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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Outcome of Adjuvant Therapy in Biliary Tract Cancers.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2015
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There are high rates of recurrence after definitive surgery in biliary tract cancer patients. We reviewed the use and effectiveness of adjuvant therapy (AT; chemotherapy±radiotherapy) in a single institution series.
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Relationship Between Male Pattern Baldness and the Risk of Aggressive Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort-the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.
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Consensus and controversy in hepatic surgery: A survey of Canadian surgeons.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Heterogeneity in practice provides an opportunity for further study, as it may [IRT Rev 1] reflect deficiencies in knowledge translation or knowledge gaps. This survey aimed to assess practice patterns for the surgical treatment of malignancies of the liverwith the goal of identifying areas of variability.
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Improved Long-Term Outcomes After Resection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Comparison Between Two Time Periods.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Despite reduced perioperative mortality and routine use of adjuvant therapy following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), improvement in long-term outcome has been difficult to ascertain. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing resection for PDAC within a single, high-volume academic institution over two sequential time periods.
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Impact of viral hepatitis on outcomes after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma: results from a north american center.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are well-recognized risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The characteristics and clinical outcomes of HCC arising from these conditions may differ. This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of HCC associated with HBV and HCV after liver resection.
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Laparoscopic versus open liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma at a North-American Centre: a 2-to-1 matched pair analysis.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Oncological implications of laparoscopic resection in primary hepatic malignancy are not well defined. Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison to an open liver resection (OLR) in peri-operative and long-term oncological outcomes are described from a single North American institution.
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Medial open transversus abdominis plane (MOTAP) catheters for analgesia following open liver resection: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The current standard for pain control following liver surgery is intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) or epidural analgesia. We have developed a modification of a regional technique called medial open transversus abdominis plane (MOTAP) catheter analgesia. The MOTAP technique involves surgically placed catheters through the open surgical site into a plane between the internal oblique muscle and the transverse abdominis muscle superiorly. The objective of this trial is to assess the efficacy of this technique.
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Management of umbilical hernias in patients with ascites: development of a nomogram to predict mortality.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The objective of this study was to develop an easy-to-use nomogram to assist clinicians in predicting patient-specific mortality in this patient population.
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Measuring insight through patient self-report: an in-depth analysis of the factor structure of the Birchwood Insight Scale.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Little research has focused on item analysis and factor structure of the most commonly used measures of insight. We examined the factorial structure of the Birchwood Insight Scale (BIS), a brief, easy-to-administer, self-report measure. We studied the BIS in 327 first-episode psychosis patients, including a test sample (n=163) and a validation sample (n=164). We then used data from 100 patients with chronic serious mental illnesses as a second, external validation sample. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the test subsample, and confirmatory factor analyses with the two validation samples. Confirmatory factor analyses (in both the first-episode psychosis validation sample and the chronic serious mental illness sample) indicated that a single-factor solution, with seven items loading on a single factor-with item 1 ("Some of your symptoms are made by your mind") eliminated-was the best-fitting model. Seven of the eight original BIS items loading on a single factor fit the data well in these samples. Researchers using this efficient measure of patient-reported insight should assess the item distributions and factor structure of the BIS in their samples, and potentially consider eliminating item 1.
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Combined pancreaticoduodenectomy and colon resection for locally advanced peri-ampullary tumours: analysis of peri-operative morbidity and mortality.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Combined pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and colonic resection may be necessary to achieve an R0 resection of peri-ampullary tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure.
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Risk of colorectal cancer for carriers of mutations in MUTYH, with and without a family history of cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We studied 2332 individuals with monoallelic mutations in MUTYH among 9504 relatives of 264 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases with a MUTYH mutation. We estimated CRC risks through 70 years of age of 7.2% for male carriers of monoallelic mutations (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%-11.3%) and 5.6% for female carriers of monoallelic mutations (95% CI, 3.6%-8.8%), irrespective of family history. For monoallelic MUTYH mutation carriers with a first-degree relative with CRC diagnosed by 50 years of age who does not have the MUTYH mutation, risks of CRC were 12.5% for men (95% CI, 8.6%-17.7%) and 10% for women (95% CI, 6.7%-14.4%). Risks of CRC for carriers of monoallelic mutations in MUTYH with a first-degree relative with CRC are sufficiently high to warrant more intensive screening than for the general population.
