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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
REDD2 Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Correlates with Nutrient-Induced Activation of mTORC1: Responses to Aging, Immobilization, and Remobilization.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In a previous study (33), we observed a rapid (i.e. 1-3 days) immobilization-induced repression of mTORC1 signaling in hindlimb skeletal muscle of young (2 months old) rats that was associated with elevated expression of REDD1 and REDD2. The present study extends that observation to include an assessment of those parameters in soleus muscle of the immobilized hindlimb of various age rats as well as in response to remobilization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2, 9, and 18 months were subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization for 7 days, while one group of the 9-month old animals underwent 7 days of remobilization. Soleus muscle mass-to-body mass ratio declined with age, with the loss of muscle mass following hindlimb immobilization being inversely proportional to age. Compared to 2-month old rats, the older rats exhibited reduced mTORC1 signaling in the non-immobilized limb in association with elevated REDD2, but not REDD1 mRNA expression. In the 2-month old rats, seven days of hindlimb immobilization attenuated mTORC1 signaling and induced REDD2, but not REDD1 mRNA expression. In contrast, hindlimb immobilization did not further attenuate the age-related reduction in mTORC1 signaling nor further enhance the age-related induction of REDD2 mRNA expression in 9- and 18-month old rats. Across ages, REDD1 mRNA was not impacted by immobilization. Finally, remobilization elevated mTORC1 signaling and lowered REDD2 mRNA expression, with no impact on REDD1 gene expression. In conclusion, changes in mTORC1 signaling associated with aging, immobilization, and remobilization were inversely proportional to alterations in REDD2 mRNA expression.
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Reduced REDD1 expression contributes to activation of mTORC1 following electrically induced muscle contraction.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) is a repressor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. In humans, REDD1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle is repressed following resistance exercise in association with activation of mTORC1. However, whether REDD1 protein expression is also reduced after exercise and if so to what extent the loss contributes to exercise-induced activation of mTORC1 is unknown. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the role of REDD1 in governing the response of mTORC1 and protein synthesis to a single bout of muscle contractions. Eccentric contractions of the tibialis anterior were elicited via electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve in male mice in either the fasted or fed state or in fasted wild-type or REDD1-null mice. Four hours postcontractions, mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were elevated in fasted mice in association with repressed REDD1 expression relative to nonstimulated controls. Feeding coupled with contractions further elevated mTORC1 signaling, whereas REDD1 protein expression was repressed compared with either feeding or contractions alone. Basal mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were elevated in REDD1-null compared with wild-type mice. The magnitude of the increase in mTORC1 signaling was similar in both wild-type and REDD1-null mice, but, unlike wild-type mice, muscle contractions did not stimulate protein synthesis in mice deficient for REDD1, presumably because basal rates were already elevated. Overall, the data demonstrate that REDD1 expression contributes to the modulation of mTORC1 signaling following feeding- and contraction-induced activation of the pathway.
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REDD1 enhances protein phosphatase 2A-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt to repress mTORC1 signaling.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The protein kinase mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) in complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes cell growth and proliferation in response to anabolic stimuli, including growth factors and nutrients. Growth factors activate mTORC1 by stimulating the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates and inhibits the tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC; which is composed of TSC1, TSC2, and TBC1D7 (Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 domain family member 7)], thereby stimulating the mTORC1 activator Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain). We identified the mechanism through which REDD1 (regulated in DNA damage and development 1) represses the mTORC1 signaling pathway. We found that REDD1 promoted the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt on Thr(308) but not on Ser(473). Consistent with previous studies showing that phosphorylation of Akt on Thr(308), but not on Ser(473), is necessary for phosphorylation of TSC2, we observed a REDD1-dependent reduction in the phosphorylation of TSC2 and subsequently in the activation state of Rheb. REDD1 and PP2A coimmunoprecipitated with Akt from wild-type but not REDD1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, suggesting that REDD1 may act as a targeting protein for the catalytic subunit of PP2A. Furthermore, binding to both Akt and PP2A was essential for REDD1 to repress signaling to mTORC1. Overall, the results demonstrate that REDD1 acts not only as a repressor of mTORC1 but also as a constant modulator of the phosphorylation of Akt in response to growth factors and nutrients.
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ALCAT1 controls mitochondrial etiology of fatty liver diseases, linking defective mitophagy to hepatosteatosis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Defective autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) through poorly defined mechanisms. Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial phospholipid required for bioenergetics and mitophagy from yeast to mammals. Here, we investigated a role for ALCAT1 in the development of NAFLD. ALCAT1 is a lysocardiolipin acyltransferase that catalyzes pathological cardiolipin remodeling in several aging-related diseases. We show that the onset of diet-induced NAFLD caused autophagic arrest in hepatocytes, leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. In contrast, targeted deletion of ALCAT1 in mice prevented the onset of NAFLD. ALCAT1 deficiency also restored mitophagy, mitochondrial architecture, mtDNA fidelity, and oxidative phosphorylation. In support for a causative role of the enzyme in mitochondrial etiology of the disease, hepatic ALCAT1 expression was significantly up-regulated in mouse models of NAFLD. Accordingly, forced expression of ALCAT1 in primary hepatocytes led to multiple defects that are highly reminiscent of NAFLD, including hepatosteatosis, defective autophagy, and mitochondrial dysfunction, linking pathological cardiolipin remodeling by ALCAT1 to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. (Hepatology 2014).
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Altered nutrient response of mTORC1 as a result of changes in REDD1 expression: effect of obesity vs. REDD1 deficiency.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Although aberrant mTORC1 signaling has been well established in models of obesity, little is known about its repressor, REDD1. Therefore, the initial goal of this study was to determine the role of REDD1 on mTORC1 in obese skeletal muscle. REDD1 expression (protein and message) and mTORC1 signaling (S6K1, 4E-BP1, raptor-mTOR association, Rheb GTP) were examined in lean vs. ob/ob and REDD1 wild-type (WT) vs. knockout (KO) mice, under conditions of altered nutrient intake [fasted and fed or diet-induced obesity (10% vs. 60% fat diet)]. Despite higher (P < 0.05) S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, two models of obesity (ob/ob and diet-induced) displayed elevated (P < 0.05) skeletal muscle REDD1 expression compared with lean or low-fat-fed mouse muscle under fasted conditions. The ob/ob mice displayed elevated REDD1 expression (P < 0.05) that coincided with aberrant mTORC1 signaling (hyperactive S6K1, low raptor-mTOR binding, elevated Rheb GTP; P < 0.05) under fasted conditions, compared with the lean, which persisted in a dysregulated fashion under fed conditions. REDD1 KO mice gained limited body mass on a high-fat diet, although S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation remained elevated (P < 0.05) in both the low-fat and high-fat-fed KO vs. WT mice. Similarly, the REDD1 KO mouse muscle displayed blunted mTORC1 signaling responses (S6K1 and 4E-BP1, raptor-mTOR binding) and circulating insulin under fed conditions vs. the robust responses (P < 0.05) in the WT fed mouse muscle. These studies suggest that REDD1 in skeletal muscle may serve to limit hyperactive mTORC1, which promotes aberrant mTORC1 signaling responses during altered nutrient states.
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mTORC1 and JNK coordinate phosphorylation of the p70S6K1 autoinhibitory domain in skeletal muscle following functional overloading.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The present project was designed to investigate phosphorylation of p70S6K1 in an animal model of skeletal muscle overload. Within 24 h of male Sprague-Dawley rats undergoing unilateral tenotomy to induce functional overloading of the plantaris muscle, phosphorylation of the Thr³?? and Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites on p70S6K1 was significantly elevated. Since the Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites are purportedly mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) independent, we sought to identify the kinase(s) responsible for their phosphorylation. Initially, we used IGF-I treatment of serum-deprived HEK-293E cells as an in vitro model system, because IGF-I promotes phosphorylation of p70S6K1 on both the Thr³?? and Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites in skeletal muscle and in cells in culture. We found that, whereas the mTOR inhibitor TORIN2 prevented the IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites, it surprisingly enhanced phosphorylation of these sites during serum deprivation. JNK inhibition with SP600125 attenuated phosphorylation of the Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites, and in combination with TORIN2 both the effect of IGF-I and the enhanced Thr?²¹/Ser?²? phosphorylation during serum deprivation were ablated. In contrast, both JNK activation with anisomycin and knockdown of the mTORC2 subunit rictor specifically stimulated phosphorylation of the Thr?²¹/Ser?²? sites, suggesting that mTORC2 represses JNK-mediated phosphorylation of these sites. The role of JNK in mediating p70S6K1 phosphorylation was confirmed in the animal model noted above, where rats treated with SP600125 exhibited attenuated Thr?²¹/Ser?²? phosphorylation. Overall, the results provide evidence that the mTORC1 and JNK signaling pathways coordinate the site-specific phosphorylation of p70S6K1. They also identify a novel role for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in the inhibition of JNK.
