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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Soft liquid phase adsorption for fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability patterned surfaces.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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We report a soft liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates using toluene/water emulsions. Wettabilitypatterned substrates were obtained by the UV-ozone treatment of self-assembled monolayers of silane coupling agents on glass plates using a metal mask. Organic semiconductor polymer films were formed selectively on the hydrophobic part of the wettability-patterned substrates. The thickness of the films fabricated by the SLPA technique is significantly larger than that of the films fabricated by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The film thickness can be controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of toluene to water, immersion angle, immersion temperature, and immersion time. The SLPA technique allows for the direct production of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates with minimized material consumption and reduced number of fabrication steps.
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Percutaneous intervention in a patient with a single coronary artery arising from the right coronary sinus of valsalva.
Hellenic J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A single coronary artery (SCA) arising from the sinus of Valsalva and supplying the entire heart is a rare congenital anomaly. According to the modified Lipton's classification, R-1 is by far the most rare subtype of SCA, with an incidence of 0.0008% in patients undergoing coronary angiography. We present a case with an unreported anomaly, classified as Lipton R-I subtype, which initially followed the normal course of the right coronary artery. The posterior descending artery then proceeded as the distal and middle sections of the left anterior descending artery, while the posterolateral branch proceeded as the left circumflex artery and finally terminated as the proximal left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent percutaneous intervention in the posterolateral branch for an acute coronary syndrome.
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Caged glutamates with ?-extended 1,2-dihydronaphthalene chromophore: design, synthesis, two-photon absorption property, and photochemical reactivity.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Caging and photochemical uncaging of the excitatory neurotransmitter l-glutamate (glu) offers a potentially valuable tool for understanding the mechanisms of neuronal processes. Designing water-soluble caged glutamates with the appropriate two-photon absorption property is an attractive strategy to achieve this. This paper describes the design, synthesis, and photochemical reactivity of caged glutamates with ?-extended 1,2-dihydronaphthalene structures, which possess a two-photon cross-section of ?120 GM and an excellent buffer solubility (up to 115 mM). High yields up to 99% glutamate were observed in the photolysis of two caged glutamates. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and Buchwald-Hartwig amination were used as the key reactions to synthesize the caged compounds.
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Oxygen vacancy effects on an amorphous-TaOx-based resistance switch: a first principles study.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Amorphous TaOx (a-TaOx) based resistance switches have recently demonstrated outstanding performance and are being considered as one of the most promising candidates for next-generation memory cells. However, the origin of the switching mechanism is still under debate, especially on the component of the conduction filament (CF). Since the resistance change of a-TaOx is controlled by the O concentration, we perform a systematic investigation on the evolution of structures and electronic properties of a-TaOx (0.75 ? x ? 2.85) from first principles. Our results reveal the strong correlation among Ta/O coordination numbers, Ta-Ta/Ta-O bond lengths, and O concentrations in a-TaOx. For a single O vacancy in a-TaO2.5, the Ta-Ta dimer structure is found to be the most stable, and the energy position of its defect state agrees well with experiments. With the decrease of O concentration, Ta atoms tend to merge together and finally form a continuous Ta-rich region in a-TaO0.75, which suggests that not O vacancies, but the Ta-Ta bonding mainly contributes to the CF in a-TaOx based resistance switches. Our molecular dynamics simulation suggests that in the CF, Ta atoms prefer to arrange in a layer structure, and hence the phase transformation to crystalline ?-Ta with interstitial O atoms is proposed. In addition, the calculations on Pt/a-TaOx/Pt heterostructures further confirm the conductive nature of the Ta-Ta bonding in a-TaOx, and also reveal the different conduction types in switching on (metallic contact) and off (electron hopping) states.
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Triggered J-aggregation in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic spiropyran having a methoxy group at the 5' position and an azobenzene derivative.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Here, we describe the formation of J-aggregates triggered by isomerization of an azobenzene derivative, N-[p-[(p-dodecylphenylazo)phenyloxy]dodecylpyridinium bromide (AzP), in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films that contain an amphiphilic spiropyran with a methoxy group at the 5' position, MeO-SP1822. Pure LB films of MeO-SP1822 consist of multilayer domains embedded in a monolayer. UV irradiation of the films causes the isomerization of MeO-SP1822 to its merocyanine form, MeO-MC1822. Pure LB films of AzP comprise finger-like domains and granular domains. Irradiating mixed films of MeO-SP1822 and AzP with alternating UV and visible light causes J-aggregation of MeO-MC1822, with the amount of J-aggregates reaching a maximum at a 1:1 molar ratio. J-aggregation occurs in flat finger-like structures originating in the AzP-rich granular domains that are located on top of the MeO-MC1822-rich multilayer domains. J-aggregates are also present under the AzP-rich granular domains, though these domains do not serve as nucleation sites for the finger-like structures. We propose that granular domains serving as nucleation sites are partially buried in the multilayer domains, whereas those triggering the J-aggregation of MeO-MC1822 under the granular domains are situated on top of the multilayer domains.
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Application of optical coherence tomography to identify pulp exposure during access cavity preparation using an Er:YAG laser.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The study aimed to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to guide and identify pulp exposure using an erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser.
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Neofunctionalization of a duplicate hatching enzyme gene during the evolution of teleost fishes.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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BackgroundDuplication and subsequent neofunctionalization of the teleostean hatching enzyme gene occurred in the common ancestor of Euteleostei and Otocephala, producing two genes belonging to different phylogenetic clades (clades I and II). In euteleosts, the clade I enzyme inherited the activity of the ancestral enzyme of swelling the egg envelope by cleavage of the N-terminal region of egg envelope proteins. The clade II enzyme gained two specific cleavage sites, N-ZPd and mid-ZPd but lost the ancestral activity. Thus, euteleostean clade II enzymes assumed a new function; solubilization of the egg envelope by the cooperative action with clade I enzyme. However, in Otocephala, the clade II gene was lost during evolution. Consequently, in a late group of Otocephala, only the clade I enzyme is present to swell the egg envelope. We evaluated the egg envelope digestion properties of clade I and II enzymes in Gonorynchiformes, an early diverging group of Otocephala, using milkfish, and compared their digestion with those of other fishes. Finally, we propose a hypothesis the neofunctionalization process.ResultsThe milkfish clade II enzyme cleaved N-ZPd but not mid-ZPd, and did not cause solubilization of the egg envelope. We conclude that neofunctionalization is incomplete in the otocephalan clade II enzymes. Comparison of clade I and clade II enzyme characteristics implies that the specificity of the clade II enzymes gradually changed during evolution after the duplication event, and that a change in substrate was required for the addition of the mid-ZPd site and loss of activity at the N-terminal region.ConclusionsWe infer the process of neofunctionalization of the clade II enzyme after duplication of the gene. The ancestral clade II gene gained N-ZPd cleavage activity in the common ancestral lineage of the Euteleostei and Otocephala. Subsequently, acquisition of cleavage activity at the mid-ZPd site and loss of cleavage activity in the N-terminal region occurred during the evolution of Euteleostei, but not of Otocephala. The clade II enzyme provides an example of the development of a neofunctional gene for which the substrate, the egg envelope protein, has adapted to a gradual change in the specificity of the corresponding enzyme.