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Generation of subcutaneous and intrahepatic human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in immunodeficient mice.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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In vivo experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that recapitulate the human disease provide a valuable platform for research into disease pathophysiology and for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies. We present a variety of methods to generate subcutaneous or orthotopic human HCC xenografts in immunodeficient mice that could be utilized in a variety of research applications. With a focus on the use of primary tumor tissue from patients undergoing surgical resection as a starting point, we describe the preparation of cell suspensions or tumor fragments for xenografting. We describe specific techniques to xenograft these tissues i) subcutaneously; or ii) intrahepatically, either by direct implantation of tumor cells or fragments into the liver, or indirectly by injection of cells into the mouse spleen. We also describe the use of partial resection of the native mouse liver at the time of xenografting as a strategy to induce a state of active liver regeneration in the recipient mouse that may facilitate the intrahepatic engraftment of primary human tumor cells. The expected results of these techniques are illustrated. The protocols described have been validated using primary human HCC samples and xenografts, which typically perform less robustly than the well-established human HCC cell lines that are widely used and frequently cited in the literature. In comparison with cell lines, we discuss factors which may contribute to the relatively low chance of primary HCC engraftment in xenotransplantation models and comment on technical issues that may influence the kinetics of xenograft growth. We also suggest methods that should be applied to ensure that xenografts obtained accurately resemble parent HCC tissues.
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The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Adoption Scale: evaluating the diffusion of a tobacco treatment innovation to a statewide prenatal care program and providers.
J Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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When a new patient education program is being considered for adoption by a public health agency, it is essential to determine provider perceptions of its acceptability for routine use. In 2007, the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Perinatal Program, Right From The Start (RFTS), decided to adopt the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program. RFTS is a statewide perinatal home visitation initiative delivered by designated care coordinators (DCCs). The authors developed the SCRIPT Adoption Scale (SAS) in the absence of a valid instrument to assess the perceived attributes of a tobacco treatment innovation among the RFTS DCC population. They evaluated the validity of the five constructs of the Rogers Diffusion of Innovations model in an organization (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability) to predict SCRIPT use. After reviewing the literature and developing draft SAS forms, 2 expert panel reviews established the face and content validity of a 43-item SAS. It was administered to 90% (85/90) of the RFTS DCC population. Psychometric analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of a 28-item scale. All 28 items had factor loadings greater than 0.40 (range = 0.43-0.81). All SAS subscales were strongly correlated, r = 0.51 to 0.97, supporting the convergent validity of a 5-factor SAS. There was a significant association between the DCC SAS score and DCC SCRIPT Program Implementation Index supporting the SAS convergent (construct) validity (r = 0.38). The SAS internal consistencyr = 0.93 and stabilityr = 0.76. Although 2 specific subscales need to be improved, the SAS can be adapted by prenatal care programs to measure the attributes of adoption of new, evidence-based patient education and counseling methods.
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Identification of driver genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by exome sequencing.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Genetic alterations in specific driver genes lead to disruption of cellular pathways and are critical events in the instigation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a prerequisite for individualized cancer treatment, we sought to characterize the landscape of recurrent somatic mutations in HCC. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 87 HCCs and matched normal adjacent tissues to an average coverage of 59×. The overall mutation rate was roughly two mutations per Mb, with a median of 45 nonsynonymous mutations that altered the amino acid sequence (range, 2-381). We found recurrent mutations in several genes with high transcript levels: TP53 (18%); CTNNB1 (10%); KEAP1 (8%); C16orf62 (8%); MLL4 (7%); and RAC2 (5%). Significantly affected gene families include the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing family, calcium channel subunits, and histone methyltransferases. In particular, the MLL family of methyltransferases for histone H3 lysine 4 were mutated in 20% of tumors. Conclusion: The NFE2L2-KEAP1 and MLL pathways are recurrently mutated in multiple cohorts of HCC. (Hepatology 2013).
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Aberrant right hepatic artery in pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma: impact on resectability and postoperative outcomes.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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OBJECTIVES: An aberrant right hepatic artery (aRHA) may pose technical and oncologic challenges during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a result of its proximity to the head of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an aRHA on resectability, and perioperative and oncologic outcomes after PD for PA. METHODS: An 11-year retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 289 patients with PA scheduled for PD with intent for resection were included in the study. RESULTS: Of 289 patients, 249 underwent PD and 40 were found to have unresectable tumours. Incidences of aRHA in the resectable (14.9%) and unresectable (7.5%) groups were similar (P = 0.2); the main reasons for aborting PD were not directly related to the presence of an aRHA. In patients who underwent resection, complications occurred more frequently in the standard PD group (41.5% versus 24.3%; P = 0.04), but there was no difference in rates of positive margin (R1) resection (10.8% versus 16.0%; P = 0.4) or median overall survival (17 months versus 23 months; P = 0.1) between patients with and without an aRHA. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an aRHA in patients with PA does not affect resectability. In patients with resectable tumours, the presence of an aRHA does not increase morbidity or R1 resection rates and does not impact on overall survival.