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mTORC1-independent reduction of retinal protein synthesis in type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Poorly controlled diabetes has long been known as a catabolic disorder with profound loss of muscle and fat body mass resulting from a simultaneous reduction in protein synthesis and enhanced protein degradation. By contrast, retinal structure is largely maintained during diabetes despite reduced Akt activity and increased rate of cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal protein turnover is regulated differently than in other insulin-sensitive tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exhibited marked reductions in retinal protein synthesis matched by a concomitant reduction in retinal protein degradation associated with preserved retinal mass and protein content. The reduction in protein synthesis depended on both hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency, but protein degradation was only reversed by normalization of hyperglycemia. The reduction in protein synthesis was associated with diminished protein translation efficiency but, surprisingly, not with reduced activity of the mTORC1/S6K1/4E-BP1 pathway. Instead, diabetes induced a specific reduction of mTORC2 complex activity. These findings reveal distinctive responses of diabetes-induced retinal protein turnover compared with muscle and liver that may provide a new means to ameliorate diabetic retinopathy.
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Translational control during endoplasmic reticulum stress beyond phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2?.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress to which an unfolded protein response is activated to render cell survival or apoptosis (chronic stress). Transcriptional and translational reprogramming is tightly regulated during the unfolded protein response to ensure specific gene expression. The master regulator of this response is the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4 signaling where eIF2? is phosphorylated (eIF2?-P) by the kinase PERK. This signal leads to global translational shutdown, but it also enables translation of the transcription factor ATF4 mRNA. We showed recently that ATF4 induces an anabolic program through the up-regulation of selected amino acid transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Paradoxically, this anabolic program led cells to apoptosis during chronic ER stress in a manner that involved recovery from stress-induced protein synthesis inhibition. By using eIF2?-P-deficient cells as an experimental system, we identified a communicating network of signaling pathways that contribute to the inhibition of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress. This eIF2?-P-independent network includes (i) inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase protein complex 1 (mTORC1)-targeted protein phosphorylation, (ii) inhibited translation of a selective group of 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine mRNAs (encoding proteins involved in the translation machinery and translationally controlled by mTORC1 signaling), and (iii) inhibited translation of non-5'-terminal oligopyrimidine ribosomal protein mRNAs and ribosomal RNA biogenesis. We propose that the PERK/eIF2?-P/ATF4 signaling acts as a brake in the decline of protein synthesis during chronic ER stress by positively regulating signaling downstream of the mTORC1 activity. These studies advance our knowledge on the complexity of the communicating signaling pathways in controlling protein synthesis rates during chronic stress.
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Changes in REDD1, REDD2, and atrogene mRNA expression are prevented in skeletal muscle fixed in a stretched position during hindlimb immobilization.
Physiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Immobilized skeletal muscle fixed in a shortened position displays disuse atrophy, whereas when fixed in a stretched position it does not (Goldspink, D. F. (1977) J Physiol 264, 267-282). Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms involved in development of atrophy in muscle fixed in a shortened position, little is known about why mass is maintained when muscle is immobilized in a stretched position. In the present study, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle immobilized in a stretched position would be protected from gene expression changes known to be associated with disuse atrophy. To test the hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized using isoflurane and subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization for 3 days with the soleus fixed in either a shortened or stretched position. All comparisons were made to the contralateral nonimmobilized muscle. Soleus immobilized in a shortened position exhibited disuse atrophy, attenuated rates of protein synthesis, attenuated mTORC1 signaling, and induced expression of genes for REDD1, REDD2, MAFbx, and MuRF1. In contrast, immobilization of the soleus in a stretched position prevented these changes as it exhibited no difference in muscle mass, rates of protein synthesis, mTORC1 signaling, or expression of genes encoding REDD1, MAFbx or MuRF1, with REDD2 expression being reduced compared to control. In conclusion, fixed muscle length plays a major role in immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy whereby placing muscle in a shortened position leads to induction of gene expression for REDD1, REDD2, and atrogenes.
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Disruption of genes encoding eIF4E binding proteins-1 and -2 does not alter basal or sepsis-induced changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis in male or female mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sepsis decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in part by impairing mTOR activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 thereby controlling translation initiation; however, the relative importance of changes in these two downstream substrates is unknown. The role of 4E-BP1 (and -BP2) in regulating muscle protein synthesis was assessed in wild-type (WT) and 4E-BP1/BP2 double knockout (DKO) male mice under basal conditions and in response to sepsis. At 12 months of age, body weight, lean body mass and energy expenditure did not differ between WT and DKO mice. Moreover, in vivo rates of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius, heart and liver did not differ between DKO and WT mice. Sepsis decreased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and S6K1 phosphorylation in WT and DKO male mice to a similar extent. Sepsis only decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in WT mice as no 4E-BP1/BP2 protein was detected in muscle from DKO mice. Sepsis decreased the binding of eIF4G to eIF4E in WT mice; however, eIF4E•eIF4G binding was not altered in DKO mice under either basal or septic conditions. A comparable sepsis-induced increase in eIF4B phosphorylation was seen in both WT and DKO mice. eEF2 phosphorylation was similarly increased in muscle from WT septic mice and both control and septic DKO mice, compared to WT control values. The sepsis-induced increase in muscle MuRF1 and atrogin-1 (markers of proteolysis) as well as TNF? and IL-6 (inflammatory cytokines) mRNA was greater in DKO than WT mice. The sepsis-induced decrease in myocardial and hepatic protein synthesis did not differ between WT and DKO mice. These data suggest overall basal protein balance and synthesis is maintained in muscle of mice lacking both 4E-BP1/BP2 and that sepsis-induced changes in mTOR signaling may be mediated by a down-stream mechanism independent of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and eIF4E•eIF4G binding.
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Integration of signals generated by nutrients, hormones, and exercise in skeletal muscle.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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This review focuses on anabolic signaling pathways through which insulin, amino acids, and resistance exercise act to regulate the protein kinase complex referred to as mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 1. Initially, individual pathways through which the 3 anabolic signals act to modulate mTORC1 signaling will be discussed, followed by a summation of evidence showing an additive effect of the regulators. The emphasis will be on mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle and its contribution to modulation of rates of protein synthesis. In addition, results from studies using cells in culture will be used to provide a more complete picture of the molecular details of the individual pathways.
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RhoA modulates signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in mammalian cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway integrates signals generated by hormones and nutrients to control cell growth and metabolism. The activation state of mTORC1 is regulated by a variety of GTPases including Rheb and Rags. Recently, Rho1, the yeast ortholog of RhoA, was shown to interact directly with TORC1 and repress its activation state in yeast. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the RhoA GTPase modulates signaling through mTORC1 in mammalian cells. In support of this hypothesis, exogenous overexpression of either wild type or constitutively active (ca)RhoA repressed mTORC1 signaling as assessed by phosphorylation of p70S6K1 (Thr389), 4E-BP1 (Ser65) and ULK1 (Ser757). Additionally, RhoA·GTP repressed phosphorylation of mTORC1-associated mTOR (Ser2481). The RhoA·GTP mediated repression of mTORC1 signaling occurred independent of insulin or leucine induced stimulation. In contrast to the action of Rho1 in yeast, no evidence was found to support a direct interaction of RhoA·GTP with mTORC1. Instead, expression of caRheb, but not caRags, was able to rescue the RhoA·GTP mediated repression of mTORC1 suggesting RhoA functions upstream of Rheb to repress mTORC1 activity. Consistent with this suggestion, RhoA·GTP repressed phosphorylation of TSC2 (Ser939), PRAS40 (Thr246), Akt (Ser473), and mTORC2-associated mTOR (Ser2481). Overall, the results support a model in which RhoA·GTP represses mTORC1 signaling upstream of Akt and mTORC2.
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Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) promotes cell survival during serum deprivation by sustaining repression of signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1).
