTOR. In addition, sestrin 2 could be a novel marker of PECs, and decreased expression of sestrin 2 might be a marker of PEC injury.
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Functional analysis of a novel glioma antigen, EFTUD1.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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A cDNA library made from 2 glioma cell lines, U87MG and T98G, was screened by serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression (SEREX) using serum from a glioblastoma patient. Elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing protein 1 (EFTUD1), which is required for ribosome biogenesis, was identified. A cancer microarray database showed overexpression of EFTUD1 in gliomas, suggesting that EFTUD1 is a candidate molecular target for gliomas.
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Structure-activity relationships of the thujaplicins for inhibition of human tyrosinase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Tyrosinase inhibitors have become increasingly critical agents in cosmetic, agricultural, and medicinal products. Although a large number of tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported, almost all the inhibitors were unfortunately evaluated by using commercial available mushroom tyrosinase. Here, we examined the inhibitory effects of three isomers of thujaplicin (?, ?, and ?) on human tyrosinase and analyzed their binding modes using homology model and docking studies. As the results, ?-thujaplicin was found to strongly inhibit human tyrosinase with the IC50 of 1.15?M, extremely superior to a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor kojic acid (IC50=571.17?M). MM-GB/SA binding free energy decomposition analyses suggested that the potent inhibitory activity of ?-thujaplicin may be due to the interactions with His367, Ile368, and Val377 (hot spot amino acid residues) in human tyrosinase. Furthermore, the binding mode of ?-thujaplicin indicated that Val377 and Ser380 may cause van der Waals clashes with the isopropyl group of ?-thujaplicin. These results provide a novel structural insight into the hot spot of human tyrosinase for the specific binding of ?-thujaplicin and a way to optimize not only thujaplicins but also other lead compounds as specific inhibitors for human tyrosinase in a rational manner.
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Comparison of laparoscopic, hand-assisted, and open surgical nephroureterectomy.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, and open nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.
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Do patients who complain of lower urinary tract symptoms frequently have clinically significant pyuria?
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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There is still controversy about whether post-void residual (PVR) urine volume affects the onset of urinary tract infection (UTI). In addition, although male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) might potentially have PVR, the association between LUTS and UTI or asymptomatic pyuria with or without bacteriuria remains unclear. We studied the frequency of asymptomatic pyuria, with and without bacteriuria, in patients with LUTS without a previous history of urinary tract manipulation at the first visit and their sequential courses. This retrospective study was done by reviewing medical charts. A total of 453 male patients who complained of LUTS and visited our outpatient clinic in 2008 were included in this study. The frequency of pyuria, with or without bacteriuria, in this study at the first visit was 4.9%. The median PVR volumes at the initial examination were 79 ml in the 22 patients with pyuria and 22 ml in the 431 patients without pyuria. The difference of the PVR volume between the patients with pyuria and those without pyuria was statistically significant (p = 0.0095). Twelve patients were treated with alpha-blockers without antimicrobial chemotherapy and pyuria disappeared in 5 (41.7%) of them. However, the decrease in the rate of PVR was not significantly different between the patients with persisting pyuria and those without pyuria. A not negligible number of patients with LUTS had pyuria at the first visit; however, there was no febrile UTI in their clinical course even if they received no urological manipulation.
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[The Japanese version of the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) is the standard questionnaire that determines the degree of symptoms and efficacy of treatment in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Because there was no officially approved Japanese version of the NIH-CPSI, the Japanese Urological Association (JUA) formed a committee to develop one chaired by Dr. Masayuki Takeda, who also chairs the special field of voiding function and neurourology in the JUA. Consequently, the committee produced a Japanese version, referring to previous proposals and the Japanese version of the International Prostate Symptom Score. The committee strongly expects that the Japanese version of the NIH-CPSI will be taken full advantage of in future clinical research.
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Nationwide survey of urogenital tuberculosis in Japan.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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To determine current epidemiology and treatment patterns of urogenital tuberculosis in Japan.
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Obstructive pyelonephritis as a result of urolithiasis in Japan: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To study the current scenario of diagnosis, treatment and mortality of obstructive pyelonephritis secondary to urolithiasis in Japan.
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Spinal hyperostosis as an important sign indicating spine injuries on postmortem computed tomography.
Leg Med (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Although spine injuries are not always detectable on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT), spinal hyperostosis, an important risk factor for spine injury, is relatively easily detectable on PMCT. We therefore examined the utility of the detection of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT as an indicator of spine injury. Full-body PMCT images of 88 autopsy cases with a bruise on the face or forehead but no identifiable skull fracture were reviewed prior to autopsy for the identification and classification of spinal hyperostosis. Spine injuries were observed in 56.0% of cases with spinal hyperostosis and 1.6% of cases without spinal hyperostosis. Among the cases with spinal hyperostosis, spine injuries were observed in 66.7% of cases at stage 2 or 3 and in 88.9% of cases at stage 3. Spine injuries were diagnosed on PMCT in 33.3% of cases prior to autopsy. A significant association was found between spinal hyperostosis and presence of spine injury that cannot be detected on PMCT, indicating that the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in detecting spine injuries. This finding suggests that investigation of the presence of spine injury based on the identification of spinal hyperostosis on PMCT may assist in determining the correct cause of death by autopsy.
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Occurrence of infection following prostate biopsy procedures in Japan: Japanese Research Group for Urinary Tract Infection (JRGU) - a multi-center retrospective study.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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We retrospectively investigated the incidence of genitourinary tract infection in 5895 patients who underwent transrectal and/or transperineal prostate biopsy procedure between January and December 2011 at 46 institutions belonging to Japanese Research Group for Urinary Tract Infection (JRGU). The total rate of genitourinary tract infection after prostate biopsy was 0.76%, while that following transrectal procedure was 0.83% and following transperineal procedure was 0.57%, which were not significantly different. In contrast, febrile infection associated with a fever (?38 °C) occurred significantly more frequently after transrectal (0.71%) than transperineal (0.16%) approach (P = 0.04). Notably, in infectious cases, Escherichia coli was most frequently isolated. Of the 9 E. coli strains isolated by urine culture, 6 (66.7%) produced extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and 7 (77.8%) showed levofloxacin resistance. Similarly, of 6 E. coli strains isolated by blood culture, 4 (66.7%) produced ESBL and 6 (100%) showed levofloxacin resistance. When the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) with levofloxacin for the patients undergoing transrectal or transperineal biopsy was compared between a single dose (500 mg) and that given for 2 or more days, no significant difference was observed for the rate of infection (transrectal: 0.82% vs. 1.04%, p = 0.94; transperineal: 0.30% vs. 0.46%, p = 0.68). Although a single dose of levofloxacin for AMP is sufficient to prevent genitourinary infection after transrectal or transperineal prostate biopsy, and recommended in this era of increased multi-drug resistant pathogens, the increase in fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli and ESBL-producing E. coli has emerged as a profound problem for surveillance.