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New pitfalls of high-density postmortem computed tomography.
Leg Med (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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An 80-year-old female was transferred to the hospital due to a traffic accident. Multiple cranial bone fractures with intracranial hemorrhage and intracranial air were detected. Despite treatment, the patient died after 6h. Twenty-one hours after the patient died, her whole body was scanned by postmortem CT, and a region of high density was detected within the left putamen. The autopsy revealed a cerebral contusion and multiple skull base fractures. Moreover, superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were found within the left lateral ventricle and adjacent to the putamen, which appeared as a high-density lesion on postmortem CT at the left putamen, where the SAPs were compacted. Both ante- and postmortem conditions should be considered to prevent misdiagnoses based only on postmortem CT.
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Development of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head requires toll-like receptor 7 and 9 stimulations and is boosted by repression on nuclear factor kappa B in rats.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) often occurs after corticosteroid therapy in patients with inflammatory diseases. Recent studies suggest that toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and that the reason for corticosteroid therapy for inflammatory diseases is related to the anti-inflammatory activities of corticosteroids through the reduction of NF-?B. We hypothesized that the administration of TLR ligands in combination with corticosteroid causes ONFH and that transcription factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ONFH. The aim of the study was to evaluate (1) the incidence of ONFH in rats after the administration of TLR7 or TLR9 ligands together with methylprednisolone (MPSL) and (2) whether transcription factors contribute to the development of ONFH. Male Wistar rats (n=148) were divided into five groups as follows: Group 1: Saline+MPSL, Group 2: Imiquimod+Saline, Group 3: Imiquimod+MPSL, Group 4: CpG-C+MPSL, Group 5: Imiquimod+BAY11-7082+MPSL. As a result, ONFH was observed in 0 of 12 rats in Group 1, in 1 of 10 in Group 2, in 6 of 12 in Group 3, in 4 of 12 in Group 4, in 0 of 9 in Group 5. MPSL treatment did not significantly affect IRF7 activity, whereas NF-?B activity was significantly repressed in Group 2 and Group 3. Furthermore, the repression in interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) activity by BAY11-7082 interfered with the development of ONFH simultaneously with the MPSL treatment-induced repression in NF-?B activity. In conclusion, in the present study, corticosteroid treatment after the administration of TLR7 or TLR9 ligands caused ONFH. Repression in NF-?B activity by corticosteroid treatment boosted the development of ONFH.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 10 November 2014; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2014.134.
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De novo SOX11 mutations cause Coffin-Siris syndrome.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a congenital disorder characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, characteristic facial features and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. We previously identified mutations in five genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex, in 55% of CSS patients. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing in additional CSS patients, identifying de novo SOX11 mutations in two patients with a mild CSS phenotype. sox11a/b knockdown in zebrafish causes brain abnormalities, potentially explaining the brain phenotype of CSS. SOX11 is the downstream transcriptional factor of the PAX6-BAF complex, highlighting the importance of the BAF complex and SOX11 transcriptional network in brain development.
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A combination of targeted toxin technology and the piggyBac-mediated gene transfer system enables efficient isolation of stable transfectants in nonhuman mammalian cells.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Isolation of cells harboring exogenous DNA is typically achieved by the introduction of plasmids, but its efficiency remains still low. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to obtain stable transfectants efficiently. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with two plasmids: 1) pTransIEnd, which comprises the ubiquitous promoter, the piggyBac (PB) transposase gene, an internal ribosomal entry site, the Clostridium perfringens-derived endo-?-galactosidase C (EndoGalC) gene, and a poly(A) tail; and 2) a PB-based plasmid, termed pT-EGFP, which contains enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression unit flanked by PB acceptor sites. The PB transposase can accelerate the chromosomal integration of transposon vectors. EndoGalC expression results in removal of a cell surface ?-Gal epitope, which is specifically recognized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin-B4 (IB4). Four days after transfection, cells were treated with IB4SAP (IB4 conjugated to saporin, which eliminates any ?-Gal epitope-expressing cells) for a short period, followed by standard culture for approximately 10 days. Several colonies emerged, most of which were positive for EGFP expression and lacked TransIEnd. These results indicated that the proposed approach is useful and efficient for obtaining stable transfectants without the use of drug-resistance genes, and offers a novel route for gene manipulation in cultured nonhuman mammalian cells.
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A single blastocyst assay optimized for detecting CRISPR/Cas9 system-induced indel mutations in mice.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Microinjection of clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-related RNA and DNA into fertilized eggs is a novel approach for creating gene-modified mice. Blastocysts obtained just before implantation may be appropriate for testing the fidelity of CRIPSR/Cas9-mediated genome editing because they can be individually handled in vitro and obtained 3days after microinjection, thus allowing researchers to check mutations rapidly. However, it is not known whether indel mutations caused by the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be reproducibly detected in embryos. In this study, we assessed the detection of CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in embryos.
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Impaired ?-cell function attenuates training effects by reducing the increase in heart rate reserve in patients with myocardial infarction.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) is characterized as a metabolic disorder syndrome that is upstream of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated exercise training effects on the exercise tolerance and heart rate dynamics in patients with IR or pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.
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Long-term survival after resection of metastases in the lungs and larynx originating from sigmoid colon cancer: report of a case.
Fukushima J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Metastatic neoplasms in the larynx from remote primary tumors are uncommon, and laryngeal metastasis originating from the colorectum is extremely rare. We herein report a case of metastatic laryngeal carcinoma originating from sigmoid colon cancer in a 54-year-old female. Curative partial laryngectomy was performed, and the patient remains alive with a good quality of life and no signs of recurrence seven years and eight months after sigmoidectomy and four years and eight months after partial laryngectomy.
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Change in tibiofemoral rotational alignment during total knee arthroplasty.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Rotational mismatch between femoral and tibial components has been recognized as a risk factor of unsuccessful total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but a main cause of rotational mismatch is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate rotational alignment of the knee by measuring both component rotation and version of the knee in TKA.
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Detection of a Second Mesiobuccal Canal in Maxillary Molars by Swept-source Optical Coherence Tomography.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of swept-source optical coherence tomographic (SS-OCT) imaging to detect a second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in maxillary molars compared with visual inspection (VI) and dental operating microscopy (DOM).