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) functions to repress signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein kinase in complex 1 (mTORC1) in response to diverse stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the role of REDD1 in the response of cells to growth cessation induced by serum deprivation. REDD1 expression was induced within 2h of depriving cells of serum, with the induction being mediated through ER stress, as evidenced by activation of PERK, enhanced eIF2? phosphorylation, and ATF4 facilitated transcription of the REDD1 gene. In wild-type cells, signaling through mTORC1 was rapidly (within 30min) repressed in response to serum deprivation and the repression was sustained for at least 10h. In contrast, in REDD1 knockout cells mTORC1 signaling recovered toward the end of the 10h-deprivation period. Interestingly, Akt phosphorylation initially declined in response to serum deprivation and then recovered between 2 and 4h in wild-type but not REDD1 knockout cells. The recovery of mTORC1 signaling and the failure of Akt phosphorylation to do so in the REDD1 knockout cells were accompanied by a dramatic increase in caspase-3 cleavage and cell death, both of which were blocked by rapamycin. Furthermore, overexpression of constitutively active Akt rescued REDD1 knockout cells from serum deprivation induced cell death. Overall, the results implicate REDD1 as a key regulatory checkpoint that coordinates growth signaling inputs to activate pro-survival mechanisms and reduce susceptibility to cell death.
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SAD-A kinase controls islet ?-cell size and function as a mediator of mTORC1 signaling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in controlling islet ?-cell function. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly elucidated. Synapses of amphids defective kinase-A (SAD-A) is a 5 adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-related protein kinase that is exclusively expressed in pancreas and brain. In this study, we investigated a role of the kinase in regulating pancreatic ?-cell morphology and function as a mediator of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. We show that global SAD-A deletion leads to defective glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and petite islets, which are reminiscent of the defects in mice with global deletion of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, a downstream target of mTORC1. Consistent with these findings, selective deletion of SAD-A in pancreas decreased islet ?-cell size, whereas SAD-A overexpression significantly increased the size of mouse insulinomas cell lines ?-cells. In direct support of SAD-A as a unique mediator of mTORC1 signaling in islet ?-cells, we demonstrate that glucose dramatically stimulated SAD-A protein translation in isolated mouse islets, which was potently inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1. Moreover, the 5-untranslated region of SAD-A mRNA is highly structured and requires mTORC1 signaling for its translation initiation. Together, these findings identified SAD-A as a unique pancreas-specific effector protein of mTORC1 signaling.
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Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine infusion can be used to enhance protein synthesis during continuous feeding, neonatal piglets received the same amount of formula enterally by orogastric tube for 25.25 h continuously (CON) with or without LEU or intermittently by bolus every 4 h (BOL). For the CON+LEU group, leucine pulses were administered parenterally (800 ?mol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) every 4 h. Insulin and glucose concentrations increased after the BOL meal and were unchanged in groups fed continuously. LEU infusion during CON feeding increased plasma leucine after the leucine pulse and decreased essential amino acids compared with CON feeding. Protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD), gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles, but not liver or heart, were greater in CON+LEU and BOL than in the CON group. BOL feeding increased protein synthesis in the small intestine. Muscle S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and active eIF4E·eIF4G complex formation were higher in CON+LEU and BOL than in CON but AMPK?, eIF2?, and eEF2 phosphorylation were unchanged. LC3-II-to-total LC3 ratio was lower in CON+LEU and BOL than in CON, but there were no differences in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 abundance and FoxO3 phosphorylation. In conclusion, administration of leucine pulses during continuous orogastric feeding in neonates increases muscle protein synthesis by stimulating translation initiation and may reduce protein degradation via the autophagy-lysosome, but not the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
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A self-defeating anabolic program leads to ?-cell apoptosis in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced diabetes via regulation of amino acid flux.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced responses are associated with the loss of insulin-producing ?-cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus. ?-Cell survival during ER stress is believed to depend on decreased protein synthesis rates that are mediated via phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2?. It is reported here that chronic ER stress correlated with increased islet protein synthesis and apoptosis in ?-cells in vivo. Paradoxically, chronic ER stress in ?-cells induced an anabolic transcription program to overcome translational repression by eIF2? phosphorylation. This program included expression of amino acid transporter and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes downstream of the stress-induced ATF4-mediated transcription program. The anabolic response was associated with increased amino acid flux and charging of tRNAs for branched chain and aromatic amino acids (e.g. leucine and tryptophan), the levels of which are early serum indicators of diabetes. We conclude that regulation of amino acid transport in ?-cells during ER stress involves responses leading to increased protein synthesis, which can be protective during acute stress but can lead to apoptosis during chronic stress. These studies suggest that the increased expression of amino acid transporters in islets can serve as early diagnostic biomarkers for the development of diabetes.
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Identification of ubiquitin-modified lysine residues and novel phosphorylation sites on eukaryotic initiation factor 2B epsilon.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B? (eIF2B?) plays a critical role in the initiation of mRNA translation and its expression and guanine nucleotide exchange activity are major determinants of the rate of protein synthesis. In this work we provide evidence that the catalytic epsilon subunit of eIF2B is subject to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Lysates of C2C12 myoblasts treated with proteasome inhibitor were subjected to sequential immunoprecipitations for eIF2B? followed by ubiquitin. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of immunoprecipitated proteins resulted in the identification of five peptides containing ubiquitin (diglycine) modifications on eIF2B?. The specific lysine residues containing the ubiquitin modifications were localized as Lys-56, Lys-98, Lys-136, Lys-212 and Lys-500 (corresponding to the rat protein sequence). In addition three novel phosphorylation sites were identified including Ser-22, Ser-125, and Thr-317. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of the E3 ligase NEDD4 were also detected in the LC-MS/MS analysis, and an interaction between endogenous eIF2B? with NEDD4 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation.
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Hyperglycemia mediates a shift from cap-dependent to cap-independent translation via a 4E-BP1-dependent mechanism.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Diabetes and its associated hyperglycemia induce multiple changes in liver function, yet we know little about the role played by translational control of gene expression in mediating the responses to these conditions. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that hyperglycemia-induced O-GlcNAcylation of the translational regulatory protein 4E-BP1 alters hepatic gene expression through a process involving the selection of mRNA for translation. In both streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice and cells in culture exposed to hyperglycemic conditions, expression of 4E-BP1 and its interaction with the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E were enhanced in conjunction with downregulation of cap-dependent and concomitant upregulation of cap-independent mRNA translation, as assessed by a bicistronic luciferase reporter assay. Phlorizin treatment of STZ-treated mice lowered blood glucose concentrations and reduced activity of the cap-independent reporter. Notably, the glucose-induced shift from cap-dependent to cap-independent mRNA translation did not occur in cells lacking 4E-BP1. The extensive nature of this shift in translational control of gene expression was revealed using pulsed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture to identify proteins that undergo altered rates of synthesis in response to hyperglycemia. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a novel mechanism whereby O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1 mediates translational control of hepatic gene expression.
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Regulation of muscle protein synthesis and the effects of catabolic states.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Protein synthesis and degradation are dynamically regulated processes that act in concert to control the accretion or loss of muscle mass. The present article focuses on the mechanisms involved in the impairment of protein synthesis that are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy. The vast majority of mechanisms known to regulate protein synthesis involve modulation of the initiation phase of mRNA translation, which comprises a series of reactions that result in the binding of initiator methionyl-tRNAi and mRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit. The function of the proteins involved in both events has been shown to be repressed under atrophic conditions such as sepsis, cachexia, chronic kidney disease, sarcopenia, and disuse atrophy. The basis for the inhibition of protein synthesis under such conditions is likely to be multifactorial and includes insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, malnutrition, corticosteroids, and/or physical inactivity. The present article provides an overview of the existing literature regarding mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in the regulation of mRNA translation as they apply to skeletal muscle wasting, as well as the efficacy of potential clinical interventions such as nutrition and exercise in the maintenance of skeletal muscle protein synthesis under atrophic conditions. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Molecular basis of muscle wasting.
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Viscera and muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than by continuous feeding.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Continuous and intermittent bolus orogastric feedings are strategies used in infants unable to tolerate normal feeds.
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Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common in infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on muscle protein synthesis, after withholding food overnight, neonatal pigs received a complete formula orally as a bolus feed every 4 h or were continuously fed. Protein synthesis rate and translational mechanisms in skeletal muscle were examined after 0, 24, and 25.5 h. Plasma amino acid and insulin concentrations increased minimally and remained constant in continuously fed compared to feed-deprived pigs; however, the pulsatile meal feeding pattern was mimicked in bolus-fed pigs. Muscle protein synthesis was stimulated by feeding and the greatest response occurred after a bolus meal. Bolus but not continuous feeds increased polysome aggregation, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, tuberous sclerosis complex 2, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4EBP1), and rp S6 kinase and enhanced dissociation of the 4EBP1 ·eIF4E complex and formation of the eIF4E ·eIF4G complex compared to feed deprivation (P < 0.05). Activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, regulatory associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, and eIF2? phosphorylation were unaffected by either feeding modality. These results suggest that in neonates, intermittent bolus feeding enhances muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than continuous feeding by eliciting a pulsatile pattern of amino acid- and insulin-induced translation initiation.