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Pretransplant administration of imatinib for allo-HSCT in patients with BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the impact of pretransplant imatinib administration on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We retrospectively analyzed 738 patients with Ph(+) ALL that underwent allo-HSCT between 1990 and 2010 using data from the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program of the Japan Society of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. We compared the allo-HSCT outcomes between 542 patients who received imatinib before allo-HSCT during the initial complete remission period (imatinib cohort) and 196 patients who did not receive imatinib (non-imatinib cohort). The 5-year overall survival after allo-HSCT was significantly higher in the imatinib cohort than in the non-imatinib cohort (59% vs 38%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31-45%; P < .001). Multivariate analysis indicated that pretransplant imatinib administration had beneficial effects on overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42-0.77; P < .001), relapse (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99; P = .048), and nonrelapse mortality (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37-0.83; P = .005). In conclusion, our study showed that imatinib administration before allo-HSCT had advantageous effects on the clinical outcomes of allo-HSCT in patients with Ph(+) ALL.
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Does the hematopoietic cell transplantation specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) predict transplantation outcomes? A prospective multicenter validation study of the Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Recent advances in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have led to increasing use of this modality in older patients who tend to have been more heavily pretreated and have more comorbidities. Thus, the evaluation of comorbidity is of increasing importance to more precisely assess the benefits and risks of the transplantation procedure. Researchers from Seattle developed the hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI), which was associated with the risk of mortality in several retrospective studies. However, its clinical utility has not been extensively documented in prospective studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the HCT-CI prospectively in a multicenter setting. Overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 2 years were 59% and 20%, respectively (n = 243). We found that the HCT-CI in its original scale failed to predict OS and NRM in this set of patients. Thus, we applied a flexible HCT-CI risk scoring system (restratifying scores from 0 to 3 to indicate low risk, and scores of 4 or higher as high-risk). The flexible HCT-CI was found to predict 2-year NRM and OS better than the original HCT-CI (NRM: P = .01, OS: P = .003). In subgroup analysis, we evaluated the usefulness of the original HCT-CI for patients excluding those who received cord blood transplantation (n = 186). Both 2-year OS and 2-year NRM were not significantly different according to the original HCT-CI (P = .304, P = .996), but with the flexible HCT-CI, there were significant differences in 2-year OS and 2-year NRM (P = .005 and P = .005, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified age >50, performance status (PS) <90, donor type (HLA-mismatched/unrelated donor), and the flexible HCT-CI ?4 as significant predictors for worse OS at 2 years. However, the flexible HCT-CI did not remain a significant predictor for NRM at 2 years in multivariate analysis, whereas age, PS, and donor type did. The HCT-CI did not consistently predict both NRM and OS, but it still can be a useful tool in combination with other factors, such as PS and age. Furthermore, the HCT-CI, although potentially useful for capturing pretransplantation comorbidity and risk assessment, may need further validation before its adoption for routine clinical use.
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Comparable long-term outcome of unrelated cord blood transplantation with related bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients aged 45 years or older with hematologic malignancies after myeloablative conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We investigated whether bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from older sibling donors or cord blood from unrelated donors provided a better outcome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relatively older patients who were candidates for myeloablative conditioning. Clinical outcomes of 97 patients aged 45 years or older with hematologic malignancies who received unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) (n = 66) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from related donors (n = 31) were compared. The cumulative incidences of grades III to IV acute and extensive chronic graft-versus-host diseases were similar between both groups. Although transplant-related mortality was significantly lower after CBT compared with BMT/PBSCT from related donors (hazard ratio [HR], .29, P = .04), overall mortality (HR, .72, P = .47) and relapse (HR, 2.02, P = .23) were not significantly different after CBT and BMT/PBSCT from related donors. These data suggest that CBT could be as safe and effective as BMT/PBSCT from older related donors for relatively older patients when it is used as a primary unrelated stem cell source.
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Treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis with faropenem for 3 days versus 7 days: multicentre, randomized, open-label, controlled trial.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria such as fluoroquinolone-resistant or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing strains in pathogens causing acute uncomplicated cystitis has been of concern in Japan. Faropenem sodium is a penem antimicrobial that demonstrates a wide antimicrobial spectrum against both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is stable against a number of ?-lactamases.
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Impact of vancomycin or linezolid therapy on development of renal dysfunction and thrombocytopenia in Japanese patients.
Chemotherapy
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Vancomycin and linezolid therapies are associated with renal dysfunction and thrombocytopenia, respectively.
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Surgical site infection of scrotal and inguinal lesions after urologic surgery.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To clarify the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after urological scrotal and inguinal surgical procedures and the preventive effect of antimicrobial prophylaxis for SSI, retrospective analysis was performed. The patients who underwent scrotal and inguinal operations from 2001 to 2010 were included in this analysis. A first or second generation cephalosporin was administered as antimicrobial prophylaxis just before the start of surgery and no additional prophylaxis was conducted. The surgery was classified into 76 (38%) cases with testicular sperm extraction (TESE), 72 (36%) with radical orchiectomy, 29 (14.5%) with bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) and 23 (11.5%) with other scrotal and inguinal operations. The median age and age range were 36 years and 18-81 years, respectively. SSI occurred in 7 (3.5%) cases. The frequencies of SSI were 6.5% in the patients with urological inguinal surgery and 1.6% in those with scrotal surgery. The frequency of SSI in the patients with urological inguinal surgery was not negligible even though it is considered a clean operation, and further analysis is warranted to prevent SSI.
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Usefulness of Preoperative Surgical Simulation with Three-Dimensional Fusion Images for Resection of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations Near Broca's Area.
Case Rep Neurol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Treating subcortical brain lesions in or near eloquent areas is challenging not only because lesions must be resected while preserving brain tissue involved in essential functions, but also because lesions often cannot be easily identified from the surface of the brain. Here, we report 2 cases of cerebral cavernous malformations near Broca's area. In both cases, lesions were surgically removed by utilizing three-dimensional fusion images created using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography data. Excisions were completed without any worsening of speech function, and the use of presurgical simulations was found to be useful in the design and execution of the actual operations. The technique described in this report serves as a useful tool in simulating surgical strategies by using brain gyri and sulci as surgical landmarks. Furthermore, in contrast to other intraoperative techniques, this method can aid in shortening the duration of surgery and can help limit damage to eloquent areas of the brain.
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Induction of AhR-mediated gene transcription by coffee.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells.
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Single-unit cord blood transplantation following G-CSF-combined myeloablative conditioning for myeloid malignancies not in remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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High disease burden in myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Quiescent leukemia stem cells could be induced to enter cell cycle by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration and become more susceptible to chemotherapy. We report on the outcome of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) using a conditioning regimen of 12 Gy total body irradiation, G-CSF-combined high-dose cytarabine, and cyclophosphamide in 61 adult patients with AML or advanced MDS not in remission. With a median follow-up of 97 months, the probability of overall survival and cumulative incidence of relapse at 7 years were 61.4% and 30.5%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, poor-risk cytogenetics and high lactate dehydrogenase values at CBT were independently associated with inferior survival. These data demonstrate that CBT after G-CSF-combined myeloablative conditioning is a promising curative option for patients with myeloid malignancies not in remission.
