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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic variants within obesity-related genes are associated with tumor recurrence in patients with stages II/III colon cancer.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and it is also linked to CRC recurrence and survival. Polymorphisms located in obesity-related genes are associated with an increased risk of developing several cancer types including CRC. We evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes may predict tumor recurrence in colon cancer patients.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in AREG and EREG are prognostic biomarkers in locally advanced gastric cancer patients after surgery with curative intent.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are important ligands to the epithelial growth factor receptor, which is involved in the regulation of progression and stemness in gastric cancer (GC). This study investigated whether frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of AREG and EREG are associated with recurrence-free survival and overall survival in patients with locally advanced GC.
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A novel detection strategy for living circulating tumor cells using 5-aminolevulinic acid.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Most circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection methods have technical limitations, allowing the detection of only cells expressing epithelial antigens, and they cannot identify if the CTCs are alive or dead. Herein, we constructed a novel CTC detection system comprised of filter separation and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based labeling, termed "Fs-ALA". Blood specimens (7.5?mL) were subjected to this method. Cells enriched on the filter were incubated with 5-ALA and Hoechst 33342 as positive markers for CTCs. Images of the whole filter surface were obtained using a fluorescence microscope. No 5-ALA positive cells were detected in healthy blood specimens. The Fs-ALA method was capable of detecting not only EpCAM-positive, but also EpCAM-negative tumor cells. In the Fs-ALA method, one or more CTCs were detected in samples from 13 of 18 (72.2%) colorectal cancer patients. The Fs-ALA method had a significantly higher CTC detection rate than CellSearchâ„¢ in colorectal cancer patients (P?<0.05), and only the former was capable of identifying live cells. This method is highly efficient for detecting CTC populations having undergone phenotypic changes, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
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[Three cases of fatal thrombocytopenia after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Oxaliplatin is a platinum salt that is particularly effective for treating gastrointestinal tumors. However, some reports state that oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy triggers fatal thrombocytopenia. Myelosuppression is recognized as the main cause of oxaliplatin-related thrombocytopenia, and other mechanisms for this side effect have been suggested, including splenic sequestration of platelets related to oxaliplatin-induced liver damage and immune thrombocytopenia. Other causes of thrombocytopenia such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and pseudothrombocytopenia should also be considered. We encountered 3 patients who developed fatal thrombocytopenia after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and describe the differential diagnosis of fatal thrombocytopenia here.
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Circulating tumor cell (CTC) count and epithelial growth factor receptor expression on CTCs as biomarkers for cetuximab efficacy in advanced colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The purpose of this study was to establish whether CTC count and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in CTCs predicted outcome in patients with advance colorectal cancer (ACC) receiving cetuximab as third-line treatment.
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Acquired drug resistance conferred by a KRAS gene mutation following the administration of cetuximab: a case report.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Although a number of studies have reported acquired drug resistance due to administration of epidermal growth factor receptor antibody inhibitors, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unclear.
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Retrospective analysis on the efficacy of bevacizumab with FOLFOX as a first-line treatment in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Past reports have suggested that the addition of bevacizumab (BV) to oxaliplatin combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (leucovorin) (FOLFOX4) provides a limited survival benefit in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Our study aimed to evaluate the survival benefits of a FOLFOX4?+?BV regimen.
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Predictors of the efficacy of FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab as second-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (BV) is the standard treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of BV plus FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan) as second-line treatment in mCRC patients refractory to first-line oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, and determine potential predictive factors affecting survival.
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How do we apply adjuvant FOLFOX to Japanese patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer?
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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In Japan the combination of fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) was approved as adjuvant therapy for stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer only in September 2009. In this study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of FOLFOX as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIIb or IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in a Japanese group at a single institute.
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Circulating tumor cells as a surrogate marker for determining response to chemotherapy in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of circulating tumor cells (CTC) as a surrogate marker of the clinical outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients in order to identify Japanese patients responsive to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Between January 2007 and April 2008, 64 patients with mCRC were enrolled in this prospective study. The treatment regimen was oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Collection of CTC from whole blood was performed at baseline and at 2 and 8-12?weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. Isolation and enumeration of CTC was performed using immunomagnetics. Patients with ?3 CTC at baseline and at 2 and 8-12?weeks had a shorter median progression-free survival (8.5, 7.3 and 1.9?months, respectively) than those with <3 CTC (9.7, 10.4 and 9.1?months, respectively) (log-rank test: P?=?0.047, P?