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Hyperglycemia-induced O-GlcNAcylation and truncation of 4E-BP1 protein in liver of a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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4E-BP1 is a protein that, in its hypophosphorylated state, binds the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E and represses cap-dependent mRNA translation. By doing so, it plays a major role in the regulation of gene expression by controlling the overall rate of mRNA translation as well as the selection of mRNAs for translation. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 causes it to release eIF4E to function in mRNA translation. 4E-BP1 is also subject to covalent addition of N-acetylglucosamine to Ser or Thr residues (O-GlcNAcylation) as well as to truncation. In the truncated form, it is both resistant to phosphorylation and able to bind eIF4E with high affinity. In the present study, Ins2(Akita/+) diabetic mice were used to test the hypothesis that hyperglycemia and elevated flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway lead to increased O-GlcNAcylation and truncation of 4E-BP1 and consequently decreased eIF4E function in the liver. The amounts of both full-length and truncated 4E-BP1 bound to eIF4E were significantly elevated in the liver of diabetic as compared with non-diabetic mice. In addition, O-GlcNAcylation of both the full-length and truncated proteins was elevated by 2.5- and 5-fold, respectively. Phlorizin treatment of diabetic mice lowered blood glucose concentrations and reduced the expression and O-GlcNAcylation of 4E-BP1. Additionally, when livers were perfused in the absence of insulin, 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in the livers of diabetic mice was normalized to the control value, yet O-GlcNAcylation and the association of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E remained elevated in the liver of diabetic mice. These findings provide insight into the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes.
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REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) expression in skeletal muscle as a surrogate biomarker of the efficiency of glucocorticoid receptor blockade.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
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Glucocorticoids are potent regulators of cell metabolism, and in part act through a receptor-based mechanism to alter the transcription of target genes. A plethora of studies have utilized the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU-486, both in vivo and in vitro, to reverse or prevent hormone-induced alterations in gene transcription. However, although RU-486 potently blocks many of the functions of the receptor, it does not lower plasma concentrations of the hormone, and a biomarker for the effectiveness of RU-486 in blocking receptor activation is lacking. In the present study, we demonstrate glucocorticoid-induced changes in expression of a protein referred to as regulated in development and DNA damage response (REDD1) in a variety of mouse models of hypercortisolemia including stroke, type 2 diabetes, and stress induced by confinement. Notably REDD1 expression in skeletal muscle positively correlated with changes in corticosterone concentrations in all conditions. RU-486 had no effect on corticosterone concentrations, but strongly attenuated the stroke-, diabetes-, and stress-induced changes in REDD1 expression. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that changes in REDD1 expression in skeletal muscle represent an excellent surrogate biomarker for the efficacy of RU-486 treatment in repressing glucocorticoid action.
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The alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is required for eIF2-mediated translational suppression of vesicular stomatitis virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is a heteropentameric guanine nucleotide exchange factor that converts protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (eIF2) from a GDP-bound form to the active eIF2-GTP complex. Cellular stress can repress translation initiation by activating kinases capable of phosphorylating the alpha subunit of eIF2 (eIF2?), which sequesters eIF2B to prevent exchange activity. Previously, we demonstrated that tumor cells are sensitive to viral replication, possibly due to the occurrence of defects in eIF2B that overcome the inhibitory effects of eIF2? phosphorylation. To extend this analysis, we have investigated the importance of eIF2B? function and report that this subunit can functionally substitute for its counterpart, GCN3, in yeast. In addition, a variant of mammalian eIF2B? harboring a point mutation (T41A) was able overcome translational inhibition invoked by amino acid depravation, which activates Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCN2 to phosphorylate the yeast eIF2? homolog SUI2. Significantly, we also demonstrate that the loss of eIF2B?, or the expression of the T41A variant in mammalian cells, is sufficient to neutralize the consequences of eIF2? phosphorylation and render normal cells susceptible to virus infection. Our data emphasize the importance of eIF2B? in mediating the eIF2 kinase translation-inhibitory activity and may provide insight into the complex nature of viral oncolysis.
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Differential regulation of protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs after a meal.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Protein synthesis (PS) increases after a meal in neonates, but the time course of the changes in PS in different tissues after a meal is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the changes in tissue PS, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, and proportion of ribosomal protein (rp) mRNAs in polysomes over 4 h after a bolus meal in neonatal pigs (n = 6/group; 5- to 7-d-old). The results show a more sustained increase in PS in glycolytic compared with mixed fiber type muscles and no changes in oxidative muscles. PS increased in liver, jejunum, and pancreas but not in kidney and heart. Feeding did not affect AMP-activated protein kinase or RAS-related GTP binding B activation. Phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kD, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein, and rp S6 kinase 1 increased in all tissues after feeding. The proportion of mRNAs encoding rp S4 and S8 in liver polysomes increased within 30 min postfeeding. These results suggest that feeding stimulates mTORC1 signaling in muscle and viscera, but mTORC1 activation alone is not sufficient to stimulate PS in all tissues.
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Chronic insulin treatment of diabetes does not fully normalize alterations in the retinal transcriptome.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Approximately 95% of patients with Type 1 diabetes develop some degree of retinopathy within 25 years of diagnosis despite normalization of blood glucose by insulin therapy. The goal of this study was to identify molecular changes in the rodent retina induced by diabetes that are not normalized by insulin replacement and restoration of euglycemia.
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Molecular characterization of skeletal muscle atrophy in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntingtons disease.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Huntingtons disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutant huntingtin, is characterized by a catabolic phenotype. To determine the mechanisms underlying muscle wasting, we examined key signal transduction pathways governing muscle protein metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy in R6/2 mice, a well-characterized transgenic model of HD. R6/2 mice exhibited increased adiposity, elevated energy expenditure, and decreased body weight and lean mass without altered food intake. Severe skeletal muscle wasting accounted for a majority of the weight loss. Protein synthesis was unexpectedly increased 19% in gastrocnemius muscle, which was associated with overactivation of basal and refeeding-stimulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, elevated Akt expression and Ser(473) phosphorylation, and decreased AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation. Moreover, mRNA abundance of atrogenes muscle ring finger-1 and atrophy F-box, was markedly attenuated during fasting and refeeding, and the urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine was decreased, arguing against a role for the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated proteolysis in the atrophy. In contrast, mRNA expression of several caspase genes and genes involved in the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathway, caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activity, protein abundance of caspase-3 and -9, Fas, and Fadd, and cytochrome c release were elevated. Protein expressions of LC3B-I and -II, beclin-I, and atg5 and -7 in muscle were upregulated. Thus, mutant huntingtin in skeletal muscle results in increased protein synthesis and mTOR signaling, which is countered by activation of the apoptotic and autophagic pathways, contributing to an overall catabolic phenotype and the severe muscle wasting.
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Body weight-dependent troponin T alternative splicing is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals and is partially impaired in skeletal muscle of obese rats.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Do animals know at a physiological level how much they weigh, and, if so, do they make homeostatic adjustments in response to changes in body weight? Skeletal muscle is a likely tissue for such plasticity, as weight-bearing muscles receive mechanical feedback regarding body weight and consume ATP in order to generate forces sufficient to counteract gravity. Using rats, we examined how variation in body weight affected alternative splicing of fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3), a component of the thin filament that regulates the actin-myosin interaction during contraction and modulates force output. In response to normal growth and experimental body weight increases, alternative splicing of Tnnt3 in rat gastrocnemius muscle was adjusted in a quantitative fashion. The response depended on weight per se, as externally attached loads had the same effect as an equal change in actual body weight. Examining the association between Tnnt3 alternative splicing and ATP consumption rate, we found that the Tnnt3 splice form profile had a significant association with nocturnal energy expenditure, independently of effects of weight. For a subset of the Tnnt3 splice forms, obese Zucker rats failed to make the same adjustments; that is, they did not show the same relationship between body weight and the relative abundance of five Tnnt3 ? splice forms (i.e. Tnnt3 ?2-?5 and ?8), four of which showed significant effects on nocturnal energy expenditure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Heavier obese Zucker rats displayed certain splice form relative abundances (e.g. Tnnt3 ?3) characteristic of much lighter, lean animals, resulting in a mismatch between body weight and muscle molecular composition. Consequently, we suggest that body weight-inappropriate skeletal muscle Tnnt3 expression in obesity is a candidate mechanism for muscle weakness and reduced mobility. Weight-dependent quantitative variation in Tnnt3 alternative splicing appears to be an evolutionarily conserved feature of skeletal muscle and provides a quantitative molecular marker to track how an animal perceives and responds to body weight.