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[Bilateral urolithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time in a 10-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug mainly used in patients with refractory epilepsy. One of the urological adverse effects caused by zonisamide is urinary lithiasis. We reported bilateral urinary lithiasis with zonisamide developed for a short period of time. A 10 year-old girl had been treated with zonisamide for intractable epilepsy for nine years. She progressively developed microscopic hematuria as well as crystalluria while being hospitalized for ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection. A computed tomography (CT) showed bilaterally hydronephrotic kidneys obstructed by multiple ureteral calculi. What was impressive was the fact that any single urinary calculus was not identified in a CT image taken just three weeks prior to this event. Then the diagnosis was made of zonisamide-induced bilateral urinary calculi and zonisamide treatment was discontinued. However, since the deterioration of renal function and left-sided hydronephrosis progressed, we performed the construction of right-sided percutaneous nephrostomy (PNS) and the transurethral placement of a left ureteral stent. Subsequently her condition was stabilized and all of these stones were discharged. The analysis of these stones showed mainly calcium phosphatic calculus. We eventually removed both the right PNS and the left ureteral stent. Since then, there has not been any recurrence thus far. We need to recognize the risk of progressively developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment for a relatively short period of time in the face of dehydration.
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The effect of ABO blood group incompatibility on the outcome of single-unit cord blood transplantation following myeloablative conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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ABO blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient has been associated with transplant outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, its effect on the outcome of cord blood transplantation (CBT) has yet to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed 191 adult patients who received single-unit CBT after myeloablative conditioning for malignant disease in our institute. Major mismatch showed a significantly lower incidence of platelet engraftment compared with ABO match as a reference (hazard ratio 0.57, P=0.01). Nevertheless, there was no increase in graft-versus-host disease, transplant-related mortality, and overall mortality following ABO-incompatible CBT. These data suggested that donor-recipient ABO incompatibility does not have a significant impact on outcome after myeloablative CBT for hematological malignancies.
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Efficacy and safety of multi-target therapy using a combination of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and a steroid in patients with active lupus nephritis.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Objectives. To examine the efficacy and safety of multi-target therapy using tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and a steroid as initial treatment for active lupus nephritis (LN). Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the data of 16 consecutive patients who received the multi-target therapy for active Classes III-V LN at our department. We also compared the outcomes of the multi-target therapy with those of TAC therapy (TAC + steroid), a study of which we had conducted previously in 13 patients with active LN (TAC group). Results. All the patients treated with multi-target therapy achieved complete remission (CR) (mean, 4.6 ± 3.8 months; range, 1-15 months). The clinical profiles of the patients of the multi-target group were similar to those of the TAC group at baseline, except for a significantly higher level of proteinuria (4.6 ± 2.8 vs. 2.5 ± 2.1 g/gCr, p = 0.033) in the former. The CR rate at 6 months was significantly higher in the multi-target group as compared with that in the TAC group (81% vs. 38%, p = 0.018). Two cases of serious adverse events were associated with cytomegalovirus infection in the multi-target group, namely gastric ulcer and pancytopenia, both of which were successfully treated by antiviral therapy. Conclusions. Multi-target therapy was effective as initial treatment for active LN, with CR achieved early and in a high percentage of patients. Although this therapy was generally well tolerated, it is important to bear in mind the associated risk of cytomegalovirus infection.
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Growth differentiation factor-5 promotes brown adipogenesis in systemic energy expenditure.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Although growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) has been implicated in skeletal development and joint morphogenesis in mammals, little is known about its functionality in adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. Here, we show a critical role of GDF5 in regulating brown adipogenesis for systemic energy expenditure in mice. GDF5 expression was preferentially upregulated in brown adipose tissues from inborn and acquired obesity mice. Transgenic overexpression of GDF5 in adipose tissues led to a lean phenotype and reduced susceptibility to diet-induced obesity through increased systemic energy expenditure. Overexpression of GDF5 facilitated the development of brown fat-like cells, called brite or beige cells, along with the expression of uncoupling protein-1 in inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue. In mutant mice harboring the dominant-negative GDF5, marked impairment in energy expenditure and thermogenesis was seen under obesogenic conditions. Recombinant GDF5 promoted brown adipogenesis through the mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (Smad) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) pathways after activation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR). These results suggest that brown adipogenesis and energy homeostasis are both positively regulated by the GDF5/BMPR/Smad/PGC-1? signaling pathway in adipose tissues. Modulation of these pathways might be an effective therapeutic strategy for obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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[A case of IgG4-related kidney disease mimicking a renal cell carcinoma].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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A 56-year-old man who had a 28mm renal mass on computed tomography (CT) pointed out at another hospital visited our department. The tumor was buried and located in the renal hilus, which was slightly enhanced in the early phase and washed out in the delayed phase. We diagnosed it as papillary renal cell carcinoma and conducted partial nephrectomy. The tumor was ocher and a solid nodule without capsule formation. Although there was no malignancy in histopathological examination, plasma cell infiltration was found and the IgG4/IgG-positive cell ratio was over 40%. Additionally, the serum IgG4 level was elevated postoperatively and the patient was diagnosed as having IgG4-related kidney disease. IgG4-related kidney disease is often found as multiple low-density lesions in CT. Because of the solitary nodule-like formation, it was difficult to distinguish from hypovascular renal cell carcinoma such as the papillary type. When a buried and solitary hypovascular tumor is detected, we must consider IgG4-related kidney disease as a differential diagnosis. Measuring the serum immunoglobulin and complement levels may be helpful for avoiding unnecessary surgery.
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Clinicopathological analysis of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: prognostic value and clinical reliability of the 2004 WHO classification system.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic value and clinical reliability of the 2004 World Health Organization classification system of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
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Molecular and clinical risk factors for recurrence of skull base chordomas: gain on chromosome 2p, expression of brachyury, and lack of irradiation negatively correlate with patient prognosis.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Chordomas are invasive tumors that develop from notochordal remnants and frequently occur in the skull base. The T gene and its product (brachyury) have recently been suggested to play an important role in chordoma progression. To date, few studies have investigated the relationship between the molecular/genetic characteristics of chordoma and patient prognosis. We analyzed 37 skull base chordomas for chromosomal copy number aberrations using comparative genomic hybridization, brachyury expression by immunohistochemistry, and T gene copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results of these molecular analyses and clinical parameters were compared with the patients clinical courses. Univariate analyses using the log-rank test demonstrated that losses on chromosome 1p and gains on 1q and 2p were negatively correlated with progression-free survival, as were factors such as female sex, partial tumor removal, lack of postoperative irradiation, and high MIB-1 index. Expression of brachyury and copy number gain of the T gene were also significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis using the Cox hazards model showed that lack of irradiation, gain on chromosome 2p, and expression of brachyury were independently associated with a poor prognosis. Our results suggest that brachyury-negative chordomas arebiologically distinct from brachyury-positive chordomas and that T/brachyury might be an appropriate molecular therapeutic target for chordoma.