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Circulating endothelial progenitors and CXCR4-positive circulating endothelial cells are predictive markers for bevacizumab.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy is a standard option in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of circulating endothelial cell progenitors (CEPs) and phenotypical circulating endothelial cells (CECs) as surrogate markers of clinical outcome in mCRC patients to identify responders to bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy.
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Grade 3/4 neutropenia is a limiting factor in second-line FOLFIRI following FOLFOX4 failure in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Previous studies have reported improved outcomes for elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with oxaliplatin or irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. However, few studies regarding second-line chemotherapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan are currenlty available. We analyzed retrospectively the efficacy and toxicity in elderly patients (median age, 74 years) treated with second-line FOLFIRI following first-line FOLFOX4 failure. From March 2005 to January 2008, 35 elderly patients with mCRC received first-line FOLFOX4 comprising leucovorin, 5-FU and oxaliplatin followed by second-line FOLFIRI comprising leucovorin, 5-FU and irinotecan. The median number of treatment courses with FOLFIRI was 5 (range 2-32). One patient responded to the treatment. The disease control rate was 38.2%. The median time to treatment failure was 3 months, and the median overall survival (OS) time from the beginning of first-line chemotherapy was 20.7 months. The incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia was 71.4%, while febrile neutropenia was 11.4%. The incidence of non-hematological toxicity was low. The use of the three active drugs, 5-FU, oxaliplatin and irinotecan, in mCRC produced the longest OS in elderly as well as in younger patients. However, the elderly patients treated with second-line FOLFIRI had a high rate of hematological toxicity. Second-line FOLFIRI may therefore be used with caution in the elderly.
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Availability of irinotecan in a second-line setting confers survival benefit to patients with advanced gastric cancer refractory to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Optimal second-line chemotherapy may contribute to favorable survival in patients who receive first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare a second-line setting using irinotecan with paclitaxel in terms of survival benefit and safety. A total of 179 patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer who had received prior chemotherapy with a fluoropyrimidine-based regimen were treated with irinotecan alone at 150 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15 every 4 weeks (Cohort I) or weekly paclitaxel at 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks (Cohort P) between April, 2004 and March, 2009. Patient characteristics, overall response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety were investigated. Of the 179 patients, 92 received irinotecan and 87 patients who were contraindicated for irinotecan received weekly paclitaxel. The overall response and disease control rates in Cohort I were 6.5 and 43.5%, respectively, as compared with 9.8 and 54.9%, respectively, in Cohort P. No variation was noted in median progression-free survival (Cohort I vs. P, 2.6 vs. 2.8 months; P=0.812), whereas median overall survival (Cohort I vs. P, 9.8 vs. 4.9 months; P<0.0001) differed significantly between the two cohorts. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia and anorexia, which were tolerable in each treatment cohort. Availability of irinotecan in a second-line setting confers a survival benefit to advanced gastric cancer patients in whom fluoropyrimidine-based first-line chemotherapy was unsuccessful.
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Irinotecan monotherapy offers advantage over combination therapy with irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line setting for treatment of advanced gastric cancer following failure of fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The optimal regimen of chemotherapy for gastric cancer in a second-line setting remains to be clarified. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of second-line irinotecan treatment. A total of 134 patients with gastric cancer who had received prior chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine-based regimens were treated with irinotecan (150 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15) alone every 4 weeks (Arm I) or irinotecan (70 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15) plus cisplatin (80 mg/m(2) on day 1) every 4 weeks (Arm IP) between April, 2004 and March, 2009. Patient characteristics, response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival and safety were investigated. Of 134 patients with recurrent or unresectable gastric cancer, 92 were treated in Arm I and 42 patients in Arm IP. Overall response rate in Arm I was 8.1%, compared with 20.0% in Arm IP (P=0.65). Median progression-free survival (Arm I vs. IP; 2.6 vs. 2.7 months, P=0.73) and median overall survival (Arm I vs. IP; 9.8 vs. 8.0 months, P=0.67) did not differ between the two treatment groups. Neutropenia, leukopenia and anorexia were the most common grade 3/4 adverse events, occurring significantly more frequently in Arm IP than in Arm I (P<0.05). Irinotecan may be a key agent, and serial irinotecan monotherapy is more beneficial as compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer in second-line settings. Irinotecan monotherapy is beneficial compared to irinotecan plus cisplatin in second-line settings for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer refractory to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.