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ERK and Akt signaling pathways function through parallel mechanisms to promote mTORC1 signaling.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that, when present in a complex referred to as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), acts as an important regulator of growth and metabolism. The activity of the complex is regulated through multiple upstream signaling pathways, including those involving Akt and the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK). Previous studies have shown that, in part, Akt and ERK promote mTORC1 signaling through phosphorylation of a GTPase activator protein (GAP), referred to as tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), that acts as an upstream inhibitor of mTORC1. In the present study we extend the earlier studies to show that activation of the Akt and ERK pathways acts in a synergistic manner to promote mTORC1 signaling. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Akt and ERK signaling pathways converge on TSC2, and that Akt phosphorylates residues on TSC2 distinct from those phosphorylated by ERK. The results also suggest that leucine-induced stimulation of mTORC1 signaling occurs through a mechanism distinct from TSC2 and the Akt and ERK signaling pathways. Overall, the results are consistent with a model in which Akt and ERK phosphorylate distinct sites on TSC2, leading to greater repression of its GAP activity, and consequently a magnified stimulation of mTORC1 signaling, when compared with either input alone. The results further suggest that leucine acts through a mechanism distinct from TSC2 to stimulate mTORC1 signaling.
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Functional proteomic analysis reveals sex-dependent differences in structural and energy-producing myocardial proteins in rat model of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Long-term ethanol exposure leads to a sexually dimorphic response in both the susceptibility to cardiac pathology (protective effect of the female heart) and the expression of selected myocardial proteins. The purpose of the present study was to use proteomics to examine the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on a broader array of cardiac proteins and how these were affected between the sexes. Male and female rats were maintained for 18 wk on a 40% ethanol-containing diet in which alcohol was provided in drinking water and agar blocks. Differences in the content of specific cardiac proteins in isopycnic centrifugal fractions were determined using mass spectrometry on iTRAQ-labeled tryptic fragments. A random effects model of meta-analysis was developed to combine the results from multiple iTRAQ experiments. Analysis of a network of proteins involved in cardiovascular system development and function showed that troponins were oppositely regulated by alcohol exposure in females (upregulated) vs. males (downregulated), and this effect was validated by Western blot analysis. Pathway analysis also revealed that alcohol-consuming males showed increased expression of proteins involved in various steps of oxidative phosphorylation including complexes I, III, IV, and V, whereas females showed no change or decreased content. One implication from these findings is that females may be protected from the toxic effects of alcohol due to their ability to maintain contractile function, maintain efficiency of force generation, and minimize oxidative stress. However, the alcohol-induced insult may lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and structural abnormalities in male myocardium.
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Mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of mTORC1 by insulin and amino acids.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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In this study, we explored the coordinate regulation of mTORC1 by insulin and amino acids. Rat livers were perfused with medium containing various concentrations of insulin and/or amino acids. At fasting (1×) or 2× (2×AA) concentrations of amino acids, insulin maximally stimulated Akt phosphorylation but had no effect on global rates of protein synthesis. In the absence of insulin, 4×AA produced a moderate stimulation of protein synthesis and activation of mTORC1. The combination of 4×AA and insulin produced a maximal stimulation of protein synthesis and activation of mTORC1. These effects were accompanied by decreases in raptor and PRAS40 and an increase in RagC associated with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). The studies were extended to a cell culture model in which mTORC1 activity was repressed by deprivation of leucine and serum, and resupplementation with the amino acid and insulin acted in an additive manner to restore mTORC1 activation. In deprived cells, mTORC1 was activated by expressing either constitutively active (ca) Rheb or a caRagB·caRagC complex, and coexpression of the constructs had an additive effect. Notably, resupplementation with leucine in cells expressing caRheb or with insulin in cells expressing the caRagB·caRagC complex was as effective as resupplementation with both leucine and insulin in non-transfected cells. Moreover, changes in mTORC1 activity correlated directly with altered association of mTOR with RagB/RagC, Rheb, raptor, and PRAS40. Overall, the results suggest that amino acids signal through the Rag complex and insulin through Rheb to achieve coordinate activation of mTORC1.
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Multi-modal proteomic analysis of retinal protein expression alterations in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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As a leading cause of adult blindness, diabetic retinopathy is a prevalent and profound complication of diabetes. We have previously reported duration-dependent changes in retinal vascular permeability, apoptosis, and mRNA expression with diabetes in a rat model system. The aim of this study was to identify retinal proteomic alterations associated with functional dysregulation of the diabetic retina to better understand diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis and that could be used as surrogate endpoints in preclinical drug testing studies.
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Simvastatin represses protein synthesis in the muscle-derived C?C?? cell line with a concomitant reduction in eukaryotic initiation factor 2B expression.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Statins are a widely prescribed class of cholesterol lowering drugs whose use is frequently associated with muscle-related ailments. A number of mechanisms have been implicated in statin-induced myotoxicity including alterations in both protein synthesis and protein degradation. The objective of the present study was to explore the mechanism(s) contributing to the statin-induced reduction in protein synthesis in the muscle-derived C?C?? cell line. Cells were treated with 10 ?M simvastatin or vehicle alone for 24 h in 1% serum. Cells exposed to simvastatin exhibited reduced rates of protein synthesis, as evidenced by [(35)S]methionine and [(35)S]cysteine incorporation into protein. The reduction in protein synthesis occurred with a concomitant decrease in expression and activity of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), a regulated and rate-controlling guanine nucleotide exchange factor known to affect global rates of protein synthesis. The reductions in protein synthesis and eIF2B expression were prevented by coincubation with mevalonate. Simvastatin treatment also resulted in a proteasome-sensitive reduction in the protein expression of all the subunits of the eIF2B heteropentameric complex. Finally, increased phosphorylation of the catalytic ?-subunit at Ser(535) was observed, an event consistent with an observed reduction in eIF2B activity. These results suggest that repression of eIF2B expression and activity may contribute, at least in part, to the statin-induced reduction in protein synthesis.
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Regulation of the unfolded protein response by eif2Bdelta isoforms.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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Cells respond to a variety of stresses, including unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), by phosphorylating a subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2, eIF2?. eIF2? phosphorylation inactivates the eIF2B complex. The inactivation of eIF2B not only suppresses the initiation of protein translation but paradoxically up-regulates the translation and expression of transcription factor ATF-4. Both of these processes are important for the cellular response to ER stress, also termed the unfolded protein response. Here we demonstrate that cellular response resulting from eIF2? phosphorylation is attenuated in several cancer cell lines. The deficiency of the unfolded protein response in these cells correlates with the expression of a specific isoform of a regulatory eIF2B subunit, eIF2B? variant 1 (V1). Replacement of total eIF2B? with V1 renders cells insensitive to eIF2? phosphorylation; specifically, they neither up-regulate ATF-4 and ATF-4 targets nor suppress protein translation. Expression of variant 2 eIF2B? in ER stress response-deficient cells restores the stress response. Our data suggest that V1 does not interact with the eIF2 complex, a requisite for eIF2B inhibition by eIF2? phosphorylation. Together, these data delineate a novel physiological mechanism to regulate the ER stress response with a large potential impact on a variety of diseases that result in ER stress.
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Control of translation initiation through integration of signals generated by hormones, nutrients, and exercise.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Control of translation initiation in a tissue of an intact mammalian organism is a highly complex process requiring the continuous integration of multiple positive and negative stimuli. For a tissue such as skeletal muscle, which has the capacity to undergo dramatic changes in size and protein content, translation initiation contributes importantly to the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis and is controlled by numerous stimuli, including those arising from nutrients and hormones in the circulating blood, as well as from contraction-induced signaling within the tissue. Many of the pathways conveying signals generated by these stimuli converge on mTORC1, a serine-threonine protein kinase that has been termed the nutrient and energy sensor of the cell and that plays a prominent role in the regulation of cell growth. Control of translation initiation by mTORC1 is mediated through phosphorylation of downstream targets that modulate the binding of mRNA to the 43 S preinitiation complex. Control of translation initiation is also mediated through modulation of binding of initiator methionyl-tRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. Together, modulation of these two regulatory steps in translation initiation accounts in large part for changes in protein synthesis in skeletal muscle produced by the integration of inputs from hormones, nutrients, and exercise.
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Ablation of 4E-BP1/2 prevents hyperglycemia-mediated induction of VEGF expression in the rodent retina and in Muller cells in culture.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contributes to diabetic retinopathy, but control of its expression is not well understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hyperglycemia mediates induction of VEGF expression in a eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein (4E-BP) 1 and 2 dependent manner.
