JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Can metal-free silicon-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets and nanotubes exhibit activity toward CO oxidation?
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Si-doped hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (Si-BNNS) and nanotubes (Si-BNNT) have been investigated by first-principle methods. The strong interaction between the silicon atom and the hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet or nanotube with a boron vacancy indicates that such nanocomposites should be very stable. The significant charge transfer from the Si-BNNS substrate to the O2 molecule, which could occupy the antibonding 2?* orbitals of O2, results in the activation of the adsorbed O2. The catalytic activity of the Si-BNNS for CO oxidation is explored and the calculated barrier (0.29 eV) of the reaction CO + O2 ? CO2 + O is much lower than those on the traditional noble metals. This opens a new avenue to fabricate low cost and high activity boron nitride-based metal-free catalysts.
Related JoVE Video
Spectroscopic and ab initio investigation of 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene-amine complexes: coexistence of C-HN and lone-pair? complexes and intermolecular coulombic decay.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Binary complexes of 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene with methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and triethylamine were investigated using one colour resonant two photon ionization and infrared-optical double resonance spectroscopic techniques combined with high level ab initio calculations. All four amines form CAc-HN hydrogen-bonded complexes. Additionally trimethylamine and triethylamine form complexes characterized by Lp? interactions, due to the electron deficient nature of the phenyl ring of 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene. The Lp? interacting structure of the 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene-trimethylamine complex is about 1.5 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy than the CAc-HN hydrogen-bonded structure, which is the global minimum. Energy decomposition analysis indicates that the electrostatics and dispersion interactions favour the formation of CAc-HN and Lp? complexes, respectively. Interestingly the CAc-HN hydrogen-bonded complex of 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene-triethylamine showed a smaller shift in the acetylenic C-H stretching frequency than the 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene-trimethylamine complex. The observed fragmentation of the binary complexes of 2,6-difluorophenylacetylene with the four amines following resonant two-photon ionization can be explained on the basis of the intermolecular coulombic decay process.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrothermal-assisted synthesis of the Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4)/C nanorod and its fast sodium intercalation chemistry in aqueous rechargeable sodium batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both high safety and low cost give aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion batteries (ARSB) the opportunity for application in stationary energy storage, but the low operating potential of the existing cathode materials limits its energy density. Here, we introduce a hydrothermal-assisted strategy to prepare the Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4)/C nanorod and employ it as a novel high-property cathode material for ARSB. The hierarchical structure is formed by direct in situ carbonization of the surfactants (CTAB and oxalic acid) along with the crystallization of Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4). The prepared Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) with a well-defined 1D nanostructure and uniform particle size is wrapped with a thin carbon layer. For the first time, its sodium intercalation chemistry in an aqueous electrolyte was investigated. Based on the reversible phase transformation and high sodium diffusion coefficient, it is demonstrated to be reliable in an aqueous electrolyte with the rapid ion transport capability. A pair of redox plateaus is observed in the charge and discharge curves at 0.961 and 0.944 V (vs. SCE) respectively with the capacity of 51.2 mA h g(-1) at 80 mA g(-1). Favored by the open ion channel and 1D morphology, the composite exhibits superior high rate capability and 72% of the capacity remains at 1000 mA g(-1). The results not only demonstrate a high-property cathode material for ARSB, but also are helpful for design and synthesis of mixed-polyanion electrode materials with tailored architecture.
Related JoVE Video
TNFR2-IL-17RD heteromerization reveals a novel mechanism for NF-?B activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) exerts diverse roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here, we report that TNFR2 but not TNFR1 forms a heteromer with IL-17RD, also named Sef, to activate NF-?B signaling. TNFR2 associates with IL-17RD, leading to mutual receptor aggregation and TRAF2 recruitment, which further activate the downstream cascade of NF-?B signaling. Depletion of IL-17RD impaired TNFR2-mediated activation of NF-?B signaling. Importantly, IL-17RD was markedly increased in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) in nephritis rats, and a strong interaction of TNFR2 and IL-17RD was observed in the renal epithelia. The IL-17RD-TNFR2 complex in activation of NF-?B may explain the role of TNFR2 in inflammatory diseases including nephritis.
Related JoVE Video
Neuroprotection of nalmefene for postoperative patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: Endogenous opiates play an important role in the secondary injury of brain tissue after central nervous system injury. It was confirmed that nalmefene, an opiates receptor antagonist, has neuroprotective efficacy in animal models. However, evidence of nalmefene treatment for surgical patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is insufficient. Methods: Outcomes of patients treated with nalmefene were retrospectively compared with that of patients without any anti-opiate treatment. The primary outcome was functional outcome at 6 months post ictus, which was assessed using modified Rankin Scales. Secondary outcomes included mortality in 30 days post ictus, state of consciousness evaluated using Glasgow Coma Scale at 1,3,7 days post operation and complications. Results: Of 79 patients in the nalmefene treatment group, 22 (27.85%) had a favorable functional outcome at 6 months, while in the control group, 12 of 72 (16.67%) had the same result (p = 0.273). A significantly better outcome was observed in the surgical group during only one subgroup analyses which was Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) between 3 and 8 (32.26% vs 6.45%, p = 0.006). Conclusions: Nalmefene treatment was safe for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage but could not improve the outcome of either short-term consciousness or long-term functional outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution characteristics of 3,369 chinese colorectal cancer patients for gender, age, location and tumor size during colonoscopy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies have shown the existence of gender- and age-related differences in the incidence and anatomic distribution of colorectal cancers. The purposes of this study were to analyze the distribution characteristics of colorectal cancer patients regarding gender, age, location and tumor size in the course of colonoscopy.