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[Successful treatment with cetuximab combination chemotherapy in a case of FOLFOX-refractory rectal cancer with previously unresectable multiple liver metastases leading to complete resection].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Most colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases are not resectable upon initial diagnosis. Recently, chemotherapy improves overall survival of initially unresectable patients by allowing tumor downstaging and complete resection. We report a FOLFOX-refractory rectal cancer patient with unresectable multiple liver metastases, whose tumors could be downstaged and completely resected after initiation of FOLFIRI with cetuximab. Case: A 41-year-old male demonstrated rectal cancer with unresectable multiple liver metastases. He was treated by FOLFOX4 therapy as first-line chemotherapy. After initiating 14 courses, he was treated by FOLFIRI with cetuximab because of disease progression. After initiation of chemotherapy, radiographic examination demonstrated remarkable reduction of primary rectal tumor and metastatic liver tumors. He underwent complete rectal tumor resection after 13 courses of chemotherapy, and metastatic liver tumor resection after 18 courses of chemotherapy.
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Circulating endothelial cells predict for response to bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Standardized enumeration of CEC counts is required to minimize variability and allow cross-studies comparisons. The purpose of this paper is to identify CEC threshold proposal, by CellSearch system, for determining response to bevacizumab-based chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
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Circulating tumor cells as a surrogate marker for determining response to chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The purpose of this study was to quantify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients, and to demonstrate the role of CTCs in cancer therapy. This study investigates the hypothesis that CTCs can predict clinical outcomes in patients with AGC. From November 2007 to June 2009, 52 patients with AGC were enrolled into a prospective study. The chemotherapy regimen was an S-1-based regimen (S-1 with or without cisplatin) or paclitaxel. CTCs of whole blood at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy, were isolated and enumerated using immunomagnetics. Patients with > or =4 CTCs at 2-week points and 4-week points had a shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) (1.4, 1.4 months, respectively) than those with the median PFS of <4 CTCs (4.9, 5.0 months, respectively) (log-rank test; P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with > or =4 CTCs at 2-week points and 4-week points had shorter median overall survival (OS) (3.5, 4.0 months, respectively) than those with the median PFS of <4 CTCs (11.7, 11.4 months, respectively) (log-rank test; P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CTC measurement may be useful as a surrogate marker for determining response to S-1-based or paclitaxel regimens in AGC.
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[Efficacy of preventive treatment for delayed emesis induced by FOLFOX4 chemotherapy].
Yakugaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2009
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The control of delayed emesis is very important in order to continue ambulatory chemotherapy. We performed retrospective study that examined the efficacy of preventive treatment (granisetron+dexamethasone+domperidone) for delayed emesis induced by FOLFOX4 chemotherapy for advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. The subjects were 92 patients who underwent FOLFOX4 chemotherapy at the Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR (group with preventive treatment: 50, group without preventive treatment: 42), and the observation period was set as the 1st-9th cycle. The complete nausea inhibition rate was 50.0% in the group with and 21.5% in the group without preventive treatment, showing a significantly higher inhibition rate in the former (p=0.0047). The complete vomiting inhibition rates were 86.0% and 66.7%, respectively, again showing a significantly higher inhibition rate in the former (p=0.015). On multivariate analysis (multiple logistic analysis), the development of nausea/vomiting and preventive treatment for delayed emesis were significantly associated, showing that the treatment was an independent preventive factor. All adverse reactions induced by preventive treatment were mild, suggesting no safety-related problem. These findings suggested the usefulness of preventive treatment with granisetron, dexamethasone, and domperidone for FOLFOX4 chemotherapy-induced delayed emesis.