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Relationship of thresholds of physical performance to nutritional status in older hospitalized male cardiac patients.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Nutrition is the focus of a new treatment target in older hospitalized cardiac patients. However, little is known about the differences in nutritional status in relation to physical performance in these inpatients. We determined the differences in physical performance based on the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and physical performance cut-off values according to the GNRI in older male cardiac inpatients.
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Differences in physical performance based on the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index in elderly female cardiac patients.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Little is known about differences in the risk of poor nutritional status as assessed by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) in relation to physical performance in elderly female cardiac inpatients. The present study aimed to determine both differences in physical performance based on the GNRI and physical performance cut-off values according to the GNRI in elderly female cardiac inpatients.
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Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty cannot restore the functional flexion axis of a living knee to normal.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty might restore the functional flexion axis of a knee to normal. The flexion axis can be indirectly identified by tracking the vertical translation of anatomic landmarks that basically move around the flexion axis during a knee motion. If a unicompartmental knee could help restore the normal flexion axis, the anatomic landmarks after the arthroplasty would show the vertical translation similar to those of normal knees during a knee flexion.
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Calcination-free micropatterning of rare-earth-ion-doped nanoparticle films on wettability-patterned surfaces of plastic sheets.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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We demonstrate a patterning technique of rare-earth-ion-doped (RE) nanoparticle films directly on wettability-patterned surfaces fabricated on plastic sheets in one step. Self-assembled monolayers consisting of silane-coupling agent with hydrophobic groups were fabricated on plastic sheets. UV-ozone treatments were performed through a metal mask to selectively remove the self-assembled monolayers in a patterned manner, resulting in the formation of wettability-patterned surfaces on plastic sheets. Using a water dispersion of Er(3+) and Yb(3+)-codoped Y2O3 nanoparticles at a diameter of 100 nm, RE-nanoparticle films were fabricated on the wettability-patterned surfaces by a dip-coating technique. By adjusting the concentration of RE-nanoparticle dispersion, withdrawal speed, and withdrawal angle, amount of RE-nanoparticles, we were able to control the structures of the RE-nanoparticle films. Fluorescence microscope observations demonstrate that visible upconversion luminescence and near-infrared fluorescence were emitted from the RE-nanoparticle films on the wettability-patterned surfaces. This technique allows for the fabrication of flexible emitting devices with long-operating life time with minimized material consumption and few fabrication steps, and for the application to sensors, emitting devices, and displays in electronics, photonics, and bionics in the future.
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Antegrade approach to stumpless chronic total occlusion of ostial left anterior descending artery: first using a side branch cutting technique.
Hellenic J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The approach to a chronic total occlusion (CTO) still remains one of the most technical challenges in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CTO lesions with a blunt entry point, calcification, and failure of a previous approach, are the independent predictors of CTO-PCI failure. Here we report a successful antegrade approach for reattempted CTO-PCI of a left anterior descending artery (LAD) with unknown, calcified ostium. We used a novel side branch cutting technique, combined with intravascular ultrasound-guided wiring and parallel wire techniques. Considering the ramus artery as a side branch and dilating it with a cutting balloon was a crucial part of the strategy for achieving overall procedural success using this approach. This is the first report describing a side branch cutting technique in CTO-PCI. The combined application of multiple antegrade techniques, using the latest devices, might provide an effective and safe approach for complex CTO-PCI.
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In situ KPFM imaging of local photovoltaic characteristics of structured organic photovoltaic devices.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Here, we discuss the local photovoltaic characteristics of a structured bulk heterojunction, organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a liquid carbazole, and a fullerene derivative based on analysis by scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Periodic photopolymerization induced by an interference pattern from two laser beams formed surface relief gratings (SRG) in the structured films. The surface potential distribution in the SRGs indicates the formation of donor and acceptor spatial distribution. Under illumination, the surface potential reversibly changed because of the generation of fullerene anions and hole transport from the films to substrates, which indicates that we successfully imaged the local photovoltaic characteristics of the structured photovoltaic devices. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed the formation of the SRG because of the material migration to the photopolymerized region of the films, which was induced by light exposure through photomasks. The structuring technique allows for the direct fabrication and the control of donor and acceptor spatial distribution in organic photonic and electronic devices with minimized material consumption. This in situ KPFM technique is indispensable to the fabrication of nanoscale electron donor and electron acceptor spatial distribution in the devices.
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Differences in daily in-hospital physical activity and geriatric nutritional risk index in older cardiac inpatients: preliminary results.
Aging Clin Exp Res
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Little is known about the differences in the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) status in older patients and their relationship to accelerometer-derived measures of physical activity (PA) levels. We determined both differences in daily measured PA based on the GNRI and related cut-off values for PA in elderly cardiac inpatients.
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The combinational use of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing and targeted toxin technology enables efficient biallelic knockout of the ?-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene in porcine embryonic fibroblasts.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The recent development of the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has enabled genome editing of mammalian genomes including those of mice and human; however, its applicability and efficiency in the pig have not been studied in depth. Here, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we aimed to destroy the function of the porcine ?-1,3-galactosyltransferase (?-GalT) gene (GGTA1) whose product is responsible for the synthesis of the ?-Gal epitope, a causative agent for hyperacute rejection upon pig-to-human xenotransplantation.
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Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using Sonazoid for the assessment of therapeutic response to percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Accurate assessment of the coagulated area is imperative to achieve an excellent outcome from percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with the contrast-enhancing agent Sonazoid for precisely assessing the therapeutic effect of PRFA for HCC.
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Prognostic factors in patients with terminal stage lung cancer.
J Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death.(1) Accurate prediction of survival in the terminal stage is important, because it may help patients make a rational decision. Although several prognostic scores have been described as effective indicators of outcome, these scores were intended for patients with other types of cancers. There is no prognostic score for patients with terminal-stage lung cancer.
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The clinical epicondylar axis is not the functional flexion axis of the human knee.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The functional flexion axis (FFA) is the principal axis around which the knee moves and thus, by definition, does not move in vertical displacement relative to the tibia. The transepicondylar axis (TEA) has been reported to coincide with the FFA. If that is not true, the TEA should show vertical displacement during motion, and this hypothesis was investigated.