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Liver resection after chemotherapy and tumour downsizing in patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Among patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM), a subset are rendered resectable following the administration of systemic chemotherapy. This study reports the results achieved in liver resections performed at a single hepatobiliary referral centre after downsizing chemotherapy in patients with initially unresectable CLM.
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Interaction of polymorphisms in mitotic regulator genes with cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Mitotic regulator genes have been associated with several cancers, however little is known about their possible association with pancreatic cancer. Smoking and family history are the strongest risk factors for this highly fatal disease. The main purpose of this study was to determine if polymorphisms of mitotic regulator genes are associated with pancreatic cancer and whether they modify the association between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Ontario with 455 pathology-confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Cigarette smoking history was collected using questionnaires and DNA obtained from blood samples. Genotypes were determined by mass-spectrometry. Odds ratio estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression. Interactions between genetic variant and smoking were assessed using stratified analyses and the likelihood ratio statistic (significance P < 0.05). Variants of MCPH1, FYN, APC, PRKCA, NIN, TopBP1, RIPK1, and SNW1 were not independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk. A significant interaction was observed between pack-years and MCPH1-2550-C > T (P = 0.02). Compared to never smokers, individuals with 10-27 pack-years and MCPH1-2550-CC genotype were at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (MVOR = 2.49, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.55, 4.00) as were those with >27 pack-years and MCPH1-2550-TC genotype (MVOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45, 4.05). A significant interaction was observed between smoking status and TopBP1-3257-A > G (P = 0.04) using a dominant model. Current smokers with the TopBP1-3257 A allele were at increased risk for pancreatic cancer (MVOR = 2.55, 95% CI: 1.77, 3.67). MCPH1-2550-C > T and TopBP1-3257-A > G modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. These findings provide insights into the potential molecular mechanisms behind smoking-associated pancreatic cancer.
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Germline HOXB13 p.Gly84Glu mutation and risk of colorectal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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The HOXB13 pGly84Glu mutation has recently been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer but the association of other cancer sites with this allele has not been assessed. Data has suggested that HOXB13 expression levels are decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines indicating this gene may be involved in colorectal tumourigenesis.
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Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbachs ?=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence.
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Genetic variants in vitamin d pathway genes and risk of pancreas cancer; results from a population-based case-control study in ontario, Canada.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and pancreas cancer have suggested a potential role of the vitamin D pathway in the etiology of this fatal disease. Variants in vitamin-D related genes are known to affect 25(OH)D levels and function and it is unknown if these variants may influence pancreatic cancer risk. The association between 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes was evaluated within the Ontario Pancreas Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study. Pancreatic cancer cases with pathology confirmed adenocarcinoma were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (n?=?628) and controls were identified through random digit dialing (n?=?1193). Age and sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multivariate logistic regression. SNPs in the CYP24A1, CYP2R1, calcium sensing receptor (CASR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRA) and megalin (LRP2) genes were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. For example, pancreas cancer risk was inversely associated with CYP2R1 rs10741657 (AA versus GG, OR?=?0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and positively with CYP24A1 rs6127119 (TT versus CC. OR?=?1.94; 95%CI: 1.28-2.94). None of the associations were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Vitamin D pathway gene variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk and future studies are needed to understand the possible role of vitamin D in tumorigenesis and may have implications for cancer-prevention strategies.
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Clinical and economic comparison of laparoscopic to open liver resections using a 2-to-1 matched pair analysis: an institutional experience.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Surgical resection of hepatic lesions is associated with intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Our center has introduced a laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) program over the past 3 years. Our objective is to describe the initial clinical experience with LLR, including a detailed cost analysis.
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Predictors of peri-opertative morbidity and liver dysfunction after hepatic resection in patients with chronic liver disease.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Hepatic resection in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with a risk of post-operative liver failure and higher morbidity than patients without liver disease. There is no universal risk stratification scheme for CLD patients undergoing resection.
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Comparison of outcomes and costs between laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and open resection at a single center.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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The cost implications of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and a detailed breakdown of hospital expenditures has not been presented in the literature to date. This study aimed to compare hospital costs and short-term clinical outcomes between LDP and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP).