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Measuring and evaluating morphological asymmetry in fish: distinct lateral dimorphism in the jaws of scale-eating cichlids.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The left-right asymmetry of scale-eating Tanganyikan cichlids is described as a unilateral topographical shift of the quadratomandibular joints. This morphological laterality has a genetic basis and has therefore been used as a model for studying negative frequency-dependent selection and the resulting oscillation in frequencies of two genotypes, lefty and righty, in a population. This study aims were to confirm this laterality in Perissodus microlepis Boulenger and P. straeleni (Poll) and evaluate an appropriate method for measuring and testing the asymmetry. Left-right differences in the height of the mandible posterior ends (HMPE) and the angle between the neurocranium and vertebrae of P. microlepis and P. straeleni were measured on skeletal specimens. Snout-bending angle was also measured using a dorsal image of the same individuals following a previous method. To define which distribution model, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), directional asymmetry (DA), or antisymmetry (AS), best fit to the lateral asymmetry of the traits, we provided an R package, IASD. As a result, HMPE and neurocranium-vertebrae angle of both species were best fitted to AS, suggesting that P. microlepis and P. straeleni showed a distinct dimorphism in these traits, although snout-bending angle of P. microlepis was best fitted to FA. Measurement error was low for HMPE comparing the snout-bending angle in P. microlepis, indicating that measuring HMPE is a more accurate method. The scale-eating tribe Perissodini showed distinct antisymmetry in the jaw skeleton and neurocranium-vertebrae angle, and this laterality remains a valid marker for further evolutionary studies.
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Serum amyloid A3 binds MD-2 to activate p38 and NF-?B pathways in a MyD88-dependent manner.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Serum amyloid A (SAA) 3 is a major component of the acute phase of inflammation. We previously reported that SAA3 served as an endogenous peptide ligand for TLR4 to facilitate lung metastasis. Because these experiments were performed with SAA3 recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli or mammalian cells, we could not rule out the possibility of LPS contamination. In this study, we used SAA3 synthetic peptides to eliminate the presence of LPS in SAA3. We found that the SAA3 synthetic peptide (aa 20-86) (20-86) stimulated cell migration and activated p38 in a manner dependent on TLR4, MD-2, and MyD88. SAA3 (20-86) also activated NF-?B and Rho small GTPase. Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, the binding constant KD values between SAA3 (20-86) or SAA3 (43-57) and TLR4/MD-2 protein highly purified by the baculovirus system were 2.2 and 30 ?M, respectively. FLAG-tagged SAA3 tightly bound to protein A-tagged MD-2, but not to TLR4 in baculovirus coinfection experiments. Although SAA3 (20-86) caused a low, but appreciable level of endocytosis in TLR4, it induced the upregulation of both IL-6 and TNF-?, but not IFN-?1. An i.v. injection of SAA3 (43-57) induced the lung recruitment of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells at an estimated serum concentration around its KD value toward TLR4/MD-2. Taken together, these results suggest that SAA3 directly binds MD-2 and activates the MyD88-dependent TLR4/MD-2 pathway.
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SIRP? signaling regulates podocyte structure and function.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Signal-regulatory protein-? (SIRP?) is a transmembrane protein that contains tyrosine phosphorylation sites in its cytoplasmic region; two tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2, bind to these sites in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and transduce multiple intracellular signals. Recently, SIRP? was identified as one of the major tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in the glomeruli and found to be expressed in podocytes. In the present study, we examined the role of SIRP? expression in podocytes using knockin mice (C57BL/6 background) expressing mutant SIRP? that lacks a cytoplasmic region (SIRP?-mutant mice). Light microscopic examination revealed no apparent morphological abnormalities in the kidneys of the SIRP?-mutant mice. On the other hand, electron microscopic examination revealed abnormal podocytes with irregular major processes and wider and flattened foot processes in the SIRP?-mutant mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. Significantly impaired renal functions and slight albuminuria were demonstrated in the SIRP?-mutant mice. In addition, adriamycin injection induced massive albuminuria together with focal glomerulosclerosis in the SIRP?-mutant mice, while their wild-type counterparts were resistant to adriamycin-induced nephropathy. These data demonstrate that SIRP? is involved in the regulation of podocyte structure and function as a filtration barrier under both physiological and pathological conditions.
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[A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with no evidence of disease for a long term after a favorable response to molecular-targeted therapy followed by metastasectomy].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with cytoreductive nephrectomy, cytokine therapy, and molecular targeted therapy followed by metastasectomy. A 47-year-old man was diagnosed as having bilateral RCC with metastases to the lung, liver, left adrenal gland, and lymph nodes in the mediastinum. He initially received right radical nephrectomy, left partial nephrectomy, and left adrenalectomy. The pathological diagnosis was clear cell RCC, which was found in all excised specimens. After the initial surgery, cytokine therapy was started but it did not generate a response in the evaluation at 3 months. He then received sorafenib for 2.5 years and the treatment produced a 75% response rate with only one metastasis remaining. The following sequential therapy with everolimus and sunitinib did not reduce the size of the lung metastasis. For a long time, the metastasis was limited only to the lung and its size did not become larger and there were no new lesions in any organs. Then, lung metastasectomy was performed. From the time of surgery in January 2010 until November 2012, he has had no recurrence of the disease. In some selected cases, sequential therapy with targeted agents followed by metastatectomy may result in a favorable clinical outcome for patients with metastatic RCC.
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[Prospective multi-institutional analysis according to the "Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urological field"].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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The "Japanese guidelines for prevention of perioperative infections in urological field" was edited by the Japanese Urological Association in 2007. They are the first Japanese guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis specifically to prevent perioperative infections in the urological field. We report here the results of a multicenter prospective study conducted to examine the validity and usefulness of these guidelines.
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Neurenteric cysts found on the outer membrane of a subdural haematoma.
Case Rep Neurol Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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We report on a patient initially diagnosed with a chronic subdural haematoma that was resistant to treatment. After the second burr hole craniostomy within a half month failed to resolve the subdural haematoma (SDH), we performed a craniotomy to identify the point of bleeding. Macroscopic evaluation showed that most of the outer membrane of the SDH was transparent; however, further examination revealed the presence of multiple white regions. Pathologic examination showed that the white regions were fluid filled and surrounded by columnar ciliated epithelial cells. These lesions were pathologically diagnosed as neurenteric cysts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a patient with neurenteric cysts found on the outer membrane of a CSDH. We agree that a craniotomy is a treatment of last resort for recurrent CSDHs; however, sometimes this procedure can be very useful for identifying underlying causes of obstinate SDHs as well as for their treatment.
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Pneumothorax in an early phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Hematol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Pneumothorax is very rare after early phase of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and usually accompanied with pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), such as bronchiolitis obliterans and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. The present study describes the case of a seventeen-year-old male diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Pneumothorax occurred at day 43 after BMT. Pneumothorax occurred in early phase of HSCT is extremely rare. The early onset of acute GVHD and the entity of cytomegalovirus might worsen the pulmonary tissue damages for the onset of pneumothorax, indicating that we should be aware of the possibility to occur pneumothorax even in the early period after allogeneic HSCT.