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Effectiveness of gefitinib against non-small-cell lung cancer with the uncommon EGFR mutations G719X and L861Q.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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In non-small-cell lung cancer, an exon 19 deletion and an L858R point mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are predictors of a response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, it is uncertain whether other uncommon EGFR mutations are associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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DDX3X Induces Primary EGFR-TKI Resistance Based on Intratumor Heterogeneity in Lung Cancer Cells Harboring EGFR-Activating Mutations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The specific mechanisms how lung cancer cells harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations can survive treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) until they eventually acquire treatment-resistance genetic mutations are unclear. The phenotypic diversity of cancer cells caused by genetic or epigenetic alterations (intratumor heterogeneity) confers treatment failure and may foster tumor evolution through Darwinian selection. Recently, we found DDX3X as the protein that was preferentially expressed in murine melanoma with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotypes by proteome analysis. In this study, we transfected PC9, human lung cancer cells harboring EGFR exon19 deletion, with cDNA encoding DDX3X and found that DDX3X, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, induced CSC-like phenotypes and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied with loss of sensitivity to EGFR-TKI. DDX3X expression was associated with upregulation of Sox2 and increase of cancer cells exhibiting CSC-like phenotypes, such as anchorage-independent proliferation, strong expression of CD44, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The EMT with switching from E-cadherin to N-cadherin was also facilitated by DDX3X. Either ligand-independent or ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited in lung cancer cells that strongly expressed DDX3X. Lack of EGFR signal addiction resulted in resistance to EGFR-TKI. Moreover, we found a small nonadherent subpopulation that strongly expressed DDX3X accompanied by the same stem cell-like properties and the EMT in parental PC9 cells. The unique subpopulation lacked EGFR signaling and was highly resistant to EGFR-TKI. In conclusion, our data indicate that DDX3X may play a critical role for inducing phenotypic diversity, and that treatment targeting DDX3X may overcome primary resistance to EGFR-TKI resulting from intratumor heterogeneity.
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Crystal structures of the carbamoylated and cyanated forms of HypE for [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Hydrogenase pleiotropically acting protein (Hyp)E plays a role in biosynthesis of the cyano groups for the NiFe(CN)2CO center of [NiFe] hydrogenases by catalyzing the ATP-dependent dehydration of the carbamoylated C-terminal cysteine of HypE to thiocyanate. Although structures of HypE proteins have been determined, until now there has been no structural evidence to explain how HypE dehydrates thiocarboxamide into thiocyanate. Here, we report the crystal structures of the carbamoylated and cyanated forms of HypE from Thermococcus kodakarensis in complex with nucleotides at 1.53- and 1.64-Å resolution, respectively. Carbamoylation of the C-terminal cysteine (Cys338) of HypE by chemical modification is clearly observed in the present structures. In the presence of ATP, the thiocarboxamide of Cys338 is successfully dehydrated into the thiocyanate. In the carbamoylated state, the thiocarboxamide nitrogen atom of Cys338 is close to a conserved glutamate residue (Glu272), but the spatial position of Glu272 is less favorable for proton abstraction. On the other hand, the thiocarboxamide oxygen atom of Cys338 interacts with a conserved lysine residue (Lys134) through a water molecule. The close contact of Lys134 with an arginine residue lowers the pKa of Lys134, suggesting that Lys134 functions as a proton acceptor. These observations suggest that the dehydration of thiocarboxamide into thiocyanate is catalyzed by a two-step deprotonation process, in which Lys134 and Glu272 function as the first and second bases, respectively.
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Natural variation in the genes responsible for maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4 in soybean.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Background and AimsThe timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering.MethodsThe sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded.Key ResultsA new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci.ConclusionsThe study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean.
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Kinematics of the knee after unicompartmental arthroplasty is not the same as normal and is similar to the kinematics of the knee with osteoarthritis.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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It is common to assert that restoration of normal knee kinematics is essential for the best functional result after knee arthroplasty. Previous studies using the progression of the geometric centre axis have suggested that kinematics after unicompartmental arthroplasty is markedly different from the normal. For this study, the transepicondylar axis was used because this axis is closer to the flexion axis and should be a better reference for motion. The following hypothesis was tested: the transepicondylar axis would again show that the postoperative kinematics does not restore normal motion and is closer to that before replacement.
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Approach for chronic total occlusion with intravascular ultrasound-guided reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde tracking technique: single center experience.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking (CART) or reverse CART techniques is the final step for percutaneous revascularization of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO), but it still represents technical challenges and risk in interventional procedures.
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Impact on clinical outcomes of predilatation using the kissing-balloon technique for crossover stenting in true coronary bifurcation lesions.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Provisional crossover stenting has the potential risk of side-branch (SB) compromise, which may result in periprocedural myocardial infarction. Predilatation is a useful technique to prevent SB compromise.
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Structures of langmuir-gibbs films consisting of long-chain fatty acid and water-soluble surfactants.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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The structures of Langmuir-Gibbs (LG) films at the air-solution interface were studied using surface tensiometry, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and infrared external reflection spectroscopy (IR-ERS). The LG films were fabricated by forming Langmuir films of deuterated arachidic acid (D19A) and then injecting a water-soluble surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate or octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, into the subphase. The presence of the LG films at the air-solution interface affected the surface tension of water. BAM observations revealed the formation of phase-separated monolayers consisting of D19A monolayers and expanded monolayers of water-soluble surfactant at low concentrations of the water-soluble surfactant. The presence of phase-separated structures was supported by the IR-ERS results. At high concentrations, the water-soluble surfactants adsorbed to the domains of D19A monolayers, forming bilayers under the monolayers. The IR-ERS results suggest the penetration of the water-soluble surfactants into the domains of D19A monolayers and the diffusion of D19A molecules into the bilayer regions of the water-soluble surfactants. At concentrations greater than the critical aggregate concentration and/or critical micelle concentration, D19A molecules were solubilized in the solution. In some cases, the multilayers were kinetically stabilized and were present even 24 h after the injection of the water-soluble surfactants into the subphase.
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Construction and targeted retrieval of specific clone from a non-gridded soybean bacterial artificial chromosome library.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Although a post-genomic era is emerging for many plants, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is still a valuable tool for genomic studies and preservation of precious genetic resources. Construction of non-gridded BAC libraries would dramatically reduce cost and save storage space. A non-gridded BAC library composed of approximately 96,000 insert-containing clones in 80 pools with an average insert size of 75 kb was constructed. This library represented 5.2 genome equivalents. We successfully developed a unique procedure to retrieve positive clones from the non-gridded pools. With this retrieving protocol, the non-gridded library system can be adapted to different species and to serve various research needs.