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Cancer risks for monoallelic MUTYH mutation carriers with a family history of colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Cancer risks for a person who has inherited a MUTYH mutation from only one parent (monoallelic mutation carrier) are uncertain. Using the Colon Cancer Family Registry and Newfoundland Familial Colon Cancer Registry, we identified 2,179 first- and second-degree relatives of 144 incident colorectal cancer (CRC) cases who were monoallelic or biallelic mutation carriers ascertained by sampling population complete cancer registries in the United States, Canada and Australia. Using Cox regression weighted to adjust for sampling on family history, we estimated that the country-, age- and sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for monoallelic mutation carriers, compared to the general population, were: 2.04 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.56-2.70; p < 0.001) for CRC, 3.24 (95%CI 2.18-4.98; p < 0.001) for gastric cancer, 3.09 (95%CI 1.07-12.25; p = 0.07) for liver cancer and 2.33 (95%CI 1.18-5.08; p = 0.02) for endometrial cancer. Age-specific cumulative risks to age 70 years, estimated using the SIRs and US population incidences, were: for CRC, 6% (95%CI 5-8%) for men and 4% (95%CI 3-6%) for women; for gastric cancer, 2% (95%CI 1-3%) for men and 0.7% (95%CI 0.5-1%) for women; for liver cancer, 1% (95%CI 0.3-3%) for men and 0.3% (95%CI 0.1-1%) for women and for endometrial cancer, 4% (95%CI 2-8%). There was no evidence of increased risks for cancers of the brain, pancreas, kidney, lung, breast or prostate. Monoallelic MUTYH mutation carriers with a family history of CRC, such as those identified from screening multiple-case CRC families, are at increased risk of colorectal, gastric, endometrial and possibly liver cancers.
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The association between major depressive disorder and obesity in US adolescents: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity was assessed in 4,150 US adolescents aged 12-19 years from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight and height were measured by health professionals and MDD was based on a structured diagnostic interview. The prevalence of MDD in the past year among US adolescents was 3.2% and 16.8% of US adolescents were obese. After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity and poverty, MDD was not significantly associated with obesity among adolescents overall (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-2.9), but an increased odds of obesity was observed among males (adjOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-7.1) and non-Hispanic blacks (adjOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.3) with MDD. Future research on strategies that might reduce the risk of obesity in males and non-Hispanic black adolescents with MDD may be warranted.
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Association of hepatic hemangiomatosis with giant cavernous hemangioma in the adult population: prevalence, imaging appearance, and relevance.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association of hepatic hemangiomatosis with giant cavernous hemangioma (GCH) and describe the imaging appearances and clinical relevance.
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Liver transplantation for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma using poor tumor differentiation on biopsy as an exclusion criterion.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Liberal acceptance criteria are used when offering liver transplantation (LTx) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at our center. This provides a unique opportunity to assess outcomes in a large North American series of patients with advanced tumors.
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Second primary breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers in Black and White breast cancer survivors over a 35-year time span: effect of age.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Breast cancer incidence increases with age and exhibits a Black-to-White crossover around age 45. Breast cancer survivors are at a significantly elevated risk of developing a second primary breast or gynecological cancer compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar crossover occurs in hormonally related second primary breast, endometrial, or ovarian cancers in Black and White women. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry 9 was used to follow 415,664 White and 39,887 Black female breast cancer survivors, diagnosed at age 19 or older, for a second primary breast, endometrial, or ovarian cancer between 1973 and 2007. Cumulative incidence curves were generated; Pepe and Moris test was used to test for significance. Second primary breast cancer followed the incidence pattern of the first primary breast cancer in Black and White women diagnosed before age 45. It was opposite of the pattern of first primary breast cancer in Black and White women diagnosed at age 45 or later. Second primary endometrial and ovarian cancers paralleled the incidence pattern of first primaries of the same anatomic site among Black and White women, independent of the age at diagnosis of the first primary breast cancer. Despite the Black-to-White crossover of first primary breast cancer around age 40, the incidence of hormonally related second primaries does not appear affected by the age at diagnosis of the first primary.
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Cigarette smoking, genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.
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SAFER Latinos: a community partnership to address contributing factors for Latino youth violence.
Prog Community Health Partnersh
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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This paper describes a multilevel youth violence prevention effort called SAFER Latinos (Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos), a collaboration between The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services (GWU) and two key Latino community organizations.
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The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.
J Prim Prev
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.
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Cancers, infections, and endocrine diseases in women with endometriosis.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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To assess the prevalence of patient-reported, physician-diagnosed comorbid conditions in women with endometriosis.
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Germline MutY human homologue mutations and colorectal cancer: a multisite case-control study.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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The MutY human homologue (MYH) gene is a member of the base-excision repair pathway involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. The objective of this study was to determine colorectal cancer (CRC) risk associated with mutations in the MYH gene.
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Diagnostic experience among 4,334 women reporting surgically diagnosed endometriosis.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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To determine whether first physician seen and symptoms beginning in adolescence have an impact on the diagnostic experience of endometriosis.