Related JoVE Video
Monodisperse Core/Shell Ni/FePt Nanoparticles and Their Conversion to Ni/Pt to Catalyze Oxygen Reduction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a size-controllable synthesis of monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles (NPs) via a seed-mediated growth and their subsequent conversion to Ni/Pt NPs. Preventing surface oxidation of the Ni seeds is essential for the growth of uniform FePt shells. These Ni/FePt NPs have a thin (?1 nm) FePt shell and can be converted to Ni/Pt by acetic acid wash to yield active catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Tuning the core size allows the optimization of their electrocatalytic activity. The specific activity and mass activity of 4.2/0.8 nm core/shell Ni/FePt after acetic acid wash reach 1.95 mA/cm(2) and 490 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), which are much higher than those of benchmark commercial Pt catalyst (0.34 mA/cm(2) and 92 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V). Our studies provide a robust approach to monodisperse core/shell NPs with nonprecious metal core, making it possible to develop advanced NP catalysts with ultralow Pt content for ORR and many other heterogeneous reactions.
Related JoVE Video
The first investigation of the synthetic mechanism and lithium intercalation chemistry of Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2/C as cathode material for lithium ion batteries.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An iron-based mixed-polyanion compound, Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2, is introduced as a possible cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Phase-pure Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 is successfully prepared by a sol-gel method, and its physicochemical properties are investigated in detail. Special attention is paid on making clear the variation of the phase composition with the annealing temperature and the effect of carbon coating on the electrochemical performance. Apparently phase-pure Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 can only be obtained in a narrow temperature range, either higher or lower annealing temperature outside this temperature range always leads to the impurity phase. The pristine Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 is suffering from its low electronic conductivity (10(-9) S cm(-1)) and theoretical capacity (85 mA h g(-1)), it has a first discharge capacity of only 36 mA h g(-1). Carbon coating is employed to improve the electrochemical performance. When the carbon content is 10 wt%, the discharge capacity of Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2/C reaches the maximum value of 60 mA h g(-1). The electronic conductivity of the composite, the exact discharge capacity of Li9Fe3(P2O7)3(PO4)2 in the composite and the capacity retention of the composite after 30 cycles vary in the same fashion with an increase in carbon content, i.e. first quickly increase and then stabilize.
Related JoVE Video
Electrostatics determine vibrational frequency shifts in hydrogen bonded complexes.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The red-shifts in the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration of C-HX (X = O, N) hydrogen-bonded complexes increase with an increase in the basicity of the Lewis base. Analysis of various components of stabilization energy suggests that the observed red-shifts are correlated with the electrostatic component of the stabilization energy, while the dispersion modulates the stabilization energy.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary MicroRNA Expression Profiling in an Immature Piglet Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass-Induced Acute Lung Injury.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After surgery performed under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), severe lung injury often occurs in infants. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potentially involved in diverse pathophysiological processes via regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes in immature piglet lungs in response to CPB. Fourteen piglets aged 18.6?±?0.5 days were equally divided into two groups that underwent sham sternotomy or CPB. The duration of aortic cross-clamping was 2?h, followed by 2?h reperfusion. Lung injury was evaluated by lung function indices, levels of cytokines, and histological changes. We applied miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis to determine miRNA expression. Meanwhile, qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for validation of predicted mRNA targets. The deterioration of lung function and histopathological changes revealed the piglets' lungs were greatly impaired due to CPB. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 increased in the lung tissue after CPB. Using miRNA microarray, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of 16 miRNAs in the CPB group. Up-regulation of miR-21 was verified by PCR. We also observed down-regulation in the levels of miR-127, miR-145, and miR-204, which were correlated with increases in the expression of the products of their potential target genes PIK3CG, PTGS2, ACE, and IL6R in the CPB group, suggesting a potential role for miRNA in the regulation of inflammatory response. Our results show that CPB induces severe lung injury and dynamic changes in miRNA expression in piglet lungs. Moreover, the changes in miRNA levels and target gene expression may provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of CPB-induced injury to immature lungs.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of oral fluid resuscitation with pyruvate-oral rehydration solution on the hemodynamic parameters and organ functions during shock stage in dogs with a 50% total body surface area full thickness burn].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effect of oral fluid resuscitation with pyruvate sodium-glucose-electrolyte solution (PGES) on hemodynamics, organ functions and mortalities during shock stage in dogs with burn.
Related JoVE Video
Core/Shell Au/MnO Nanoparticles Prepared Through Controlled Oxidation of AuMn as an Electrocatalyst for Sensitive H2 O2 Detection.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monodisperse 5?nm AuMn nanoparticles were synthesized by hydride reduction of manganese acetylacetonate in the presence of Au nanoparticles. The alloy was formed through fast Mn diffusion into the Au structure. The AuMn nanoparticles were converted to Au-MnO composite particles through air annealing at 170?°C. These Au-MnO particles, especially the core/shell Au/MnO nanoparticles, were active for the electrochemical reduction of H2 O2 , with a detection limit reaching 8?nM. This highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on the Au/MnO nanoparticles was used to monitor H2 O2 concentrations released from living cells, from which tumorigenic cells were discovered to release higher levels of H2 O2 than the non-tumorigenic cells.
Related JoVE Video
[The protective effect of valproic acid on myocardium in rats with lethal scald injury and its mechanism].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the protective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on myocardium in rats following lethal burn injury and its mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
New Techniques for Mining Frequent Patterns in Unordered Trees.
IEEE Trans Cybern
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We consider a new tree mining problem that aims to discover restrictedly embedded subtree patterns from a set of rooted labeled unordered trees. We study the properties of a canonical form of unordered trees, and develop new Apriori-based techniques to generate all candidate subtrees level by level through two efficient rightmost expansion operations: 1) pairwise joining and 2) leg attachment. Next, we show that restrictedly embedded subtree detection can be achieved by calculating the restricted edit distance between a candidate subtree and a data tree. These techniques are then integrated into an efficient algorithm, named frequent restrictedly embedded subtree miner (FRESTM), to solve the tree mining problem at hand. The correctness of the FRESTM algorithm is proved and the time and space complexities of the algorithm are discussed. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Related JoVE Video
Minimally invasive surgery treatment for the patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (MISTICH): protocol of a multi-center randomized controlled trial.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The choice of surgical or conservative treatment for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is controversial. Some minimally invasive treatments have been applied to hematoma evacuation and could improve prognosis to some extent. Up to now, studies on minimally invasive surgery for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are still insufficient.