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Microsecond dynamics of an unfolded protein by a line confocal tracking of single molecule fluorescence.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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We present a new method for high speed tracking of fluorescence time series from single proteins. The method uses a fast sample flow and a modified confocal microscopy, line confocal microscopy, and achieves the time resolution of less than 20??s. The obtained time series from the B domain of protein A labeled with donor and acceptor fluorophores suggest conformational heterogeneity and dynamic fluctuations in the unfolded state.
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PosMed: Ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has long been used for in silico positional cloning studies to infer candidate disease-responsible genes existing within chromosomal intervals. PosMed is redesigned as a workbench to discover possible functional interpretations for numerous genetic variants found from exome sequencing of human disease samples. We also show that the association search engine enhances the value of mouse bioresources because most knockout mouse resources have no phenotypic annotation, but can be associated inferentially to phenotypes via genes and biomedical documents. For this purpose, we established text-mining rules to the biomedical documents by careful human curation work, and created a huge amount of correct linking between genes and documents. PosMed associates any phenotypic keyword to mouse resources with 20 public databases and four original data sets as of May 2013.
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Tolosa-hunt syndrome associated with cytomegalovirus infection.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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We herein present the case of a 38-year-old woman with left-sided oculomotor paralysis with ocular pain that developed after a respiratory infection. Her serum was positive for IgM against GM2 and GalNAc-GD1a gangliosides and cytomegalovirus. Thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced abnormal tissue located primarily in the superolateral part of the left-sided cavernous sinus, which corticosteroids subsequently obscured with immediate resolution of the patients ocular symptoms. These clinical features were consistent with those of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS). Our findings in the present patient suggest that cytomegalovirus may provoke granuloma formation in the cavernous sinus, as reported in other various organs, thereby leading to the development of THS.
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Nephrotic syndrome caused by immune-mediated acquired LCAT deficiency.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an enzyme involved in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. In familial LCAT deficiency (FLD), abnormal lipid deposition causes renal injury and nephrotic syndrome, frequently progressing to ESRD. Here, we describe a 63-year-old Japanese woman with no family history of renal disease who presented with nephrotic syndrome. The laboratory data revealed an extremely low level of serum HDL and undetectable serum LCAT activity. Renal biopsy showed glomerular lipid deposition with prominent accumulation of foam cells, similar to the histologic findings of FLD. In addition, she had subepithelial electron-dense deposits compatible with membranous nephropathy, which are not typical of FLD. A mixing test and coimmunoprecipitation study demonstrated the presence of an inhibitory anti-LCAT antibody in the patients serum. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence detected LCAT along parts of the glomerular capillary walls, suggesting that LCAT was an antigen responsible for the membranous nephropathy. Treatment with steroids resulted in complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome, normalization of serum LCAT activity and HDL level, and disappearance of foam cell accumulation in renal tissue. In summary, inhibitory anti-LCAT antibody can lead to glomerular lesions similar to those observed in FLD.
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Clinical efficacy of sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To clarify the clinical efficacy of STFX for patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), including chlamydial urethritis and Mycoplasma genitalium-positive urethritis, this study included male patients with NGU who were 20 years old or older. The pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum, were detected by nucleic acid amplification tests and the patients were treated with sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were assessed for the patients with NGU posttreatment. Among the 208 patients enrolled in this study, data for a total of 118 patients could be analyzed. The median age was 32 (20-61) years. The median duration from the completion of treatment to the second visit was 21 (14-42) days. There were 68 pathogen-positive NGU cases and 50 with NGU without any microbial detection. Microbiological cure was achieved in 95.6% of the pathogen-positive NGU patients. Total clinical cure was achieved in 91.3% (105/115). In this study, STFX was able to eradicate 95.7% of C. trachomatis, 93.8% of M. genitalium and 100% of U. urealyticum. The results of our clinical research indicate that the STFX treatment regimen should become a standard regimen recommended for patients with NGU. In addition, this regimen is recommended for patients with M. genitalium-positive NGU.
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Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for mapping the motor cortex in patients with rolandic brain tumors.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a novel technology in the field of neurosurgery for noninvasive delineation of cortical functional topography. This study addresses the spatial accuracy and clinical usefulness of nTMS in brain tumor surgery in or near the motor cortex based on a systematic review of observational studies.
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Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.
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Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of ?-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 ?g/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 ?g/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 ?g/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.
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Low-dose recombinant activated factor VII temporally stopped bleeding from small artery in severe postpartum hemorrhage: a case report.
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Recombinant activated factor VII has been used to effectively treat uncontrolled massive hemorrhage at parturition in an off-label manner. Interventional radiology, including vessel embolization of the internal iliac artery or uterine artery for postpartum hemorrhage, is now familiar to obstetricians. However, this therapeutic technique is applicable only in patients who are hemodynamically stable. We encountered a case with severe and uncontrolled postpartum bleeding from the vaginal fornix. The patient received a low dose (<20 ?g/kg) of factor VIIa and subsequently underwent vessel embolization. We herein report that this stepwise treatment was very effective for uncontrolled bleeding.
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A new way to degrade heme: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme MhuD catalyzes heme degradation without generating CO.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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MhuD is an oxygen-dependent heme-degrading enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with high sequence similarity (?45%) to Staphylococcus aureus IsdG and IsdI. Spectroscopic and mutagenesis studies indicate that the catalytically active 1:1 heme-MhuD complex has an active site structure similar to those of IsdG and IsdI, including the nonplanarity (ruffling) of the heme group bound to the enzyme. Distinct from the canonical heme degradation, we have found that the MhuD catalysis does not generate CO. Product analyses by electrospray ionization-MS and NMR show that MhuD cleaves heme at the ?-meso position but retains the meso-carbon atom at the cleavage site, which is removed by canonical heme oxygenases. The novel tetrapyrrole product of MhuD, termed "mycobilin," has an aldehyde group at the cleavage site and a carbonyl group at either the ?-meso or the ?-meso position. Consequently, MhuD catalysis does not involve verdoheme, the key intermediate of ring cleavage by canonical heme oxygenase enzymes. Ruffled heme is apparently responsible for the heme degradation mechanism unique to MhuD. In addition, MhuD heme degradation without CO liberation is biologically significant as one of the signals of M. tuberculosis transition to dormancy is mediated by the production of host CO.
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[A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in a patient with interstitial cystitis].
Hinyokika Kiyo
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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A 60-year-old woman with interstitial cystitis (IC), who had previously received hydrodistention surgery, intravesical instillation of resiniferatoxin and medication, was being followed. Although urinary cytology was regularly tested with no positive findings, computed tomography carried out for screening of recurrent colon cancer showed muscle-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder (cT3bN0M0). Cystectomy was performed, but she died due to rapid disease progression at 3 months postoperatively. Chronic inflammation can be the cause of development of SCC. It is dubious whether the specific treatments for IC affected her disease. In cases of IC with persistent pyuria, the development of SCC should be kept in mind, and affirmative examination including cystoscopy should be done regularly for early detection of the disease.