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Ectopic expression of eIF2Bepsilon in rat skeletal muscle rescues the sepsis-induced reduction in guanine nucleotide exchange activity and protein synthesis.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) whose activity is both tightly regulated and rate-controlling with regard to global rates of protein synthesis. Skeletal muscle eIF2B activity and expression of its catalytic epsilon-subunit (eIF2Bepsilon) have been implicated as potential contributors to the altered rates of protein synthesis in a number of physiological conditions and experimental models. The objective of this study was to directly examine the effects of exogenously expressed eIF2Bepsilon in vivo on GEF activity and protein synthetic rates in rat skeletal muscle. A plasmid encoding FLAG-eIF2Bepsilon was transfected into the tibialis anterior (TA) of one leg, while the contralateral TA received a control plasmid. Ectopic expression of eIF2Bepsilon resulted in increased GEF activity in TA homogenates of healthy rats, demonstrating that the expressed protein was catalytically active. In an effort to restore a deficit in eIF2B activity, we utilized an established model of chronic sepsis in which skeletal muscle eIF2B activity is known to be impaired. Ectopic expression of eIF2Bepsilon in the TA rescued the sepsis-induced deficit in GEF activity and muscle protein synthesis. The results demonstrate that modulation of eIF2Bepsilon expression may be sufficient to correct deficits in skeletal muscle protein synthesis associated with sepsis and other muscle-wasting conditions.
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Phosphatidic acid mediates activation of mTORC1 through the ERK signaling pathway.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) assembles into two distinct multiprotein complexes known as mTORC1 and mTORC2. Of the two complexes, mTORC1 acts to integrate a variety of positive and negative signals to downstream targets that regulate cell growth. The lipid second messenger, phosphatidic acid (PA), represents one positive input to mTORC1, and it is thought to act by binding directly to mTOR, thereby enhancing the protein kinase activity of mTORC1. Support for this model includes findings that PA binds directly to mTOR and addition of PA to the medium of cells in culture results in activation of mTORC1. In contrast, the results of the present study do not support a model in which PA activates mTORC1 through direct interaction with the protein kinase but, instead, show that the lipid promotes mTORC1 signaling through activation of the ERK pathway. Moreover, rather than acting directly on mTORC1, the results suggest that exogenous PA must be metabolized to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which subsequently activates the LPA receptor endothelial differentiation gene (EDG-2). Finally, in contrast to previous studies, the results of the present study demonstrate that leucine does not act through phospholipase D and PA to activate mTORC1 and, instead, show that the two mediators act through parallel upstream signaling pathways to activate mTORC1. Overall, the results demonstrate that leucine and PA signal through parallel pathways to activate mTORC1 and that PA mediates its effect through the ERK pathway, rather than through direct binding to mTOR.
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Transcriptomic comparison of the retina in two mouse models of diabetes.
J Ocul Biol Dis Infor
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2009
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Mouse models of type I diabetes offer the potential to combine genetic approaches with other pharmacological or physiological manipulations to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Type I diabetes is induced in mice through chemical toxins or can arise spontaneously from genetic mutations. Both models are associated with retinal vascular and neuronal changes. Retinal transcriptomic responses in C57BL/6J mice treated with streptozotocin and Ins2(Akita/+) were compared after 3 months of hyperglycemia. Specific gene expression changes suggest a neurovascular inflammatory response in diabetic retinopathy. Genes common to the two models may represent the response of the retina to hyperglycemia, while changes unique to each model may represent time-dependent disease progression differences in the various models. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between mouse models of type I diabetes may define cause and effect events in early diabetic retinopathy disease progression. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12177-009-9045-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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Translational control by RGS2.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a family of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-accelerating proteins. We have discovered a novel function for RGS2 in the control of protein synthesis. RGS2 was found to bind to eIF2Bepsilon (eukaryotic initiation factor 2B epsilon subunit) and inhibit the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into new protein. This effect was not observed for other RGS proteins tested. This novel function of RGS2 is distinct from its ability to regulate G protein-mediated signals and maps to a stretch of 37 amino acid residues within its conserved RGS domain. Moreover, RGS2 was capable of interfering with the eIF2-eIF2B GTPase cycle, which is a requisite step for the initiation of mRNA translation. Collectively, this study has identified a novel role for RGS2 in the control of protein synthesis that is independent of its established RGS domain function.
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Feeding rapidly stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing translation initiation.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Food consumption increases protein synthesis in most tissues by promoting translation initiation, and in the neonate, this increase is greatest in skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to identify the currently unknown time course of changes in the rate of protein synthesis and the activation of factors involved in translation in neonatal muscle after a meal. After overnight food deprivation, 36 5- to 7-d-old piglets were administered a nutritionally complete bolus i.g. meal and were killed immediately before or 30, 60, 90, 120, or 240 min later. The increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis peaked 30 min after the meal and this was sustained through 120 min, returning to baseline thereafter. The relative proportion of polysomes to nonpolysomes was higher only after 30 min. Protein kinase B phosphorylation peaked 30 min after feeding and returned to baseline by 90 min. The phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4E-BP1), ribosomal protein S6, and eIF4G was increased within 30 min of feeding and persisted through 120 min, but all had returned to baseline by 240 min. The association of 4E-BP1.eIF4E was reduced and eIF4E.eIF4G increased 30 min after receiving a meal, remaining so for 120 min, before returning to baseline at 240 min. Thus, in neonates, food consumption rapidly increased skeletal muscle protein synthesis by enhancing translation initiation and this increase was sustained for at least 120 min after the meal but returned to baseline by 240 min after the feeding.
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Glucagon acts in a dominant manner to repress insulin-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling in perfused rat liver.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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The opposing actions of insulin and glucagon on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism are well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about how the two hormones interact to regulate hepatic protein metabolism. Previously, we reported that glucagon in the absence of insulin represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In the present study, we sought to determine whether or not the action of one hormone would dominate over the other in the regulation of mTORC1 signaling. Livers were perfused in situ with medium containing either no added hormones (control), 10 nM insulin, 100 nM glucagon, or a combination of the hormones. Compared with control livers, insulin stimulated Akt phosphorylation and mTORC1 signaling, as assessed by increased phosphorylation of the mTORC1 targets eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP)1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K)1, and promoted assembly of the eIF4G x eIF4E complex. Glucagon alone had no effect on mTORC1 signaling but stimulated the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). In the presence of a combination of insulin and glucagon, Akt and TSC2 phosphorylation and PKA activity were all increased compared with controls. However, mTORC1 signaling was repressed compared with livers perfused with medium containing insulin alone, and this effect was associated with reduced assembly of the mTORC1 x eIF3 complex. Overall, the results suggest that glucagon acts in a dominant manner to repress insulin-induced mTORC1 signaling, which is in contrast to previous studies showing a dominant action of insulin in the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis.
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eIF2alpha kinases GCN2 and PERK modulate transcription and translation of distinct sets of mRNAs in mouse liver.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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In eukaryotes, selective derepression of mRNA translation through altered utilization of upstream open reading frames (uORF) or internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) regulatory motifs following exposure to stress is regulated at the initiation stage through the increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 on its alpha-subunit (eIF2alpha). While there is only one known eIF2alpha kinase in yeast, general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2), mammals have evolved to express at least four: GCN2, heme-regulated inhibitor kinase (HRI), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident kinase (PERK). So far, the main known distinction among these four kinases is their activation in response to different acute stressors. In the present study, we used the in situ perfused mouse liver model and hybridization array analyses to assess the general translational response to stress regulated by two of these kinases, GCN2 and PERK, and to differentiate between the downstream effects of activating GCN2 versus PERK. The resulting data showed that at least 2.5% of mouse liver mRNAs are subject to derepressed translation following stress. In addition, the data demonstrated that eIF2alpha kinases GCN2 and PERK differentially regulate mRNA transcription and translation, which in the latter case suggests that increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation is not sufficient for derepression of translation. These findings open an avenue for more focused future research toward groups of mRNAs that code for the early cellular stress response proteins.