Related JoVE Video
Water oxidation electrocatalysis by a zeolitic imidazolate framework.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The search for efficient water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is of paramount importance in energy and environmental fields, but there exists no good non-noble catalyst that works under acidic and alkaline conditions. Intensive investigations have recently focused on cobalt based complex/solid catalysts. Here, we have introduced a new type of cobalt-based WOC made of metal-organic frameworks where the redox function of cobalt centres was modified by imidazolate linkers for facilitating the proton transfer process. This cobalt-containing zeolitic imidazolate framework (Co-ZIF-9) has been demonstrated for the first time to electrocatalyze the oxygen evolution reaction in a wide pH range. The catalyst was found by theoretical calculation to be capable of activating the water molecule via binding the OH-group to the metal sites with low activation barriers, while the eliminated proton was accepted by the nearby benzimidazolate motifs. This allows Co-ZIF-9 to work effectively for the electrochemical oxygen-evolution reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibiting effect of electroacupuncture at zusanli on early inflammatory factor levels formed by postoperative abdominal adhesions.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We observed the inhibitive effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Zusanli on inflammatory mediators of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions to find out the relationship between EA and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Sixty-four rats were divided into 8 groups (A-H, each = 8): A = sham control; B = abdominal adhesions model; C = abdominal adhesions plus EA; D = sham acupoint control; E = abdominal adhesions plus vagotomy; F = abdominal adhesions plus EA after vagotomy; G = abdominal adhesions plus ?-bungarotoxin (BGT); and H = abdominal adhesions plus EA after ?-BGT. ?-BGT (1??g/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavity after surgery, and the bilateral celiac vagotomy was done during the surgery. On the third day the levels of inflammatory mediators (TNF-?, nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)) in tissues were evaluated. The abdominal adhesion groups developed obvious edema. Compared with sham control, the abdominal adhesion resulted in a significant elevation of inflammatory mediators. EA lowered the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators significantly; EA plus ?-BGT and vagotomy showed less anti-inflammatory effects. The activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway might be one of the mechanisms of EA at Zusanli acupoints to exert the anti-inflammatory effects.
Related JoVE Video
1D nanostructured Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) as high-potential and superior-performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tailoring materials into nanostructure offers unprecedented opportunities in the utilization of their functional properties. High-purity Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) with 1D nanostructure is prepared as a cathode material for rechargeable Na-ion batteries. An efficient synthetic approach is developed by carefully controlling the crystal growth in the molten sodium phosphate. Based on the XRD, XPS, TG, and morphological characterization, a molten-salt assisted mechanism for nanoarchitecture formation is revealed. The prepared Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) nanorod has rectangle sides and preferential [001] growth orientation. GITT evaluation indicates that the sodium de/intercalation of Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) nanorod involves V(3+)/V(4+) redox reaction and Na5V(3.5+)4(P2O7)4(PO4) as intermediate phase, which results in two pairs of potential plateaus at the equilibrium potentials of 3.8713 V (V(3+)/V(3.5+)) and 3.8879 V (V(3.5+)/V(4+)), respectively. The unique nanoarchitecture of the phase-pure Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) facilitates its reversible sodium de/intercalation, which is beneficial to the high-rate capability and the cycling stability. The Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) cathode delivers 80% of the capacity (obtained at C/20) at the 10 C rate and 95% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles. Therefore, it is feasible to design and fabricate an advanced rechargeable sodium-ion battery by employment of 1D nanostructured Na7V4(P2O7)4(PO4) as the cathode material.
Related JoVE Video
Low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysed by regenerable atomically dispersed palladium on alumina.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest, as it promises the ultimate in atom efficiency. Most previous reports are on reducible oxide supports. Here we show that isolated palladium atoms can be catalytically active on industrially relevant ?-alumina supports. The addition of lanthanum oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated palladium atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the presence of intermingled palladium and lanthanum on the ?-alumina surface. Carbon monoxide oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40 °C. The catalyst activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700 °C in air. The high-temperature stability and regenerability of these ionic palladium species make this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts.
Related JoVE Video
Antiproliferative Effect of HSP90 Inhibitor Y306zh Against Pancreatic Cancer is Mediated by Interruption of AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhibition of HSP90 is a potential strategy to treat pancreatic cancer (PC), since many client proteins of HSP90 are found to be over-expressed and/or genetically mutated in PC. These client proteins directly participate in the modulation of proliferation and aggravation of PC. Our previous works led to Y306zh as a novel and potent HSP90 inhibitor. In this study we further investigated the mode of actions of Y306zh as an anti-PC agent.
Related JoVE Video
Pyruvate oral rehydration solution improved visceral function and survival in shock rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent findings showed advantages of a novel pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS) in resuscitation of burns. This study focused on effects of Pyr-ORS on the visceral blood perfusion (VBP), gastrointestinal function, and survival rate, compared with the bicarbonate-based World Health Organization-guided oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS), during intragastric rehydration of lethal hemorrhagic shock in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid multislice T1 mapping of mouse myocardium: Application to quantification of manganese uptake in ?-Dystrobrevin knockout mice.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, multislice cardiac T1 mapping method in mice and to apply the method to quantify manganese (Mn(2+) ) uptake in a mouse model with altered Ca(2+) channel activity.
Related JoVE Video
Tuning nanoparticle structure and surface strain for catalysis optimization.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Controlling nanoparticle (NP) surface strain, i.e. compression (or stretch) of surface atoms, is an important approach to tune NP surface chemistry and to optimize NP catalysis for chemical reactions. Here we show that surface Pt strain in the core/shell FePt/Pt NPs with Pt in three atomic layers can be rationally tuned via core structural transition from cubic solid solution [denoted as face centered cubic (fcc)] structure to tetragonal intermetallic [denoted as face centered tetragonal (fct)] structure. The high activity observed from the fct-FePt/Pt NPs for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is due to the release of the overcompressed Pt strain by the fct-FePt as suggested by quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM-MM) simulations. The Pt strain effect on ORR can be further optimized when Fe in FePt is partially replaced by Cu. As a result, the fct-FeCuPt/Pt NPs become the most efficient catalyst for ORR and are nearly 10 times more active in specific activity than the commercial Pt catalyst. This structure-induced surface strain control opens up a new path to tune and optimize NP catalysis for ORR and many other chemical reactions.