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Repression of adipogenesis through promotion of Wnt/?-catenin signaling by TIS7 up-regulated in adipocytes under hypoxia.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Although tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate induced sequence-7 (TIS7) has been identified as a co-activator/repressor of gene transcription in different eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to the functionality of TIS7 in adipocytes. Here, we evaluated the possible role of TIS7 in mechanisms underlying the regulation of adipogenesis. TIS7 expression was preferentially up-regulated in white adipose tissues (WAT) of obesity model mice as well as in pre-adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. TIS7 promoter activity was selectively enhanced by activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) among different transcription factors tested, while induction of TIS7 by hypoxic stress was markedly prevented by knockdown of ATF6 by shRNA in 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of TIS7 markedly inhibited Oil Red O staining and expression of particular adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 cells. TIS7 synergistically promoted gene transactivation mediated by Wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family (Wnt)/?-catenin, while blockade of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway by a dominant negative form of T-cell factor-4 (DN-TCF4) markedly prevented the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells with TIS7 overexpression. TIS7 predominantly interacted with ?-catenin in the nucleus of WAT in the genetically obese ob/ob mice as well as in 3T3-L1 cells cultured under hypoxic conditions. Both knockdown of TIS7 by shRNA and introduction of DN-TCF4 similarly reversed the hypoxia-induced inhibition of adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells. These findings suggest that TIS7 could play a pivotal role in adipogenesis through interacting with ?-catenin to promote the canonical Wnt signaling in pre-adipocytes under hypoxic stress such as obesity.
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Prism-based spectral imaging of four species of single-molecule fluorophores by using one excitation laser.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A prism-based imaging system for simultaneously detecting four species of single-molecule (SM) fluorophores was developed. As for the detection method, four spectrally distinct species of BigDye fluorophores were bound to 50-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form AuNP/BigDye complexes. Four species of complexes were randomly immobilized on different fused-silica slides. BigDyes were excited by an argon-ion-laser (excitation wavelengths: 488 and 514.5 nm) beam through total internal reflection on the slide surface. SM fluorescence emitted from a complex was spectrally dispersed through a prism to form an SM spot elongated in the spectral direction on a charge-coupled device. A scattered light spot generated by the AuNP of the same complex under 594-nm laser illumination was used as a wavelength reference, and the SM fluorescence spectrum was obtained from the pixel-intensity pattern of the elongated SM spot. Peak locations of fluorescence spectra of all the observed SM spots were obtained, and their histograms were distinctly separated according to species. SM spots can thus be classified as one of four species according to their peak locations. By statistically analyzing the histograms, the classification accuracy was estimated to be above 93.8 %. The number of pixels in the spectral direction required for classifying four species of SM fluorophores was estimated to be 10. As for the conventional system (which uses two excitation lasers), 15 pixels are required. Using BigDyes as the four fluorophores (which consist of donors linked to acceptors and can be excited by just an argon-ion laser) is the reason that such a small number of pixels was achieved. The developed system can thus detect 1.5 times more SM fluorophores per field of view; that is, its throughput is 1.5 times higher. The approach taken in this study, namely, using BigDye with a prism-type system, is effective for increasing the throughput of DNA microarray-chip analysis and SM real-time DNA sequencing.
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SORL1 is genetically associated with late-onset Alzheimers disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n?=?1,008) and controls (n?=?1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5) were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P?=?7.33×10(-7) in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P?=?1.77×10(-9)) and rs3781834 (P?=?1.04×10(-8)). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P?=?1.71×10(-5)) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P?=?1.39×10(-4)). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.
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Changes in substantia nigra and locus coeruleus in patients with early-stage Parkinsons disease using neuromelanin-sensitive MR imaging.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging is able to visualize changes associated with neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and locus coeruleus (LC) in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). However, the diagnostic accuracy of this technique in the early stages of PD remains unknown. Therefore, changes in the SNc and LC observed using neuromelanin imaging were evaluated in patients with early PD. The signal intensities of the lateral, central, and medial parts of the SNc and that of the LC were measured, and the contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated against the adjacent white matter structures. CRs in the lateral part of the SNc and in the LC were significantly reduced in the early PD group when compared with the controls. Sensitivities and specificities in discriminating early PD patients from healthy controls were 73% and 87% in lateral SNc and 82% and 90% in LC, respectively. Neuromelanin imaging can depict signal alterations in the lateral part of the SNc and in the LC in patients with PD, even in its early stage, and can discriminate between these patients and healthy individuals with high sensitivities and specificities.
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Different effects of HLA disparity on transplant outcomes after single-unit cord blood transplantation between pediatric and adult patients with leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Recent advances in unrelated cord blood transplantation have increased chances and options available in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The effect of HLA disparity on outcomes after cord blood transplantation was studied recently in mainly pediatric populations. Results showed that HLA matching in combination with total nucleated cell dose positively affects survival. The effect of HLA disparity after single-unit cord blood transplantation may be different in adults because their total nucleated cell dose is much lower compared to pediatric patients. We investigated the effect of HLA disparity on the outcome of single-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation separately in 498 children aged 15 years or under (HLA-A, HLA-B low-resolution, and HLA-DRB1 high-resolution matched [6/6], n=82, and one locus- [5/6], n=222, two loci- [4/6], n=158, three loci- [3/6] mismatched, n=36) and 1,880 adults (6/6, n=71; 5/6, n=309; 4/6, n=1,025; 3/6, n=475) with leukemia. With adjusted analyses, in children, 4/6 showed significantly increased risks of overall mortality (relative risk [RR]=1.61, P=0.042) and transplant-related mortality (RR=3.55, P=0.005) compared to 6/6. The risk of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was increased in 5/6 (RR=2.13, P=0.004) and 4/6 (RR=2.65, P<0.001). In adults, the risk of mortality did not increase with the number of mismatched loci (RR=0.99, P=0.944 for 5/6; RR=0.88, P=0.436 for 4/6). The risk of relapse was significantly decreased in 4/6 (RR=0.67, P=0.034). The risk of transplant-related mortality (TRM) or acute GVHD was not increased in 5/6 or 4/6. The effect of HLA disparity on transplant outcome differed between children and adults. In children, an increased number of mismatched HLA loci correlated with an increased risk of mortality. In adults, there was no increase in mortality with an increase in the number of mismatched HLA loci.
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Evaluation of long-term outcome for patients with renal cell carcinoma after surgery: analysis of cancer deaths occurring more than 10 years after initial treatment.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the outcome of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after surgery in a long-term follow-up study to elucidate the specific biological behaviors of RCC, such as late recurrence and late cancer-specific death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological features of 625 patients who were diagnosed as having renal cell carcinoma at our institution from 1975 to 2006. We analyzed the parameters and outcomes for the patients who had received radical or partial nephrectomy. Pathological staging was reviewed again by two pathologists. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 61 years (range 16-87). The median follow-up was 7.0 years (range 0.1-30.3). Of the 516 patients with localized or locally advanced RCC, 124 (24.0 %) had recurrence after surgery. Lung metastasis was observed most frequently. The 10-year cancer-specific survival rates were 92.4, 91.0, 64.1 and 11.8 % for stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The late recurrence rates in patients with localized and locally advanced RCC 5 and 10 years after initial surgery were 8.5 and 3.7 %, respectively. Cancer death more than 10 years after initial treatment of the disease occurred in 16 patients. Of the 16 patients, 9 had localized disease at the time of the initial surgery. Specific findings that characterized them were not identified in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Late recurrence of RCC is not rare. Cancer-specific death more than 10 years after the initial treatment was observed in 16 patients with localized or advanced disease. No specific findings were identified to characterize these patients with late cancer death.