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Micromolding in capillaries for calcination-free fabrication of flexible inorganic phosphor films consisting of rare-earth-ion-doped nanoparticles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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We discuss the micromolding in capillaries technique for the direct fabrication of calcination-free rare earth ion-doped (RE) phosphor films consisting of RE nanoparticles on plastic sheets. We synthesized two types of RE nanoparticles consisting of Y2O3 matrix doped with Er and Yb ions. Green upconversion luminescence, red upconversion luminescence, and near-infrared fluorescence appeared from the RE nanoparticles under excitation of near-infrared light. Adjusting the channel width and depth of polydimethylsiloxane molds led to control of the density of nanoparticles in the patterned RE nanoparticle films. Adjusting concentration of the RE nanoparticle dispersion and size of the RE nanoparticles allowed for the control of the density of nanoparticles in the patterned RE nanoparticle films. The density of nanoparticles in the patterned RE films on plastic sheets increased with an increase in the number of injection and drying of the RE nanoparticle dispersion. These results demonstrate that this technique enables us to directly fabricate the patterned RE phosphor films on plastic sheets, leading to the fabrication of inorganic flexible devices with small fabrication steps and material consumptions.
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Morphine and breast tumor metastasis: the role of matrix-degrading enzymes.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Opioids including morphine are commonly used in pain management during and after cancer surgery but have been linked to a variety of pro- and anti-tumor effects. In the present study the effect of morphine administration on the localization and growth of breast tumor cells in lungs and the level of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases were investigated. In a mouse syngeneic model of intravenously inoculated breast cancer cells, morphine administration led to a reduction in the localization and growth of tumors in the lungs and a reduction in circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA). To model the involvement of non-malignant cells of the tumor microenvironment in the changes we observed in the level of proteases, we co-cultured breast cancer cells with macrophages, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. We found a significant elevation of matrix proteases as well as matrix protease inhibitors in co-cultures of breast cancer cells with macrophages or endothelial cells. Interestingly, morphine treatment of these co-cultures reduced the level of MMP-9 and increased its endogenous inhibitor, TIMP-1, thereby altering the proteolytic profile. Morphine affected the level of enzymes in co-cultures but not in cells grown individually. This suggests that anti-tumor effects of morphine observed in our in vivo model could be mediated at least in part through modulation of paracrine communication between cancer cells and non-malignant cells in the tumor microenvironment.
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Formation of regular stripes of chemically converted graphene on hydrophilic substrates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Chemically converted graphene (CCG), from a chemistry point of view, is a giant molecule with a unique two-dimensional (2D) configuration. The availability of CCG dispersion provides a range of scalable methods to assemble graphene-based materials but brings the challenge of understanding and control of the CCG morphology in solution processing. In this study, we found that, similar to conventional colloidal systems (e.g., spherical particles or polymers), a 2D sheet of CCG can be transferred from its aqueous dispersion to solid substrates in the form of highly regular stripe patterns by evaporation-driven deposition. The width and spacing can be defined by the concentration of the CCG dispersion and the properties of the substrate (e.g., roughness and surface charge). Furthermore, the high resolution AFM images illustrate that both 2D flattened and highly wrinkled CCG can be formed in each individual stripe, depending on the location across the stripe. The in situ optical observation of the stripe formation indicates that the morphological change of CCG may occur in the crowded meniscus of the drying front.
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Simulation of collaborative studies for real-time PCR-based quantitation methods for genetically modified crops.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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To study impacts of various random effects and parameters of collaborative studies on the precision of quantitation methods of genetically modified (GM) crops, we developed a set of random effects models for cycle time values of a standard curve-based relative real-time PCR that makes use of an endogenous gene sequence as the internal standard. The models and data from a published collaborative study for six GM lines at four concentration levels were used to simulate collaborative studies under various conditions. Results suggested that by reducing the numbers of well replications from three to two, and standard levels of endogenous sequence from five to three, the number of unknown samples analyzable on a 96-well PCR plate in routine analyses could be almost doubled, and still the acceptable repeatability RSD (RSDr < or = 25%) and the reproducibility RSD (RSDR < 35%) of the collaborative study could be met. Further, RSDr and RSD(R) were found most sensitive to random effects attributable to inhomogeneity among blind replicates, but they were little influenced by those attributable to DNA extractions. The proposed models are expected to be useful for optimizing standard curve-based relative quantitation methods for GM crops by real-time PCR and their collaborative studies.
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"Soft" liquid-phase adsorption for the fabrication of solution processable organic material films on wettability-patterned surfaces.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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We discuss a "soft" liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic films on wettability-patterned templates by using methanol/hexane and toluene/water emulsions. The emulsions are stable for several hours at room temperature, and the diameters of the dispersed phase are estimated to be several micrometers using dynamic light scattering. The templates are fabricated by exposing self-assembled monolayers to an ultraviolet/ozone atmosphere through a shadow mask. Fluorescent dye and semiconductor polymer films are formed selectively on the hydrophilic region of the substrates and the hydrophobic region of the self-assembled monolayer, respectively. The thickness is significantly larger than those of the films fabricated by conventional film-forming techniques such as spin-coating and dip-coating, respectively. These patterned films serve as photoluminescent films. These results demonstrate that the SLPA technique allows for the fabrication of organic films on wettability-patterned templates using solution-processable materials. This technique will find application to the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices with small material consumption and few film-forming processes.
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Experimental rat model for alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is observed in alcohol abusers and patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease. It has been reported that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported a corticosteroid-induced ONFH rat model, and suggested that TLR4 signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of ONFH. Thus, it is thought that the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced ONFH is probably similar to that of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. The aim of this study was to develop a new animal model for alcohol-induced ONFH and to evaluate the relationship between the pro-inflammatory response via TLRs and the development of ONFH in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% ethanol (experimental group) or dextran (control group) for 1-24 weeks. Histopathological and biochemical analyses were performed. Feeding the ethanol-containing liquid diet resulted in the development of ONFH with hepatic steatosis, hepatic dysfunction and hyperlipidaemia, whereas feeding the dextran-containing diet did not cause ONFH. However, we could not recognize any relationship between the pro-inflammatory response via TLR4 and the development of alcohol-induced ONFH. Thus in this study we have developed a new rat model for alcohol-induced ONFH based on the feeding of an ethanol liquid diet. ONFH was observed within seven days from the start of feeding with 5% ethanol-containing liquid diet. Although this was linked to hepatic steatosis, a TLR4 association was not a feature of this model.
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GABA promotes the competitive selection of dendritic spines by controlling local Ca2+ signaling.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Activity-dependent competition of synapses plays a key role in neural organization and is often promoted by GABA; however, its cellular bases are poorly understood. Excitatory synapses of cortical pyramidal neurons are formed on small protrusions known as dendritic spines, which exhibit structural plasticity. We used two-color uncaging of glutamate and GABA in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and found that spine shrinkage and elimination were markedly promoted by the activation of GABAA receptors shortly before action potentials. GABAergic inhibition suppressed bulk increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations, whereas it preserved the Ca(2+) nanodomains generated by NMDA-type receptors, both of which were necessary for spine shrinkage. Unlike spine enlargement, spine shrinkage spread to neighboring spines (<15 ?m) and competed with their enlargement, and this process involved the actin-depolymerizing factor ADF/cofilin. Thus, GABAergic inhibition directly suppresses local dendritic Ca(2+) transients and strongly promotes the competitive selection of dendritic spines.