Related JoVE Video
Monolayer assembly of ferrimagnetic Co(x)Fe(3-x)O4 nanocubes for magnetic recording.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a facile synthesis of monodisperse ferrimagnetic Co(x)Fe(3-x)O4 nanocubes (NCs) through thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 and Co(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) in the presence of oleic acid and sodium oleate. The sizes of the NCs are tuned from 10 to 60 nm, and their composition is optimized at x = 0.6 to show strong ferrimagnetism with the 20 nm Co0.6Fe2.4O4 NCs showing a room temperature Hc of 1930 Oe. The ferrimagnetic NCs are self-assembled at the water-air interface into a large-area (in square centimeter) monolayer array with a high packing density and (100) texture. The 20 nm NC array can be recorded at linear densities ranging from 254 to 31 kfci (thousand flux changes per inch). The work demonstrates the great potential of solution-phase synthesis and self-assembly of magnetic array for magnetic recording applications.
Related JoVE Video
CD36-mediated hematoma absorption following intracerebral hemorrhage: negative regulation by TLR4 signaling.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Promoting hematoma absorption is a novel therapeutic strategy for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, the mechanism of hematoma absorption is unclear. The present study explored the function and potential mechanism of CD36 in hematoma absorption using in vitro and in vivo ICH models. Hematoma absorption in CD36-deficient ICH patients was examined. Compared with patients with normal CD36 expression, CD36-deficient ICH patients had slower hematoma adsorption and aggravated neurologic deficits. CD36 expression in perihematomal tissues in wild-type mice following ICH was increased, whereas the hematoma absorption in CD36(-/-) mice was decreased. CD36(-/-) mice also showed aggravated neurologic deficits and increased TNF-? and IL-1? expression levels. The phagocytic capacity of CD36(-/-) microglia for RBCs was also decreased. Additionally, the CD36 expression in the perihematoma area after ICH in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice was significantly increased, and hematoma absorption was significantly promoted, which was significantly inhibited by an anti-CD36 Ab. In vitro, TNF-? and IL-1? significantly inhibited the microglia expression of CD36 and reduced the microglia phagocytosis of RBCs. Finally, the TLR4 inhibitor TAK-242 upregulated CD36 expression in microglia, promoted hematoma absorption, increased catalase expression, and decreased the H2O2 content. These results suggested that CD36 mediated hematoma absorption after ICH, and TLR4 signaling inhibited CD36 expression to slow hematoma absorption. TLR4 inhibition could promote hematoma absorption and significantly improve neurologic deficits following ICH.
Related JoVE Video
Perioperative antihypertensive treatment in patients of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (PATICH): a clinical trial protocol.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The management of perioperative period for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage affects the prognosis. Elevated blood pressure is common in the patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and related to a poor outcome. However, study on antihypertensive treatment for surgical patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is insufficient.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrasensitive dual amplification sandwich immunosensor for breast cancer susceptibility gene based on sheet materials.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new electrochemical dual amplification sandwich immunosensor (DASI) was designed for ultrasensitive and accurate detection of the breast cancer susceptibility gene based on the combination of N-doped graphene, hydroxypropyl chitosan and Co3O4 mesoporous nanosheets. N-doped graphene has better electroconductibility than traditional graphene. It is an ideal electrochemical material with a large specific surface area and low resistance. Hydroxypropyl chitosan replaces the pure chitosan in immobilization of the sensor to achieve the sensitivity increase. Co3O4 mesoporous nanosheets can enhance the effective area of the immunoreaction. This kind of dual amplification sandwich immunosensor was first used for the detection of the breast cancer susceptibility gene. It has a wide linear response range of 0.001-35 ng mL(-1) and a minimum detection limit of 0.33 pg mL(-1). It was demonstrated that the stability, selectivity and reproducibility of the sensor were acceptable. The fabricated immunosensor shows great potential applications in early disease diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Free vascularized fibular grafting for patients receiving postoperative corticosteroids.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Free vascularized fibular grafting (FVFG) is an effective method to treat corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Some patients continued to receive maintenance doses of corticosteroids to treat the primary disease postoperatively. This study was performed to evaluate outcomes of FVFG for corticosteroid-induced ONFH in patients who continued to receive corticosteroids postoperatively. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 44 patients (78 hips) who had received corticosteroid treatment for their primary disease after FVFG. They were followed up for at least 2 years (mean, 5.6 years). Demographic details, Harris Hip scores, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and radiographic data were collected and analyzed. The mean Harris Hip score for all hips was 70.9±9.9 points before surgery and increased to 84±12.1 points at the latest follow-up. There were also significant increases (P<.05) in physical component summary score and mental component summary score. According to the latest radiographic evaluation, 49 hips (62.8%) appeared improved, 10 hips (12.8%) appeared unchanged, and only 19 hips (24.4%) appeared worse. Seven hips (9%) underwent total hip arthroplasty during the follow-up period. Therefore, the results showed that FVFG was a viable method of treating corticosteroid-induced ONFH in patients who receive maintenance doses of corticosteroids postoperatively.
Related JoVE Video
Long noncoding RNA HOTAIR can serve as a common molecular marker for lymph node metastasis: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of studies have reported that HOTAIR expression levels were higher in cancerous tissues than in corresponding noncancerous tissues and overexpression of HOTAIR was prone to lymph node metastasis. This meta-analysis collected all relevant articles and explored the association between HOTAIR expression levels with lymph node metastasis. A literature collection was conducted by searching electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, OVID, Web of Science, and CNKI (up to March 22, 2014). The odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association by using RevMan5.2 software. A total of 748 patients from 8 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed there was a significant difference in the incidence of lymph node metastasis between high HOTAIR expression group and low HOTAIR expression group (OR?=?2.81, 95 % CI 1.38-5.70, P?=?0.004 random-effects model). This meta-analysis demonstrated that the incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients detected with high HOTAIR expression was higher than that in patients with low HOTAIR expression.