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A?43 is the earliest-depositing A? species in APP transgenic mouse brain and is converted to A?41 by two active domains of ACE.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Amyloid-? protein (A?) varies in length at its carboxyl terminus. The longer A? species, A?43 and A?42, are highly amyloidogenic and deposit more frequently than A?40 in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. However, the characterization of A?43 deposition in the brain and the relationship between A?43 and A?42 or A?40 remain unclear. We provide evidence that A?43 deposition appears earlier than A?42 and A?40 deposition in the brain of mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APPtg) mice, suggesting that A?43 is the earliest-depositing species. In addition, we found increased A?43 levels and A?43/A?42 ratios in the serum of AD patients, suggesting their use as diagnostic blood biomarkers for AD. We further show that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts A?43 to A?41. Notably, this A?43-to-A?41 converting activity requires two active domains of ACE. Inhibition of ACE activity significantly enhanced A?43 deposition in APPtg mouse brain. Our results suggest that A?43 is the earliest-depositing species in brain parenchyma and that A?43 may trigger later A?42 and A?40 deposition or may be converted to A?42 and A?40 plaques. Activities of both ACE domains may be important for reducing A?43 levels in serum and reducing brain A?43 deposition.
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Development of a method to present wide-view visual stimuli in MRI for peripheral visual studies.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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We developed a novel wide-view visual presentation system for fMRI studies. Computer-generated images were projected onto a hemispheric, translucent screen inside the MRI bore and were then back-projected onto a 52mm diameter screen. To achieve a wide field view, a spherical screen with a curvature radius of 30mm was placed 30mm away from the subjects eyes. The subjects wore contact lenses that enabled them to focus on the screen, and the resulting visual field reached 120°. To evaluate the clarity and quality of the MRI images, a signal-to-noise ratio valuation experiment was performed. In addition, we successfully applied this visual presentation system to studies of visual retinotopic mapping and object perception neural function in the peripheral visual field. Our study demonstrated that the system is compatible with the MRI environment. Based on the wide-field mapping results, this system was more effective at mapping a checkerboard stimuli in V1-V3 from the central to peripheral visual fields. In higher-level visual areas, we successfully located several classical category-selective areas, including the face-selective area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA), house-selective area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus (TOS), lateral occipital complex (LOC) and posterior fusiform area (pFs). In these areas, we found that the response amplitudes exhibited different decreasing trends with increasing eccentricity. In conclusion, we developed a simple, effective method for presenting wide-view visual stimuli within the MRI environment that can be applied to many kinds of fMRI studies of peripheral vision.
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Significance of anaerobic bacteria in postoperative infection after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion or reconstruction.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Radical cystectomy followed by urinary diversion or reconstruction (RC) is a standard treatment for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In these operations, a high frequency of complications, especially postoperative infection, has been reported. However, there have only been a few studies about postoperative anaerobic bacterial infection. To clarify the significance and role of anaerobic bacteria in postoperative infection, we retrospectively analyzed cases in which postoperative infection by these organisms developed. A total of 126 patients who underwent RC from 2006 to 2010 were included in this study. Various types of postoperative infection occurred in 66 patients. Anaerobic bacterial infections were detected with cultures for urine and blood in one case, for blood in two cases, and for surgical wound pus in four. The frequency of postoperative anaerobic bacterial infection in RC was less than that of colon surgery. However, this study revealed the possible development of a nonnegligible number of postoperative anaerobic bacterial infections. Therefore, we should consider anaerobic bacteria as possible pathogens in postoperative infection after RC.
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Hydration-state change of horse heart cytochrome c corresponding to trifluoroacetic-acid-induced unfolding.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We investigate the hydration state of horse-heart cytochrome c (hh cyt c) in the unfolding process induced by trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The conformation of hh cyt c changes from the native (N) state (2.9 < pH < 6.0) to the acid-unfolded (U(A)) state (1.7 < pH < 2.0) to the acid-induced molten globule (A) state (pH ?1.2). Hydration properties of hh cyt c during this process are measured at 20°C by high-resolution dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Constrained water of hh cyt c is observed at every pH as an ?5-GHz Debye component (DC) (DR time, ?(D) ?30 ps) and its DR amplitude (DRA) is increased by 77% upon N-to-U(A) transition, when pH changes from 6.0 to 2.0. Even in the N state, the DRA of the constrained-water component is found to be increased by 22% with decreasing pH from 6.0 to 2.9, suggesting an increase in the accessible surface area of native hh cyt c. Moreover, hypermobile water around native hh cyt c is detected at pH 6.0 as a 19-GHz DC (?(D) ? 8.4 ps 
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Generation of rejuvenated antigen-specific T cells by reprogramming to pluripotency and redifferentiation.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Adoptive immunotherapy with functional T cells is potentially an effective therapeutic strategy for combating many types of cancer and viral infection. However, exhaustion of antigen-specific T cells represents a major challenge to this type of approach. In an effort to overcome this problem, we reprogrammed clonally expanded antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells from an HIV-1-infected patient to pluripotency. The T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were then redifferentiated into CD8(+) T cells that had a high proliferative capacity and elongated telomeres. These "rejuvenated" cells possessed antigen-specific killing activity and exhibited T cell receptor gene-rearrangement patterns identical to those of the original T cell clone from the patient. We also found that this method can be effective for generating specific T cells for other pathology-associated antigens. Thus, this type of approach may have broad applications in the field of adoptive immunotherapy.
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Effects of auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane on audiovisual integration: an event-related potential study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This article aims to investigate whether auditory stimuli in the horizontal plane, particularly originating from behind the participant, affect audiovisual integration by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measurements. In this study, visual stimuli were presented directly in front of the participants, auditory stimuli were presented at one location in an equidistant horizontal plane at the front (0°, the fixation point), right (90°), back (180°), or left (270°) of the participants, and audiovisual stimuli that include both visual stimuli and auditory stimuli originating from one of the four locations were simultaneously presented. These stimuli were presented randomly with equal probability; during this time, participants were asked to attend to the visual stimulus and respond promptly only to visual target stimuli (a unimodal visual target stimulus and the visual target of the audiovisual stimulus). A significant facilitation of reaction times and hit rates was obtained following audiovisual stimulation, irrespective of whether the auditory stimuli were presented in the front or back of the participant. However, no significant interactions were found between visual stimuli and auditory stimuli from the right or left. Two main ERP components related to audiovisual integration were found: first, auditory stimuli from the front location produced an ERP reaction over the right temporal area and right occipital area at approximately 160-200 milliseconds; second, auditory stimuli from the back produced a reaction over the parietal and occipital areas at approximately 360-400 milliseconds. Our results confirmed that audiovisual integration was also elicited, even though auditory stimuli were presented behind the participant, but no integration occurred when auditory stimuli were presented in the right or left spaces, suggesting that the human brain might be particularly sensitive to information received from behind than both sides.