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Elevated corticosterone associated with food deprivation upregulates expression in rat skeletal muscle of the mTORC1 repressor, REDD1.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Food deprivation induces a repression of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in part due to reduced signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Previous studies have identified upregulated expression of the protein Regulated in DNA Damage and Development (REDD1) as an important mechanism in the regulation of mTORC1 activity in response to a variety of stresses. Our goal in this investigation was to determine whether modulation of REDD1 expression occurs in response to food deprivation and refeeding, and, if it does, to ascertain if changes in REDD1 expression correlate with altered mTORC1 signaling. As expected, mTORC1 signaling was repressed after 18 h of food deprivation compared with freely-fed control rats and quickly recovered after refeeding for 45 min. Food deprivation caused a dramatic rise in REDD1 mRNA and protein expression; refeeding resulted in a reduction to baseline. Food deprivation is characterized by low-serum insulin and elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. Therefore, initially, alloxan-induced type I diabetes was used to minimize the food deprivation- and refeeding-induced changes in insulin. Although diabetic rats exhibited upregulated REDD1 expression compared with nondiabetic controls, there was no direct correlation between REDD1 mRNA expression and serum insulin levels, and insulin treatment of diabetic rats did not affect REDD1 expression. In contrast, serum corticosterone levels correlated directly with REDD1 mRNA expression (r = 0.68; P = 0.01). Moreover, inhibiting corticosterone-mediated signaling via administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 blocked both the food deprivation- and diabetes-induced increase in REDD1 mRNA expression. Overall, the results demonstrate that changes in REDD1 expression likely contribute to the regulation of mTORC1 signaling during food deprivation and refeeding.
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Fed-state clamp stimulates cellular mechanisms of muscle protein anabolism and modulates glucose disposal in normal men.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Since maximum anabolism occurs postprandially, we developed a simulated fed state with clamped hyperinsulinemia, physiological hyperglycemia, and hyperaminoacidemia (Hyper-3) and explored muscle cellular mechanisms. Whole body [1-(13)C]leucine and [3-(3)H]glucose kinetics in healthy men were compared between hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic (Hyper-1, n = 10) and Hyper-3 (n = 9) clamps. In Hyper-3 vs. Hyper-1, nonoxidative leucine R(d) [rate of disappearance (synthesis)] was stimulated more (45 +/- 4 vs. 24 +/- 4 micromol/min, P < 0.01) and endogenous R(a) [rate of appearance (breakdown)] was inhibited similarly; hence net balance increased more (86 +/- 6 vs. 49 +/- 2 micromol/min, P < 0.001). Glucose R(d) was similar; thus Hyper-3 metabolic clearance rate (331 +/- 23 vs. 557 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.0005) and R(d)/insulin (M, 0.65 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.10 mg.min(-1).pmol(-1).l, P < 0.001) were less, despite higher insulin (798 +/- 74 vs. 450 +/- 24 pmol/l, P < 0.005). In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.025), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6K1); P = 0.008), S6 (P = 0.049), and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1; P = 0.001) increased. With decreased eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF4E).4E-BP1 complex (P = 0.01), these are consistent with increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and translation initiation of protein synthesis. Although mRNA expression of ubiquitin, MAFbx 1, and MuRF-1 was unchanged, total ubiquitinated proteins decreased 20% (P < 0.01), consistent with proteolysis suppression. The Hyper-3 clamp increases whole body protein synthesis, net anabolism, and muscle protein translation initiation pathways and decreases protein ubiquitination. The main contribution of hyperaminoacidemia is stimulation of synthesis rather than inhibition of proteolysis, and it attenuates the expected increment of glucose disposal.
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ATF4 is necessary and sufficient for ER stress-induced upregulation of REDD1 expression.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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In response to a variety of cell stresses, e.g. endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, expression of REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses) is transcriptionally upregulated. However, the mechanism through which ER stress acts to upregulate REDD1 expression is unknown. In the present study, REDD1 expression was found to be upregulated by ER stress in several cell lines. However, in MEF cells lacking the eIF2alpha kinase PERK, ER stress failed to upregulate REDD1 expression, demonstrating that phosphorylation of eIF2alpha was necessary for the effect. Moreover, ER stress led to upregulated expression of the transcription factor ATF4, but in MEF cells lacking ATF4, REDD1 mRNA expression was not increased by ER stress. In contrast, exogenous expression of ATF4 was sufficient to induce REDD1 expression. Overall, the results suggest that REDD1 expression is upregulated during ER stress through a mechanism involving activation of PERK, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and increased ATF4 expression.
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Cap-independent translation of human SP-A 5-UTR variants: a double-loop structure and cis-element contribution.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Human surfactant protein A (hSP-A), a molecule of innate immunity and surfactant-related functions, consists of two functional genes, SP-A1 and SP-A2. SP-A expression is regulated by several factors including environmental stressors. SP-A1 and SP-A2 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) splice variants have a differential impact on translation efficiency and mRNA stability. To study whether these variants mediate internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity (i.e., cap-independent translation), we performed transient transfection experiments in H441 cells with constructs containing one SP-A1 (AD, ABD, or ACD) or SP-A2 (ABD) 5-UTR splice variant between the Renilla and firefly luciferase genes of a bicistronic reporter vector. We found that 1) variants AD, ABD, and ABD exhibit significantly higher IRES activities than negative control (no SP-A 5-UTR) and ACD has no activity; the order of highest IRES activity was ABD > AD > ABD; 2) IRES activity of ABD significantly increased in response to diesel particulate matter (20 microg/ml) but not in response to ozone (1 ppm for 1 h); 3) deletion mutants of ABD revealed regulatory elements associated with IRES activity; one at the end of exon A attenuated activity, whereas a region containing a short adenosine-rich motif in the second half of exon B and the start of exon D enhanced activity; 4) elimination of a predicted double-loop structure or increase in free energy significantly reduced IRES activity; 5) elimination of one or both double-loop structures in AD did not affect cap-dependent translation activity. Thus several factors, including cis-elements and secondary structure type and stability, are required for hSP-A 5-UTR variant-mediated cap-independent translation.
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Hydrogen peroxide impairs insulin-stimulated assembly of mTORC1.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Oxidants are well recognized for their capacity to reduce the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) substrates, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), thereby hindering mRNA translation at the level of initiation. mTOR functions to regulate mRNA translation by forming the signaling complex mTORC1 (mTOR, raptor, GbetaL). Insulin signaling to mTORC1 is dependent upon phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and the inhibition of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC1/2), thereby enhancing the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. In this study we report the effect of H(2)O(2) on insulin-stimulated mTORC1 activity and assembly using A549 and bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. We show that insulin stimulated the phosphorylation of TSC2 leading to a reduction in raptor-mTOR binding and in the quantity of proline-rich Akt substrate 40 (PRAS40) precipitating with mTOR. Insulin also increased 4E-BP1 coprecipitating with mTOR and the phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrates 4E-BP1 and S6K1. H(2)O(2), on the other hand, opposed the effects of insulin by increasing raptor-mTOR binding and the ratio of PRAS40/raptor derived from the mTOR immunoprecipitates in both cell types. These effects occurred in conjunction with a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and the 4E-BP1/raptor ratio. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRAS40 in A549 cells partially reversed the effect of H(2)O(2) on 4E-BP1 phosphorylation but not on S6K1. These findings are consistent with PRAS40 functioning as a negative regulator of insulin-stimulated mTORC1 activity during oxidant stress.
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The mTORC1 signaling repressors REDD1/2 are rapidly induced and activation of p70S6K1 by leucine is defective in skeletal muscle of an immobilized rat hindlimb.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Limb immobilization, limb suspension, and bed rest cause substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass, a phenomenon termed disuse atrophy. To acquire new knowledge that will assist in the development of therapeutic strategies for minimizing disuse atrophy, the present study was undertaken with the aim of identifying molecular mechanisms that mediate control of protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb immobilization for 1, 2, 3, or 7 days or served as nonimmobilized controls. Following an overnight fast, rats received either saline or L-leucine by oral gavage as a nutrient stimulus. Hindlimb skeletal muscles were extracted 30 min postgavage and analyzed for the rate of protein synthesis, mRNA expression, phosphorylation state of key proteins in the mTORC1 signaling pathway, and mTORC1 signaling repressors. In the basal state, mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis were repressed within 24 h in the soleus of an immobilized compared with a nonimmobilized hindlimb. These responses were accompanied by a concomitant induction in expression of the mTORC1 repressors regulated in development and DNA damage responses (REDD) 1/2. The nutrient stimulus produced an elevation of similar magnitude in mTORC1 signaling in both the immobilized and nonimmobilized muscle. In contrast, phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) on Thr(229) and Thr(389) in response to the nutrient stimulus was severely blunted. Phosphorylation of Thr(229) by PDK1 is a prerequisite for phosphorylation of Thr(389) by mTORC1, suggesting that signaling through PDK1 is impaired in response to immobilization. In conclusion, the results show an immobilization-induced attenuation of mTORC1 signaling mediated by induction of REDD1/2 and defective p70S6K1 phosphorylation.
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Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-mediated phosphorylation is governed by competition between substrates for interaction with raptor.