Related JoVE Video
Selective fluorescence sensing of polynitroaromatic explosives using triaminophenylbenzene scaffolds.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A supramolecular fluorophore, 1,3,5-tris(4'-aminophenyl)benzene (TAPB), selectively senses polynitroaromatic compounds (PNAC), viz. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), picric acid (PA), m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and p-dinitrobenzene (p-DNB) through donor-acceptor complexation. Steady-state and time resolved fluorescence measurements indicate predominantly static quenching of the TAPB fluorophore with TNT, DNT, m-DNB and p-DNB. In the case of PA, a new emissive band with a marginally longer lifetime emerges due to complex formation with TAPB. The selectivity of sensing action is rationalized through computation of HOMO and LUMO energies for both the fluorophore and the analytes using the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Practical utility of the fluorophore has also been demonstrated with TNT and DNT vapour.
Related JoVE Video
Toll-like receptor 2/4 heterodimer mediates inflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. However, the upstream events that initiate inflammatory responses following ICH remain elusive. Our previous studies suggested that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be the upstream signal that triggers inflammatory injury in ICH. In addition, recent clinical findings indicated that both TLR2 and TLR4 may participate in ICH-induced brain injury. However, it is unclear how TLR2 functions in ICH-induced inflammatory injury and how TLR2 interacts with TLR4.
Related JoVE Video
Totaled health risks in vascular events score predicts clinical outcomes in patients with cardioembolic and other subtypes of ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score can be used to predict clinical outcomes and risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with special subtypes of ischemic stroke remains an open question.
Related JoVE Video
PI3K isoform dependence of PTEN-deficient tumors can be altered by the genetic context.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There has been increasing interest in the use of isoform-selective inhibitors of phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in cancer therapy. Using conditional deletion of the p110 catalytic isoforms of PI3K to predict sensitivity of cancer types to such inhibitors, we and others have demonstrated that tumors deficient of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) are often dependent on the p110? isoform of PI3K. Because human cancers usually arise due to multiple genetic events, determining whether other genetic alterations might alter the p110 isoform requirements of PTEN-null tumors becomes a critical question. To investigate further the roles of p110 isoforms in PTEN-deficient tumors, we used a mouse model of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma driven by concomitant activation of the rat sarcoma protein Kras, which is known to activate p110?, and loss of PTEN. In this model, ablation of p110? had no effect on tumor growth, whereas p110? ablation blocked tumor formation. Because ablation of PTEN alone is often p110? dependent, we wondered if the same held true in the ovary. Because PTEN loss alone in the ovary did not result in tumor formation, we tested PI3K isoform dependence in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells deficient in both PTEN and p53. These cells were indeed p110? dependent, whereas OSEs expressing activated Kras with or without PTEN loss were p110? dependent. Furthermore, isoform-selective inhibitors showed a similar pattern of the isoform dependence in established Kras(G12D)/PTEN-deficient tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that, whereas in some tissues PTEN-null tumors appear to inherently depend on p110?, the p110 isoform reliance of PTEN-deficient tumors may be altered by concurrent mutations that activate p110?.
Related JoVE Video
Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid has therapeutic effects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through the downregulation of TLR4 signaling via TLR3.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent reports have shown that preconditioning with the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, it is unclear whether poly(I:C) treatment after cerebral I/R injury is also effective. We used mouse/rat middle cerebral artery occlusion and cell oxygen-glucose deprivation models to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of poly(I:C) treatment. Poly(I:C) was i.p. injected 3 h after ischemia (treatment group). Cerebral infarct volumes and brain edemas were significantly reduced, and neurologic scores were significantly increased. TNF-? and IL-1? levels were markedly decreased, whereas IFN-? levels were greatly increased, in the ischemic brain tissues, cerebral spinal fluid, and serum. Injuries to hippocampal neurons and mitochondria were greatly reduced. The numbers of TUNEL-positive and Fluoro-Jade B(+) cells also decreased significantly in the ischemic brain tissues. Poly(I:C) treatment increased the levels of Hsp27, Hsp70, and Bcl2 and decreased the level of Bax in the ischemic brain tissues. Moreover, poly(I:C) treatment attenuated the levels of TNF-? and IL-1? in serum and cerebral spinal fluid of mice stimulated by LPS. However, the protective effects of poly(I:C) against cerebral ischemia were abolished in TLR3(-/-) and TLR4(-/-)mice. Poly(I:C) downregulated TLR4 signaling via TLR3. Poly(I:C) treatment exhibited obvious protective effects 14 d after ischemia and was also effective in the rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model. The results suggest that poly(I:C) exerts therapeutic effects against cerebral I/R injury through the downregulation of TLR4 signaling via TLR3. Poly(I:C) is a promising new drug candidate for the treatment of cerebral infarcts.
Related JoVE Video
GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire photodetector.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate an efficient core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire photodetector operating at room temperature. The design of this nanoscale detector is based on a type-I heterostructure combined with a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) radial architecture, in which built-in electric fields at the semiconductor heterointerface and at the metal/semiconductor Schottky contact promote photogenerated charge separation, enhancing photosensitivity. The spectral photoconductive response shows that the nanowire supports resonant optical modes in the near-infrared region, which lead to large photocurrent density in agreement with the predictions of electromagnetic and transport computational models. The single nanowire photodetector shows a remarkable peak photoresponsivity of 0.57 A/W, comparable to large-area planar GaAs photodetectors on the market, and a high detectivity of 7.2 × 10(10) cm·Hz(1/2)/W at ? = 855 nm. This is promising for the design of a new generation of highly sensitive single nanowire photodetectors by controlling the optical mode confinement, bandgap, density of states, and electrode engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) promotes gastric emptying and mucosal blood flow during oral resuscitation of scalded rats with a pyruvate-enriched ORS.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture at ST36 (EA ST36) on gastric emptying and mucosal blood flow during intragastric resuscitation with pyruvate-enriched oral rehydration solution (Pyr-ORS) in scalded rats.