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New technique with combination of felt, Hem-o-lok and Lapra-Ty for suturing the renal parenchyma in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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We reported a new technique for closure of the renal parenchyma in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, shortening the suturing time. Between 2009 and 2011, 41 patients with renal masses 4 cm or smaller in diameter underwent transabdominal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy by a single surgeon in a single institution. The sutures were carried out using 2-0 vicryl CT-1 with a 1.2 × 1.2 cm piece of felt, and both sutures were temporarily held using a Hem-o-lok. After all sutures (median 3) were completed, they were sequentially fixed by sliding the Hem-o-lok, and then locked using the Lapra-Ty. The median times for suturing the renal parenchyma and ischemic time were 13 min and 28 min, respectively. The arrangement of the wound and hemostasis were good. No patients developed urinoma or postoperative bleeding.
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Yamaguchi fox-pigeon imitation test (YFPIT) for dementia in clinical practice.
Psychogeriatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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?In out-patient clinics, having simple procedures to check for signs of dementia is invaluable. In the present study, we evaluated the imitation of hand gestures to detect visuomotor deficits in dementia in clinical practice.
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Platinum plasmonic nanostructure arrays for massively parallel single-molecule detection based on enhanced fluorescence measurements.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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We fabricated platinum bowtie nanostructure arrays producing fluorescence enhancement and evaluated their performance using two-photon photoluminescence and single-molecule fluorescence measurements. A comprehensive selection of suitable materials was explored by electromagnetic simulation and Pt was chosen as the plasmonic material for visible light excitation near 500 nm, which is preferable for multicolor dye-labeling applications like DNA sequencing. The observation of bright photoluminescence (? = 500-600 nm) from each Pt nanostructure, induced by irradiation at 800 nm with a femtosecond laser pulse, clearly indicates that a highly enhanced local field is created near the Pt nanostructure. The attachment of a single dye molecule was attempted between the Pt triangles of each nanostructure by using selective immobilization chemistry. The fluorescence intensities of the single dye molecule localized on the nanostructures were measured. A highly enhanced fluorescence, which was increased by a factor of 30, was observed. The two-photon photoluminescence intensity and fluorescence intensity showed qualitatively consistent gap size dependence. However, the average fluorescence enhancement factor was rather repressed even in the nanostructure with the smallest gap size compared to the large growth of photoluminescence. The variation of the position of the dye molecule attached to the nanostructure may influence the wide distribution of the fluorescence enhancement factor and cause the rather small average value of the fluorescence enhancement factor.
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Detection of active plaques in multiple sclerosis using susceptibility-weighted imaging: comparison with gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging.
Magn Reson Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Susceptibility-weighted (SW) imaging is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique reported effective in visualizing multiple sclerosis (MS) plaques, but its capacity to distinguish active plaques remains unclear. We evaluated active plaque detection by SW compared with contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
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Intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma: case report.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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We present a rare case of a patient with intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma and review the 2 previously reported cases of the clinical entity to identify their common clinical features.
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Dual-view imaging system using a wide-range dichroic mirror for simultaneous four-color single-molecule detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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A dual-view imaging system for simultaneous four-color single-molecule (SM) detection was developed. As for the detection procedure, four species of SM fluorophores, namely, Alexa 488, 555, 647, and 680, are immobilized on different slides and excited by evanescent-wave illumination. Fluorescence emitted from an SM fluorophore is split by a wide-range dichroic mirror (WR DM) in a dual-view optics and imaged as two SM fluorescence spots (SM spots) on an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD) at 100 Hz. The transmittance of the WR DM changes gradually over the wavelength range of 500 to 700 nm so that the signal ratios of the two SM spots for the four fluorophore species differ. A method for classifying SM fluorophores into four species in accordance with their signal ratios was developed. It was used to classify 597 SM fluorophores at an accuracy of above 98% for all the species. This accuracy is comparable to that of a conventional four-color SM detection system. To classify four species, the conventional system disperses SM fluorescence with a prism and provides an elongated SM spot that uses more pixels of an EM-CCD chip than that of the developed system. The developed system can thus detect 1.5-fold more SM spots with the same-size EM-CCD chip, so it can achieve 1.5-fold higher throughput. Moreover, the developed system is based on a simple and practical approach, namely, replacing an ordinary dichroic mirror in a commercially available dual-view optics with a WR DM. This replacement transforms a dual-view imaging system for two-color detection into a system for four-color detection. The developed system is suitable for detection systems of next-generation DNA sequencers and DNA microarray-chip analyzers.
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Neuroendoscope-assisted removal of an organized chronic subdural hematoma in a patient on bevacizumab therapy--case report.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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A 78-year-old Japanese man with a history of colon cancer was referred to our department of neurosurgery for the management of asymptomatic left chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). He was receiving bevacizumab therapy for colon cancer, and the size of the CSDH increased or decreased depending on bevacizumab administration. Simple drainage was performed because of the risk of a critical increase in the size of CSDH during bevacizumab therapy, but since the CSDH was organized and firm, the drainage was insufficient. Therefore, neuroendoscope-assisted craniotomy was performed, and the organized CSDH was almost completely removed. The present case indicates the possible involvement of bevacizumab in the occurrence of CSDH and the efficacy of the neuroendoscopic approach in the surgical treatment of organized CSDH.
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Analysis of isolated bacteria and short-term antimicrobial prophylaxis with tazobactam-piperacillin (1:4 ratio) for prevention of postoperative infections after radical cystectomy.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Radical cystectomy is associated with the highest morbidity and mortality of all commonly performed urological cancer treatment procedures. Postoperative infection remains a major problem. We herein report the results of an open prospective study involving radical cystectomies, undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of 0.5/2 g tazobactam-piperacillin (TAZ-PIPC) in the prevention of postoperative infectious complications. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was performed using 0.5/2 g TAZ-PIPC (2.5 g i.v.) every 3 h during surgery and then twice a day for 3 days postoperatively. The patients were monitored to detect any postoperative infections. During surgery, irrigation fluid from the total abdominal cavity was taken for bacterial culture just before closing the abdomen. Surveillance cultures of drain discharge and urine from ureteral stents were also performed. Other samples were taken for bacterial culture when an infection was suspected. The total postoperative bacterial infection rate was 20.0% (7/35), and surgical site infection rate was 5.7% (2/35). These rates are lower than those documented in other studies. This study, even though open and noncomparative, showed that a short-interval regimen containing 0.5/2 g TAZ-PIPC provides adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.
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Unrelated cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning regimen in adolescent and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies: a single institute analysis.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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We report the results of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) after myeloablative conditioning regimen in 16 patients with hematologic malignancies from 15 to 20 years old. The median times of myeloid and platelet engraftment were 21 and 38 days, respectively. The cumulative incidences of acute graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was 62.0%, all of which were grade I or II, and that of extensive-type chronic GVHD was 12.5%. The probabilities of overall and disease-free survival at 3 years were 68.2% and 48.6%, respectively, comparable to adult or childhood cases. Adolescents and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies who have no HLA-matched adult donors could be considered as candidates for CBT.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.