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DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked is an immunogenic target of cancer stem cells.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that most solid malignancies consist of heterogeneous tumor cells and that a relatively small subpopulation, which shares biological features with stem cells, survives through potentially lethal stresses such as chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Since the survival of this subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSC) plays a critical role in recurrence, it must be eradicated in order to cure cancer. We previously reported that vaccination with CD133(+) murine melanoma cells exhibiting biological CSC features induced CSC-specific effector T cells. These were capable of eradicating CD133(+) tumor cells in vivo, thereby curing the parental tumor. In the current study, we indicated that DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 3, X-linked (DDX3X) is an immunogenic protein preferentially expressed in CD133(+) tumor cells. Vaccination with DDX3X primed specific T cells, resulting in protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. The DDX3X-primed CD4(+) T cells produced CD133(+) tumor-specific IFN? and IL-17 and mediated potent antitumor therapeutic efficacy. DDX3X is expressed in various human cancer cells, including lung, colon, and breast cancer cells. These results suggest that anti-DDX3X immunotherapy is a promising treatment option in efforts to eradicate CSC in the clinical setting.
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Glutathione and tryptophan metabolism are required for Arabidopsis immunity during the hypersensitive response to hemibiotrophs.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The hypersensitive response (HR) is a type of strong immune response found in plants that is accompanied by localized cell death. However, it is unclear how HR can block a broad range of pathogens with different infective modes. In this study, we report that ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase GSH1, which is critical for glutathione biosynthesis, and tryptophan (Trp) metabolism contribute to HR and block development of fungal pathogens with hemibiotrophic infective modes. We found that GSH1 is involved in the penetration2 (PEN2)-based entry control of the nonadapted hemibiotroph Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. However, Arabidopsis mutants specifically defective in entry control terminated further growth of the pathogen in the presence of HR cell death, whereas gsh1 mutants supported pathogen invasive growth in planta, demonstrating the requirement of GSH1 for postinvasive nonhost resistance. Remarkably, on the basis of the phenotypic and metabolic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in Trp metabolism, we showed that biosynthesis of Trp-derived phytochemicals is also essential for resistance to C. gloeosporioides during postinvasive HR. By contrast, GSH1 and these metabolites are likely to be dispensable for the induction of cell death during postinvasive HR. Furthermore, the resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1/resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 dual Resistance gene-dependent immunity of Arabidopsis to the adapted hemibiotroph shared GSH1 and cytochromes P450 CYP79B2/CYP79B3 with postinvasive nonhost resistance, whereas resistance to P. syringae pv. maculicola 1 and resistance to P. syringae 2-based Resistance gene resistance against bacterial pathogens did not. These data suggest that the synthesis of glutathione and Trp-derived metabolites during HR play crucial roles in terminating the invasive growth of both nonadapted and adapted hemibiotrophs.
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Postmortem computed tomography lung findings in fatal of hypothermia.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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To identify lung findings specific to fatal hypothermia on postmortem computed tomography (CT) imaging. Whole body CT scans were performed followed by full autopsy to investigate causes of death. There were 13 fatal hypothermia cases (group A) and 118 with other causes of death (group B). The chest cavity (CC), dead space including fluid/pneumothorax (DS), aerated lung volume (ALV), percentage aerated lung (%ALV), and tracheal aerated volume (ATV) were measured. Autopsy findings of groups A and B were compared. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to identify factors specific to fatal hypothermia. There were no differences in age, sex, number with emphysema, or time from death to CT examination between the 2 groups. CC, DS, ALV, %ALV, and ATV were 2601.0±247.4 (mL), 281.1±136.5 (mL), 1564.5±281.1 (mL), 62.1±6.2(%), and 21.8±2.7 (mL) in group A and 2339.2±67.7 (mL), 241.1±38.0 (mL), 739.9±67.0 (mL), 31.4±2.3(%), and 15.9±0.8 (mL) in group B, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between groups A and B in ALV, %ALV and ATV. The multiple comparison procedure revealed that ALV and %ALV differed significantly between fatal hypothermia and other causes of death (p<0.05). Using ROC evaluation, %ALV had the largest area under the curve (0.819). This study demonstrates that the %ALV is greater in fatal hypothermia cases than in those with other causes of death on postmortem CT chest imaging. Based on CT, hypothermia is very likely to be the cause of death if the %ALV is >70%.
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Association between mental health and physical activity in patients with chronic heart failure.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Abstract Purpose: Poor mental health (MH) is common in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. No studies have reported a relation between MH status and objectively measured physical activity (PA) in CHF patients. The study aim was to determine self-reported MH-related differences associated with PA and target values of PA for improved MH in CHF outpatients. Methods: We divided 243 CHF outpatients (mean age 57.1 years) into two groups according to MH assessed by Short Form-36 score: high-MH (?68 points) group (n?=?148) and poor-MH (<68 points) group (n?=?95). Average step count (steps) and energy expenditure on PA (EE) (kcal) per day for 1 week of PA were assessed by an accelerometer and compared between groups. PA resulting in high MH was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: PA correlated positively with MH in all patients (steps: r?=?0.46, p?
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Site-targeted non-viral gene delivery by direct DNA injection into the pancreatic parenchyma and subsequent in vivo electroporation in mice.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The pancreas is considered an important gene therapy target because the organ is the site of several high burden diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. We aimed to develop an efficient in vivo gene delivery system using non-viral DNA. Direct intra-parenchymal injection of a solution containing circular plasmid pmaxGFP DNA was performed on adult anesthetized ICR female mice. The injection site was sandwiched with a pair of tweezer-type electrode disks, and electroporated using a square-pulse generator. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression within the injected pancreatic portion was observed one day after gene delivery. GFP expression reduced to baseline within a week of transfection. Application of voltages over 40 V resulted in tissue damage during electroporation. We demonstrate that electroporation is effective for safe and efficient transfection of pancreatic cells. This novel gene delivery method to the pancreatic parenchyma may find application in gene therapy strategies for pancreatic diseases and in investigation of specific gene function in situ.