J. Biol. Chem.
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In this study, the interaction of mTORC1 with its downstream targets p70S6K1 and 4E-BP1 was evaluated in both mouse liver and mouse embryonic fibroblasts following combined disruption of the genes encoding 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. Phosphorylation of p70S6K1 was dramatically elevated in the livers of mice lacking 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 following feeding-induced activation of mTORC1. Immunoprecipitation of mTORC1 suggested that elevated phosphorylation was the result of enhanced interaction of p70S6K1 with raptor. These findings were extended to a cell culture system wherein loss of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 resulted in elevated interaction of p70S6K1 with IGF1-induced activation of mTORC1 in conjunction with an enhanced rate of p70S6K1 phosphorylation at Thr-389. Furthermore, cotransfecting HA-p70S6K1 with 4E-BP1, but not 4E-BP1(F114A), reduced recovery of mTORC1 in HA-p70S6K1 immunoprecipitates. Together, these findings support the conclusion that, in the absence of 4E-BP proteins, mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of p70S6K1 is elevated by a reduction in competition between the two substrates for interaction with raptor.
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Integrated regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by EEF2K controls cellular fate and modulates the efficacy of curcumin and velcade against tumor cells.
Autophagy
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces both autophagy and apoptosis yet the molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying the regulation of these two cellular processes in cells undergoing ER stress remain less clear. We report here that eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (EEF2K) is a critical controller of the ER stress-induced autophagy and apoptosis in tumor cells. DDIT4, a stress-induced protein, was required for transducing the signal for activation of EEF2K under ER stress. We further showed that phosphorylation of EEF2K at Ser398 was essential for induction of autophagy, while phosphorylation of the kinase at Ser366 and Ser78 exerted an inhibitory effect on autophagy. Suppression of the ER stress-activated autophagy via silencing of EEF2K aggravated ER stress and promoted apoptotic cell death in tumor cells. Moreover, inhibiting EEF2K by either RNAi or NH125, a small molecule inhibitor of the enzyme, rendered tumor cells more sensitive to curcumin and velcade, two anticancer agents that possess ER stress-inducing action. Our study indicated that the DDIT4-EEF2K pathway was essential for inducing autophagy and for determining the fate of tumor cells under ER stress, and suggested that inhibiting the EEF2K-mediated autophagy can deteriorate ER stress and lead to a greater apoptotic response, thereby potentiating the efficacy of the ER stress-inducing agents against cancer.
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Role of p70S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 proteins in the regulation of protein synthesis.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Modulation of mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation controls not only global rates of protein synthesis but also regulates the pattern of protein expression by allowing for selective inclusion, or exclusion, of mRNAs encoding particular proteins from polysomes. The mRNA binding step is modulated by signaling through a protein kinase known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 directly phosphorylates the translational repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 2, releasing them from the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, thereby promoting assembly of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex. mTORC1 also phosphorylates the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), which subsequently phosphorylates eIF4B, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which sequesters eIF4A from the eIF4E·eIF4G complex, resulting in repressed translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5-untranslated regions. In the present study, we compared the role of the 4E-BPs in the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis to that of eIF4B and PDCD4. We found that maintenance of eIF4E interaction with eIF4G was not by itself sufficient to sustain global rates of protein synthesis in the absence of mTORC1 signaling to p70S6K1; phosphorylation of both eIF4B and PDCD4 was additionally required. We also found that the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G was maintained in the liver of fasted rats as well as in serum-deprived mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2, suggesting that the interaction of eIF4G with eIF4E is controlled primarily through the 4E-BPs.
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Induction of REDD1 gene expression in the liver in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress is mediated through a PERK, eIF2? phosphorylation, ATF4-dependent cascade.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Since the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a vital role in hepatocyte function, it is not surprising that a variety of liver-related diseases are associated with ER stress. As in other tissues, ER stress in the liver leads to generation of the unfolded-protein response resulting in activation of a transcriptional program that promotes restoration of homeostasis within the lumen of the ER. Previous studies using cells in culture demonstrated that ER stress induces expression of REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage responses), a potent repressor of signaling through the protein kinase referred to as the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1). In the present study, the results from the cell culture experiments were extended to show that tunicamycin-mediated ER stress in the liver in vivo also induces REDD1 gene expression. Moreover, the induction of REDD1 gene expression was shown to require the protein kinase PERK and enhanced phosphorylation of its substrate, the ?-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2.
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Post-translational processing of synaptophysin in the rat retina is disrupted by diabetes.
PLoS ONE
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Synaptophysin, is an abundant presynaptic protein involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release. Previous work shows that its content is significantly reduced in the rat retina by streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes. This study tested the hypothesis that STZ-diabetes alters synaptophysin protein turnover and glycosylation in the rat retina. Whole explant retinas from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal STZ injection (65 mg/kg body weight in 10 mM sodium citrate, pH 4.5). mRNA translation was measured using a (35)S-methionine labeling assay followed by synaptophysin immunoprecipitation and autoradiography. A pulse-chase study was used to determine the depletion of newly synthesized synaptophysin. Depletion of total synaptophysin was determined after treatment with cycloheximide. Mannose rich N-glycosylated synaptophysin was detected by treating retinal lysates with endoglycosidase H followed by immunoblot analysis. Synaptophysin mRNA translation was significantly increased after 1 month (p<0.001) and 2 months (p<0.05) of STZ-diabetes, compared to age-matched controls. Newly synthesized synaptophysin degradation was significantly accelerated in the retina after 1 and 2 months of diabetes compared to controls (p<0.05). Mannose rich glycosylated synaptophysin was significantly increased after 1 month of STZ-diabetes compared to controls (p<0.05).These data suggest that diabetes increases mRNA translation of synaptophysin in the retina, resulting in an accumulation of mannose rich glycosylated synaptophysin, a transient post-translational state of the protein. This diabetes-induced irregularity in post-translational processing could explain the accelerated degradation of retinal synaptophysin in diabetes.
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Cell-autonomous regulation of fast troponin T pre-mRNA alternative splicing in response to mechanical stretch.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
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How mechanochemical signals induced by the amount of weight borne by the skeletal musculature are translated into modifications to muscle sarcomeres is poorly understood. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that, in response to experimentally induced increases in the weight load borne by a rat, alternative splicing of the fast skeletal muscle troponin T (Tnnt3) pre-mRNA in gastrocnemius was adjusted in a correlated fashion with the amount of added weight. (Schilder RJ, Kimball SR, Marden JH, Jefferson LS. J Exp Biol 214: 1523-1532, 2011). Thus muscle load is perceived quantitatively by the body, and mechanisms that sense it appear to control processes that generate muscle sarcomere composition plasticity, such as alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Here we demonstrate how mechanical stretch (see earlier comment) of C2C12 muscle cells in culture results in changes to Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing that are qualitatively similar to those observed in response to added weight in rats. Moreover, inhibition of Akt signaling, but not that of ERK1/2, prevents the stretch-induced effect on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing. These findings suggest that effects of muscle load on Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing are controlled by a cell-autonomous mechanism, rather than systemically. They also indicate that, in addition to its regulatory role in protein synthesis and muscle mass plasticity, Akt signaling may regulate muscle sarcomere composition by modulating alternative splicing events in response to load. Manipulation of Tnnt3 pre-mRNA alternative splicing by mechanical stretch of cells in culture provides a model to investigate the biology of weight sensing by skeletal muscles and facilitates identification of mechanisms through which skeletal muscles match their performance and experienced load.
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Toll-like receptor activation suppresses ER stress factor CHOP and translation inhibition through activation of eIF2B.
Nat. Cell Biol.
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Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) to accommodate essential protein translation. However, despite increased levels of phosphorylated eIF2? (p-eIF2?), a TLR-TRIF-dependent pathway assures that the cells avoid CHOP induction, apoptosis and translational suppression of critical proteins. As p-eIF2? decreases the functional interaction of eIF2 with eIF2B, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), we explored the hypothesis that TLR-TRIF signalling activates eIF2B GEF activity to counteract the effects of p-eIF2?. We now show that TLR-TRIF signalling activates eIF2B GEF through PP2A-mediated serine dephosphorylation of the eIF2B ?-subunit. PP2A itself is activated by decreased Src-family-kinase-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of its catalytic subunit. Each of these processes is required for TLR-TRIF-mediated CHOP suppression in ER-stressed cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, in the setting of prolonged, physiologic ER stress, a unique TLR-TRIF-dependent translational control pathway enables cells to carry out essential protein synthesis and avoid CHOP-induced apoptosis while still benefiting from the protective arms of the UPR.
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