Related JoVE Video
Halide ion-mediated growth of single crystalline Fe nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a facile halide ion (Cl(-) or Br(-)) mediated synthesis of Fe nanoparticles (NPs) by thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5. The NP structure is controlled to be either amorphous (in the absence of halide ions) or single crystalline bcc (in the presence of halide ions). Through systematic investigation on the synthetic conditions, we have confirmed that the formation of bcc-Fe NPs is facilitated by the strong interactions between halide ions and Fe, which favor thermodynamic growth of Fe over the existing Fe NPs. Compared with the amorphous Fe NPs, the bcc-Fe NPs exhibit much enhanced magnetization values and chemical stability. This halide ion mediated growth may become a general strategy to control the growth of metallic NPs, especially first-row transition metal NPs, in a thermodynamically more stable way, producing single crystalline NPs with much controlled physical and chemical properties for magnetic and catalytic applications.
Related JoVE Video
Bipolar loop-like non-volatile strain in the (001)-oriented Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Strain has been widely used to manipulate the properties of various kinds of materials, such as ferroelectrics, semiconductors, superconductors, magnetic materials, and "strain engineering" has become a very active field. For strain-based information storage, the non-volatile strain is very useful and highly desired. However, in most cases, the strain induced by converse piezoelectric effect is volatile. In this work, we report a non-volatile strain in the (001)-oriented Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals and demonstrate an approach to measure the non-volatile strain. A bipolar loop-like S-E curve is revealed and a mechanism involving 109° ferroelastic domain switching is proposed. The non-volatile high and low strain states should be significant for applications in information storage.
Related JoVE Video
A novel multi-amplification photoelectrochemical immunoassay based on copper(II) enhanced polythiophene sensitized graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new sandwich photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing strategy was proposed for the first time based on the increasing photocurrent of water-soluble polythiophene sensitized g-C3N4 nanosheet (PT-Cl/g-C3N4) in the presence of copper(II) (Cu(2+)), which was doped on the surface of titanium dioxide as labels for multi-amplification. Herein, the photoactive films of PT-Cl/g-C3N4 is employed as the photoactive antibody (Ab1) immobilization matrix for the subsequent sandwich-type antibody-antigen affinity interactions. Upon the presence of antigen (Ag), greatly enhanced photocurrent could be triggered in the PEC platform by the labels of second antibody (Ab2) of Cu(2+) doped titanium dioxide (Cu(2+)-TiO2). As a result of the multi-amplification in this Cu(2+)-TiO2 enhanced PT-Cl/g-C3N4-based PEC immunoassay, it possesses excellent analytical performance. The antigen could be detected from 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 100.0 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 5 fg mL(-1). This work opens up g-C3N4 nanosheet applied in PEC sensing. More importantly, the strategy of specific positive effect of Cu(2+) on the photocurrent of g-C3N4 opens an alternative horizon for PEC sensing.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The activation of hemostatic systems has been detected in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The influence of plasma D-dimer levels on clinical outcome remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of elevated plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome in spontaneous ICH. A total of 259 spontaneous ICH patients (<24hours from ictus) between November 2010 and October 2011 were included. Clinical information and radiological findings were collected at admission. Spearman correlation analyses revealed that D-dimer concentrations were correlated with midline shift, hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Patients with subarachnoid extension had significantly higher D-dimer levels than those without SAH extension. Comparison of patients with IVH and those without yielded a similar result. Multivariate stepwise backward logistic analysis identified plasma D-dimer levels as an independent risk factor for 7 day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017-1.504, p=0.033) and 3 month poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ? 3) (adjusted OR=2.279, 95% CI 1.130-6.595, p=0.026). The mechanisms by which elevated D-dimer affects the prognoses of spontaneous ICH patients remain unclear and require clarification in future studies.
Related JoVE Video
Postablation neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio correlates with arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation of lone atrial fibrillation.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel marker of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to ascertain the relationship between levels of NLR and recurrence of lone atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation.
Related JoVE Video
Irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor: thienopyrimidine core with ?,?-unsaturated amide side chain.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases has been found in a variety of cancers such as breast, ovarian, colon, and non-small-cell lung cancers, which is associated with poor prognosis in patients. In an effort to find effective irreversible inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase family (mainly HER2), two series of HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors with thieno[3,2-d]pyridine and thieno[2,3-d]pyridine as central part and with a basic ?,?-unsaturated amide side chain were developed. The ?,?-unsaturated amide side chain (the Michael acceptor) at the 6-position, which forms a covalent bond to Cys773 located in the ATP binding pocket of the EGFR enzyme, is a major factor in the generation of irreversible inhibition. In our study, thienopyrimidine instead of quinazoline was used as the central structure, and different substituents were introduced at the 4-position to investigate the structure-activity relationships. The thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 16a-d showed potent HER2 enzyme inhibition and anti-proliferative activity against SK-BR-3 cells. Especially, (E)-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethoxy)phenyl)amino)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide 16d was identified as a potential irreversible HER2 inhibitor. Both its catalytic enzyme activity profile and its cellular efficacy were found to be superior to those of the marketed drug lapatinib.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variations of MMP9 gene and intracerebral hemorrhage outcome: a cohort study in Chinese Han population.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association between genetic variations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcome in Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86?±?0.29, weighing 543?±?57 kg and producing 24.32?±?3.86 kg milk per day were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 diets (n?=?10 per treatment): 1) low-concentrate mixed forage diet (LCF) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 46 : 54; 2) high-concentrate corn straw diet (HCS) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 65 : 35; 3) low-concentrate corn straw diet (LCS) with the same concentrate to roughage ratio (46 : 54) as LCF. The experiment lasted 6 weeks, and samples were collected in the last week. Milk samples were analyzed for conventional components, rumen fluid samples were analyzed for pH and endotoxin, and mammary arterial and venous plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?).