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Design principle for increasing charge mobility of ?-conjugated polymers using regularly localized molecular orbitals.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The feasibility of using ?-conjugated polymers as next-generation electronic materials is extensively studied; however, their charge mobilities are lower than those of inorganic materials. Here we demonstrate a new design principle for increasing the intramolecular charge mobility of ?-conjugated polymers by covering the ?-conjugated chain with macrocycles and regularly localizing ?-molecular orbitals to realize an ideal orbital alignment for charge hopping. Based on theoretical predictions, insulated wires containing meta-junctioned poly(phenylene-ethynylene) as the backbone units were designed and synthesized. The zigzag wires exhibited higher intramolecular charge mobility than the corresponding linear wires. When the length of the linear region of the zigzag wires was increased to 10 phenylene-ethynylene units, the intramolecular charge mobility increased to 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Theoretical analysis confirmed that this design principle is suitable for obtaining ideal charge mobilities in ?-conjugated polymer chains and that it provides the most effective pathways for inter-site hopping processes.
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Genetic variation in four maturity genes affects photoperiod insensitivity and PHYA-regulated post-flowering responses of soybean.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Absence of or low sensitivity to photoperiod is necessary for short-day crops, such as rice and soybean, to adapt to high latitudes. Photoperiod insensitivity in soybeans is controlled by two genetic systems and involves three important maturity genes: E1, a repressor for two soybean orthologs of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (GmFT2a and GmFT5a), and E3 and E4, which are phytochrome A genes. To elucidate the diverse mechanisms underlying photoperiod insensitivity in soybean, we assessed the genotypes of four maturity genes (E1 through E4) in early-flowering photoperiod-insensitive cultivars and their association with post-flowering responses.
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Inferring the evolution of teleostean zp genes based on their sites of expression.
J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Fish egg envelopes consist of several glycoproteins, called zona pellucida (ZP) proteins, which are conserved among chordates. Euteleosts synthesize ZP proteins in the liver, while elopomorphs synthesize them in the ovaries. In Cypriniformes, zp genes are expressed in the ovaries. We investigated the zp genes of two Otocephalan orders: Clupeiformes (Pacific herring and Japanese anchovy) and Gonorynchiformes (milkfish), which diverged earlier than Cypriniformes. cDNA cloning of zp gene homologs revealed that Pacific herring and Japanese anchovy possessed both ovary- and liver-expressed zp genes; however, the zp genes of milkfish were only expressed in the ovaries. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that ovary- and liver-expressed zpc genes of two the Clupeiformes formed independent clades. Based on this, we hypothesized the evolution of teleostean zp genes, focusing on the organ expressing zp gene. As in other chordates, the original site of expression of zp genes was likely the ovary. In the early stage of teleostean evolution, the ancestral zp genes acquired the ability to express in the liver. Later, one of the two expression sites became dominant. The liver-expressed zp genes are component proteins of the egg envelope in the Euteleostei. In Otocephala, Clupeiformes possess both ovary- and liver-expressed genes that presumably participate in egg envelope formation, whereas the Gonorynchiformes and Cypriniformes have primarily preserved ovary expressed zp genes.
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Knee extensor muscle strength and index of renal function associated with an exercise capacity of 5 metabolic equivalents in male chronic heart failure patients with chronic kidney disease.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The goal of the present study was to determine knee extensor muscle strength (KEMS) and degree of renal dysfunction associated with an exercise capacity of ?5 metabolic equivalents (METs) in male chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Transformation to small-cell lung cancer following treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. After disease progression, histological examination of a secondary biopsy specimen revealed small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) that was sensitive to standard SCLC treatment. Tumor markers, including ProGRP and NSE, were elevated. Transformation to SCLC is a mechanism for acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. Secondary biopsy is important for evaluation of genetic and histological changes and selection of appropriate treatment. Furthermore, ProGRP and NSE may be useful for early detection of SCLC transformation in cases resistant to EGFR-TKI therapy.
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Simulation study for adsorption-induced structural transition in stacked-layer porous coordination polymers: equilibrium and hysteretic adsorption behaviors.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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We conduct grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and a free-energy analysis for a simplified model of a stacked-layer porous coordination polymer to understand the gate phenomenon, which is a structural transition of a host framework induced by the adsorption of guest particles. Our calculations demonstrate that stabilization of the system due to the guest adsorption causes host deformation under thermodynamic equilibrium. We also investigate spontaneous transition behaviors (gate opening and closing under metastable conditions). The structural transition should occur when the required activation energy, which is determined using the free-energy analysis, becomes equal to the system energy fluctuation. To estimate the system energy fluctuation, we construct a kinetic transition model based on the transition state theory. In this model, the system energy fluctuation can be calculated by setting the adsorption time and transition domain size of the host framework. The model demonstrates that a smaller domain size results in a gate-opening transition at lower pressure. Furthermore, we reveal that the slope of the logarithm of the equilibrium structural transition pressure versus reciprocal temperature shows transition enthalpy, and that slopes of the gate-opening and -closing transition pressures versus reciprocal temperature show activation enthalpies.
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Improvement of hydrodynamics-based gene transfer of nonviral DNA targeted to murine hepatocytes.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The liver is an important organ for supporting the life of an individual. Gene transfer toward this organ has been attempted in many laboratories to date; however, there have been few reports on improved liver-targeted gene delivery by using a nonviral vector. In this study, we examined the effect of various types of gene delivery carriers on enhancing the uptake and gene expression of exogenous DNA in murine hepatocytes when a hydrodynamics-based gene delivery (HGD) is performed via tail-vein injection. Mice were singly injected with a large amount of phosphate-buffered saline containing reporter plasmid DNA and/or with a gene delivery carrier. One day after the gene delivery, the animals livers were dissected and subjected to biochemical, histochemical, and molecular biological analyses. The strongest signal from the reporter plasmid DNA was observed when the DNA was mixed with a polyethylenimine- (PEI-) based reagent. Coinjection with pCRTEIL (a loxP-floxed reporter construct) and pTR/NCre (a liver-specific Cre expression vector) resulted in the liver-specific recombination of pCRTEIL. The combination of PEI with HGD would thus be a valuable tool for liver-specific manipulation to examine the function of a gene of interest in the liver and for creating liver disease models.
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Patterning of solution-processable materials on templates fabricated from mixed Langmuir-Blodgett films.
J Oleo Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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We report a useful lithographic technique for the fabrication of organic or metal films on wettability-patterned surfaces fabricated solely through self-assembly. The phase-separated structures in mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films can be tuned by adjusting intermolecular interactions in film-forming molecules such as fatty acids, hybrid carboxylic acids, and silane-coupling agents. Templates are fabricated from phase-separated mixed LB films and organic phosphor and metal films can be formed on the templates using casting, dip-coating, and solvent evaporation techniques. This methodology enables low-cost and low-energy fabrication of patterned films comprising solution-processable materials in small facilities.