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Management of venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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Venous thromboembolism associated with use of a central venous access system is an urgent problem in patients treated with bevacizumab (bev). We investigated the effectiveness of Doppler ultrasound imaging (DUS) in the early detection of catheter-related thrombosis for avoidance of severe venous thromboembolism. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer received either FOLFOX-4 + bev or FOLFIRI + bev. DUS was performed on the deep venous system for detection of thrombus formation during the initial cycle of treatment, followed by re-evaluation after the third cycle in patients with asymptomatic thrombus formation. All patients were followed up until treatment was interrupted. Median duration of follow-up was 484 days (range 72-574). Among 41 enrolled patients, curable symptomatic thrombosis occurred in one, and asymptomatic thrombosis in 21 (51.2%). Of 21 patients undergoing re-evaluation, thrombi remained without progression in 17 patients, and enlargement in 4 patients. In two of the patients in whom there was progression, pulmonary embolism occurred after the sixth cycle. In the asymptomatic group, no thrombi developed as far as the superior vena cava in any patient. In the cases of progression, thrombotic enlargement was observed in all the 4 patients, with decreased vascular flow in 2. Using DUS, we were able to detect asymptomatic thrombosis in the early cycles of treatment, indicating its potential in the monitoring of venous thrombi. In the event of an enlarging asymptomatic thrombosis developing into the superior vena cava along with decreased vascular flow, careful follow-up and appropriate anticoagulant therapy may be recommended without increased risk of bleeding.
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[Biomarker for chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
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Prognostic, predictive and safety biomarkers of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer have been reported. Recently, it was reported that KRAS mutation was present in 27-43% of patients, was associated with resistance to antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), and showed a poorer survival in metastatic colorectal cancer. The search for biomarkers is therefore being conducted vigorously in parallel with a number of clinical trials that are currently being conducted for new drugs. We believe that future areas of research will include the establishment of clinical evidence through large-scale clinical trials and the standardization of analysis protocols.
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Chemotherapy for small-bowel Adenocarcinoma at a single institution.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Small-bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is rare. No standard chemotherapy for this type of cancer has yet been established. At Cancer Institute Hospital (CIH), the chemotherapy regimen used for colorectal cancer is initially used for patients with SBA, followed by that used for gastric cancer.
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[Mechanisms of resistance to target therapy].
Nippon Rinsho
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Cancer therapies are changing from general chemotherapeutic agents to drugs that target specific proteins and signaling pathways. Target therapies, which attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells, have the potential to treat cancers with fewer side effects than conventional therapies. This article reviews mechanisms of resistance to targeted agents, including genetic resistance, bypass track resistance, and defect growth arrest/apoptosis. Secondary mutations reduce the biologic effects of inhibiting the driver oncoprotein. Interaction and cross signaling from targeting receptor to other growth factor receptors may potentially contribute to therapeutic resistance. They explain why solid tumors develop resistance to target therapies in a highly reproducible fashion.
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Clinical outcome of biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice caused by colorectal and gastric cancers.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
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To clarify the prognostic factors for patients with obstructive jaundice due to advanced colorectal and gastric cancers who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.
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High reproducible ADCC analysis revealed a competitive relation between ADCC and CDC and differences between Fc?Rllla polymorphism.
Int. Immunol.
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The anti-CD20 chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab mediates cytotoxicity in malignant B cells via multiple mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and direct induction of apoptosis. To optimize treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, a fuller understanding of these mechanisms and their relative contributions to clinical efficacy is required. Here, we report the characteristics of the mutual impact between ADCC and CDC, the two major effector functions through the Fc receptors. To compare ADCC induced under various conditions, we developed a highly reproducible method of estimating ADCC activity using immortalized effector cells. The set of the effector cells that we established was able to calculate net ADCC with high reproducibility by comparing the cytotoxicity of effector cells expressing exogeneous Fc?RIIIa to those of mock effector cells. In addition, the different property of effector cells of two Fc?RIIIa single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) could be also evaluated in exactly identical background. ADCC assessment in the presence of human serum directly provided the evidence of the competitive interaction of ADCC and CDC. The inhibition of ADCC of effector cells having low affinity SNP of Fc?RIIIa by active complement was more potent than those having high-affinity SNP at the rituximab-concentration comparable to the serum level obtained in patients. These findings could have a profound impact on optimization of the regimen of therapeutic antibodies and on the development of antibodies that will enhance effector function.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.