Related JoVE Video
High production of succinyl isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 resting cells in aqueous miscible organic medium.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To achieve efficient production of succinyldaidzin and succinylgenistin, resting cells of a solvent-stable strain Bacillus licheniformis ZSP01 were used to react with pure isoflavones or soybean flour extract in a reaction medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. Strikingly, 0.8 mM daidzein, 0.8 mM genistein, 2.0 mM daidzin, and 2.0 mM genistin were transformed to succinyl isoflavone glycosides in 27 H (yield >90%). The soybean flour extract (6.1%, w/v) contained 0.32 mM daidzein, 0.84 mM daidzin, 0.38 mM genistein, and 1.04 mM genistin. Over 95% of total isoflavones (daidzein, daidzin, genistein, and genistin) in the soybean flour extract were converted to succinyl isoflavone glycosides after 27 H. Strain ZSP01 shows both high glycosylation and succinylation activities. These results suggest that B. licheniformis ZSP01 could be useful for the efficient production of succinyl soybean isoflavone glycosides.
Related JoVE Video
Monolayer HNb3O8 for selective photocatalytic oxidation of benzylic alcohols with visible light response.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monolayer HNb3O8 2D nanosheets have been used as highly chemoselective and active photocatalysts for the selective oxidation of alcohols. The nanosheets exhibit improved photocatalytic activity over their layered counterparts. Results of in?situ FTIR, DRS, ESR, and DFT calculations show the formation of surface complexes between the Lewis acid sites on HNb3O8 2D nanosheets and alcohols. These complexes play a key role in the photocatalytic activity of the material. Furthermore, the unique structural features of the nanosheets contributed to their high photocatalytic activity. An electron transition from the coordinated alcohol species to surface Nb?atoms takes place and initiates the aerobic oxidation of alcohols with high product selectivity under visible light irradiation. This reaction process is distinct from that of classic semiconductor photocatalysis.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variations of MMP9 gene and intracerebral hemorrhage susceptibility: a case-control study in Chinese Han population.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association between genetic variations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) susceptibility in Chinese Han population.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of etiological diagnostic workup across the past 10 years in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in a large general hospital.
Dev Neurorehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Objective: A swift and accurate diagnosis of etiology would lay the foundation of targeted management for patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). It is unclear what the status of diagnostic workup related to etiology is in Chinese hospitals which treat the majority of the hemorrhagic patients in the world. We aim to demonstrate characteristics on diagnostic workup implemented routinely in both departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery in patients with SICH. Methods: We enrolled patients with SICH from March 2002 to December 2011 from Chengdu stroke registry. Data on diagnostic workup were extracted. Results: A total of 2264 patients diagnosed as SICH with rapid neuroimaging (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) scan were included. Patients in the department of Neurosurgery had a lower median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and a longer median length of stay. They had a significantly lower proportion of hyperlipidemia and heart disease, but a higher proportion of hypertension, alcohol consumption and history of stroke (all p?
Related JoVE Video
TGF-? signaling pathway as a pharmacological target in liver diseases.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) belongs to a class of pleiotropic cytokines that are involved in the processes of embryonic development, wound healing, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Moreover, TGF-? is also regarded as a central regulator in the pathogenesis and development of various liver diseases because it contributes to almost all of the stages of disease progression. A range of liver cells are considered to secrete TGF-? ligands and express related receptors and, consequently, play a crucial role in the progression of liver disease via different signal pathways. In this manuscript, we review the role of the TGF-? signaling pathway in liver disease and the potential of targeting the TGF-? signaling in the pharmacological treatment of liver diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Giant electrical modulation of magnetization in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(011) heterostructure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a giant electric-field control of magnetization (M) as well as magnetic anisotropy in a Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) structure at room temperature, in which a maximum relative magnetization change (?M/M) up to 83% with a 90° rotation of the easy axis under electric fields were observed by different magnetic measurement systems with in-situ electric fields. The mechanism for this giant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling can be understood as the combination of the ultra-high value of anisotropic in-plane piezoelectric coefficients of (011)-cut PMN-PT due to ferroelectric polarization reorientation and the perfect soft ferromagnetism without magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoFeB film. Besides the giant electric-field control of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy, this work has also demonstrated the feasibility of reversible and deterministic magnetization reversal controlled by pulsed electric fields with the assistance of a weak magnetic field, which is important for realizing strain-mediated magnetoelectric random access memories.
Related JoVE Video
Copper-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles as dual-functional labels for fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Constructions of versatile electroactive labels are key issues in the development of electrochemical immunosensors. In this study, copper-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticle (Cu@TiO2) was synthesized and used as labels for fabrication of sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensors on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Due to the presence of copper ions, Cu@TiO2 shows a strong response current when coupled to an electrode. The prepared nanocomposite also shows high electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The dual functionality of Cu@TiO2 enables the fabrication of immunosensor using different detection modes, that is, square wave voltammetry (SWV) or chronoamperometry (CA). While Cu@TiO2 was used as labels of secondary antibodies (Ab2), carboxyl functionalized graphene oxide (CFGO) was used as electrode materials to immobilize primary antibodies (Ab1). Using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a model analyte, the immunosensor shows high sensitivity, acceptable stability and good reproducibility for both detection modes. Under optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.052 pg/mL was obtained for SWV analysis. For CA analysis, a wider linear range from 0.01 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL and a lower detection limit of 0.0043 pg/mL were obtained. The proposed metal ion-based enzyme-free and noble metal-free immunosensor may have promising applications in clinical diagnoses and many other fields.
Related JoVE Video
Patients with chronically diseased livers have lower incidence of colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
70 years ago, it was put forward that the diseased liver was not a favorable soil for metastatic tumor cells. In addition, a few studies have demonstrated that rare occurrence of colorectal liver metastases among patients with fatty liver, cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. We performed a meta-analysis to verify the association between the incidences of colorectal liver metastases with chronically diseased livers.