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Blood oxygen level-dependent liver MRI: can it predict microvascular invasion in HCC?
J Magn Reson Imaging
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To assess Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for noninvasive preoperative prediction of Microvascular Invasion (MVI) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).
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Consistency with the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet among adults with diabetes.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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Few studies have documented whether the dietary patterns of adults with diabetes are similar to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Our objective was to determine differences in the degree of consistency with the DASH diet among adults with self-reported diabetes (with and without self-reported high blood pressure) compared with those without either disease. It was a cross-sectional study using data from 5,867 nonpregnant, noninstitutionalized adults aged ? 20 years with two reliable 24-hour recall dietary interviews in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2003-2004 and 2005-2006. Diabetes and hypertension status were obtained from a questionnaire, and degree of consistency with the DASH diet was calculated based on nine nutrient targets (0- to 9-point DASH score). Multiple linear regression (adjusting for age, energy intake, and other covariates such as education, race, and body mass index) was performed to compare mean DASH scores and mean nutrient intakes among adults with diabetes, with and without high blood pressure, to those without either disease. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean DASH score among the three groups in the unadjusted or fully adjusted multivariable models. Compared with adults without either disease, those with only diabetes had higher intakes of fiber (8.1 g/1,000 kcal vs 7.6 g/1,000 kcal; P=0.02) and total fat as a percentage of total energy (35.3% vs 34.1%; P=0.006), and those with both diabetes and hypertension had higher sodium intake (153.0% of DASH target vs 146.6%; P=0.04). This information about individual nutrients could help guide the development of education programs.
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Up-front hepatic resection for metastatic colorectal cancer results in favorable long-term survival.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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Hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) is best managed with a multimodal approach; however, the optimal timing of liver resection in relation to administration of perioperative chemotherapy remains unclear. Our strategy has been to offer up-front liver resection for patients with resectable hepatic metastases, followed by post-liver resection chemotherapy. We report the outcomes of patients based on this surgical approach.
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Genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
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Individual susceptibility to the toxic effects of cigarette smoke may be modified by inherited variability in carcinogen metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pancreatic cancer risk associated with cigarette smoking and 33 variants within carcinogen metabolism genes and examine whether these variants modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. A population-based study was conducted with 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Epidemiological and smoking data were collected from questionnaires and variants were genotyped by mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (ASOR) and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions between each variant and smoking were investigated. Current smoker status [MVOR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.62, 3.22], 10-27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.18), >27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.46) and longer durations of smoking (19-32 years: MVOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05; >32 years: MVOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. CYP1B1-4390-GG (ASOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.86) and Uridine 5-diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A7-622-CT (ASOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.99) were associated with reduced risk. N-acetyltransferase 1-640-GT/GG (ASOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.05), GSTM1 (rs737497)-GG (ASOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.95), GSTM1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 3.52, 6.79) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.41, 95% CI: 2.67, 7.29) were associated with increased risk. Significant interactions were observed between pack-years and EPHX1-415 (P = 0.04) and smoking status and N-acetyltransferase 2-857 (P = 0.03). Variants of carcinogen metabolism genes are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk and may modify the risk posed by smoking.
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Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Dissemination Project: A Science to Prenatal Care Practice Partnership.
Matern Child Health J
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program selected by the West Virginia-Right From The Start Project for state-wide dissemination. A process evaluation documented the fidelity of SCRIPT delivery by Designated Care Coordinators (DCC), licensed nurses and social workers who provide home-based case management to Medicaid-eligible clients in all 55 counties. We implemented a quasi-experimental, non-randomized, matched Comparison (C) Group design. The SCRIPT Experimental E Group (N = 259) were all clients in 2009-2010 that wanted to quit, provided a screening carbon monoxide (CO), and received a SCRIPT home visit. The (C) Group was derived from all clients in 2006-2007 who had the same CO assessments as E Group clients and reported receiving cessation counseling. We stratified the baseline CO of E Group clients into 10 strata, and randomly selected the same number of (C) Group clients (N = 259) from each matched strata to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCRIPT Program. There were no significant baseline differences in the E and (C) Group. A Process Evaluation documented a significant increase in the fidelity of DCC delivery of SCRIPT Program procedures: from 63 % in 2006 to 74 % in 2010. Significant increases were documented in the E Group cessation rate (+9.3 %) and significant reduction rate (+4.5 %), a ?50 % reduction from a baseline CO. Perinatal health case management staff can deliver the SCRIPT Program, and Medicaid-supported clients can change smoking behavior, even very late in pregnancy. When multiple biases were analyzed, we concluded the SCRIPT Dissemination Project was the most plausible reason for the significant changes in behavior.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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