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Identification and structure of a novel archaeal HypB for [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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HypB (metal-binding GTPase) and HypA (nickel metallochaperone) are required for nickel insertion into [NiFe] hydrogenase. However, the HypB homolog proteins are not found in some archaeal species including Thermococcales. In this article, we identify a novel archaeal Mrp/MinD family ATPase-type HypB from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tk-mmHypB) and determine its crystal structure. The mmhypB gene is conserved among species lacking the hypB gene and is located adjacent to the hypA gene on their genome. Deletion of the mmhypB gene leads to a significant reduction in hydrogen-dependent growth of T. kodakarensis, which is restored by nickel supplementation. The monomer structure of Tk-mmHypB is similar to those of the Mrp/MinD family ATPases. The ADP molecules are tightly bound to the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that Tk-mmHypB binds ATP with a K(d) value of 84 nM. ADP binds more tightly than does ATP, with a K(d) value of 15 nM. The closed Tk-mmHypB dimer in the crystallographic asymmetric unit is consistent with the ATP-hydrolysis-deficient dimer of the Mrp/MinD family Soj/MinD proteins. Structural comparisons with these proteins suggest the ATP-binding dependent conformational change and rearrangement of the Tk-mmHypB dimer. These observations imply that the nickel insertion process during the [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation is performed by HypA, mmHypB, and a nucleotide exchange factor in these archaea.
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The efficacy of triplet antiemetic therapy with 0.75 mg of palonosetron for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in lung cancer patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are some of the most problematic symptoms for cancer patients. Triplet therapy consisting of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, and dexamethasone is a guideline-recommended antiemetic prophylaxis for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). The efficacy and safety of triplet therapy using a 0.75-mg dose of palonosetron have not yet been investigated. We performed a prospective phase II study using triplet antiemetic therapy with 0.75 mg of palonosetron.
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Usefulness of step counts to predict mortality in Japanese patients with heart failure.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine both an association between mortality and physical activity (PA) objectively measured by accelerometer and cutoff values for PA in Japanese outpatients with heart failure (HF). This prospective observational study comprised 170 HF outpatients (mean age, 65.2 years; 77% men). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope) as indices of exercise capacity were measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing with a cycle ergometer. PA was assessed by accelerometer-measured average step count (steps) per day for 1 week. Study endpoint was cardiovascular-related death. Over an average follow-up of 1,377.1 (median, 1,335) days, 31 cardiovascular-related deaths occurred. Patients were then divided into survivor (n = 139) and nonsurvivor (n = 31) groups. Brain natriuretic peptide level was significantly different between groups. Peak VO2 and steps were also significantly lower and VE/VCO2 slope higher in the nonsurvivors versus survivors. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed brain natriuretic peptide, peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, and steps to be significant prognostic indicators of survival. Multivariate analysis showed PA of ?4,889.4 steps/day to be a strong and independent predictor of prognosis (hazard ratio: 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-6.30; p = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier curves after log-rank test showed significant prognostic difference between PA of ?4,889.4 and >4,889.4 steps/day in the 2 groups (log-rank: 12.19; p = 0.0005). In conclusion, step count as objectively measured by accelerometer may be a prognostic indicator of mortality in Japanese outpatients with HF.
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Tropisms of AAV for subretinal delivery to the neonatal mouse retina and its application for in vivo rescue of developmental photoreceptor disorders.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail.
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Conserved SAMS function in regulating egg-laying in C. elegans.
J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is an intermediate metabolite of methionine and serves as the methyl donor for many biological methylation reactions. The synthesis of SAM is catalyzed by SAM synthetase (SAMS), which transfers the adenosyl moiety of adenosine-5-triphosphate to methionine. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, four sams family genes, sams-1, -3, -4 and -5, are predicted to encode SAMS proteins. However, their physiological roles remain unclear. Here we show that the four predicted SAMS proteins in fact have the ability to catalyze the formation of SAM in vitro, and revealed that only sams-1 mutant animals among the family genes exhibited a significant reduction in egg-laying. Using transgenic animals carrying a transcriptional reporter for each sams gene promoter, we observed that each sams promoter confers a distinct expression pattern with respect to tissue, time of expression and expression level (i.e. promoter specificity). Promoter-swap experiments revealed that the ectopic expression of SAMS-3, -4 or -5 driven by the sams-1 promoter completely rescued egg-laying in sams-1 mutants. These data indicate that SAMS protein function is conserved throughout the entire family.
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Moderate-intensity single exercise session does not induce renal damage.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine whether a single moderate-intensity exercise session induces renal injury based on various parameters that reflect kidney dysfunction, including urinary L-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP).
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Effects of dentin surface modifications treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on fibroblast cell adhesion.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface modifications induced by erbium (Er):YAG and neodymium (Nd):YAG laser irradiation on cell adhesion by comparing it to that of conventional methods for surface preparation after root-end resection.
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Characterization and in vitro interaction study of a [NiFe] hydrogenase large subunit from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2011
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The large subunit of the [NiFe] hydrogenases harbors a NiFe(CN)(2)(CO) cluster. Maturation proteins HypA, B, C, D, E, and F are required for the NiFe cluster biosynthesis. While the maturation machinery has been hitherto studied intensively, little is known about interactions between the Hyp proteins and the large subunit of the [NiFe] hydrogenase. In this study, we have purified and characterized the cytosolic [NiFe] hydrogenase large subunit HyhL from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tk-HyhL). Tk-HyhL exists in equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms. In vitro interaction analyses showed that Tk-HyhL monomer forms a tight complex with Tk-HypA and weakly interacts with Tk-HypC. The expected ternary complex formation was not detected. These observations reflect a diversity in the mechanism of Ni insertion in [NiFe] hydrogenase maturation depending on the organism.
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Pulmonary T-cell lymphoma with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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We report on a 73-year-old man with systemic lymphadenopathy and chest computed tomography (CT) findings of bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacities and interlobular septal thickening. He also had pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Several lymph node biopsies were attempted, without a definitive diagnosis. A thoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed, and the specimen was diagnosed as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Lymphoma cells had invaded lung vessels, resulting in PAH. We should include pulmonary lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of patients with PAH and chest CT findings of diffuse ground-glass opacities and interlobular septal thickening.
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Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: a pilot study.
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm-water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m(2)). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO(2)) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO(2) (both P < 0.05), and remained significantly higher than those at baseline even 30 minutes after WWB with tap water (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels showed a slight, but not significant, increase both immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB with tap water or ISCO(2). Some parameters, such as serum total cholesterol, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO(2) (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO(2) (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.
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Henoch Schönlein purpura associated with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a common immunoglobulin A-mediated vasculitis syndrome in children. Henoch-Schönlein purpura can also affect adults and is probably related to malignancy.
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Predictive importance of left ventricular myocardial stiffness for the prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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This study was designed to determine the prognostic importance of left ventricular (LV) myocardial stiffness, a hemodynamic index which is closely related to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.