Related JoVE Video
A novel method for simultaneous production of two ribosome-inactivating proteins, ?-MMC and MAP30, from Momordica charantia L.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alpha-momorcharin (?-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30) from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess anti-tumor and anti-virus activities. Traditional purification methods of these two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were separate which was time consuming and cost effective as well as low efficient. In order to obtain sufficient samples for researches, a strategy combining ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography was developed and optimized in this study. Using this novel purification method, averagely 1162 mg of ?-MMC and 535 mg of MAP30 were obtained from 400 g of Momordica charantia L seeds. The homogeneities of them were assessed by electrophoresis analysis. Determination of molecular weights of ?-MMC and MAP30 were 28.585 kDa and 29.094 kDa by MALDI-TOF/TOF and pI were 9.02 and 9.12, respectively. The single glycoproteins were identified by Periodate-Schiff's base (PAS) and the saccharide content was tested to be 1.25% and 1.1% by anthrone-sulfuric acid method. Biological activities were evidenced by their ability to inhibit proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell and to convert supercoiled plasmid pUC18 into relaxed forms. Finally, we also found that both two RIPs exhibited no superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.
Related JoVE Video
Discriminating males and unpredictable females: males differentiate self-similar facial cues more than females in the judgment of opposite-sex attractiveness.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance) and dissimilar (other-resemblance) images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50%) of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance) and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0%) rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.
Related JoVE Video
[Observation on clinical effect of ZHUANG medicine mediated thread moxibustion combined with medication for patients with ulcerative colitis].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the clinical effect and safety of Sulfasalazine (SASP) combined with ZHUANG medicine mediated thread moxibustion (ZMMTM) for patients with mild and moderate ulcerative colitis (UC).
Related JoVE Video
Synthetic route to metal nitrides: high-pressure solid-state metathesis reaction.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a general synthetic route to well-crystallized metal nitrides through a high-pressure solid-state metathesis reaction (HPSSM) between boron nitride (BN) and ternary metal oxide AxMyOz (A = alkaline or alkaline-earth metal and M = main group or transition metal). On the basis of the synthetic metal nitrides (Fe3N, Re3N, VN, GaN, CrN, and WxN) and elemental products (graphite, rhenium, indium, and cobalt metals), the HPSSM reaction has been systematically investigated with regard to its general chemical equation, reaction scheme, and characteristics, and its thermodynamic considerations have been explored by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results indicate that pressure plays an important role in the synthesis, which involves an ion-exchange process between boron and the metal ion, opening a new pathway for material synthesis.
Related JoVE Video
Interactions of chromatic and lens-induced defocus during visual control of eye growth in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).
Vision Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It was recently demonstrated that chromaticity could affect eye growth and refractive development in guinea pigs but it remained unclear whether correction with spectacle lenses could balance these effects and how retinal responses change with different spectral compositions of light. Three illumination conditions were tested: blue, red and white light. Animals were raised without or with monocular spectacle lenses from three to seven weeks of age. Luminance electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to explore retinal responses with the different spectral compositions. In our special colony of pigmented guinea pigs, characterized by residual hyperopia, spontaneous myopia and poor emmetropization, red light induced early thinning of the choroid and relative myopia, compared to white light. Effects of red light could not be suppressed if positive spectacle lenses were worn. ERGs showed that red light failed to elicit robust retinal responses. Blue light inhibited axial eye growth, even when animals were reared with negative lenses. Intensity-matched blue and white light elicited similar a-waves but different b-waves, suggesting that the wavelength of light affects visual control of eye growth through different processing in the inner retina. We hypothesize that blue light might stimulate preferentially the ON pathway to inhibit myopia induced by negative lenses, at least in guinea pigs.
Related JoVE Video
Lipid Levels Are Regionally Associated with Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipid levels may be involved in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) etiology, which suggested that lipid levels may be associated with the etiology of microbleeds (MBs) in patients with ICH. To explore this, we examined the association between lipid levels and MBs in different cerebral regions in patients with ICH.
Related JoVE Video
Structure-dependent binding of arylimidamides to the DNA minor groove.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterocyclic diamidines are strong DNA minor-groove binders and have excellent antiparasitic activity. To extend the biological activity of these compounds, a series of arylimidamides (AIAs) analogues, which have better uptake properties in Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruizi than diamidines, was prepared. The binding of the AIAs to DNA was investigated by Tm , fluorescence displacement titration, circular dichroism, DNase I footprinting, biosensor surface plasmon resonance, X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling. These compounds form 1:1 complexes with AT sequences in the DNA minor groove, and the binding strength varies with substituent size, charge and polarity. These substituent-dependent structure and properties provide a SAR that can be used to estimate K values for binding to DNA in this series. The structural results and molecular modeling studies provide an explanation for the differences in binding affinities for AIAs.
Related JoVE Video
Seed-mediated synthesis of core/shell FePtM/FePt (M = Pd, Au) nanowires and their electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a new seed-mediated growth of FePt over 2.5 nm wide FePtM (M = Pd, Au) nanowires (NWs) into core/shell FePtM/FePt NWs with controlled FePt shell thickness from 0.3 to 1.3 nm. These FePtM/FePt NWs show shell thickness and core composition-dependent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO4. These core/shell FePtM/FePt NWs are generally more active and durable than the corresponding alloy NWs. Among FePtM/FePt NWs, FePt NWs, FePtPd NWs, and commercial Pt studied, the FePtPd/FePt NWs (0.8 nm shell) show the specific activity of 3.47 mA·cm(-2) and the mass activity of 1.68 A/mg Pt at 0.5 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), superior to all other NWs (less than 1.59 mA/cm(2) and 0.82 A/mg Pt for FePtAu/FePt and FePt) as well as the commercial Pt (0.24 mA/cm(2) and 0.141 A/mg Pt). The FePtM/FePt (0.8 nm shell) NWs are also stable in the ORR condition and show no activity decrease after 5000 potential sweeps between 0.4 and 0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl). They are the most efficient nanocatalyst ever reported for ORR.
Related JoVE Video
The association between HIF-1? polymorphism and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies have assessed the association between HIF-1? polymorphisms and cancer risk. However, the results remained conflicting rather than conclusive. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide a complete picture and conducted a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation. We searched PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases until July 2013 to identify eligible studies. Data sets (43) from 39 studies with a total of 10,841 cases and 14,682 controls were included. The most commonly investigated polymorphism was C1772T, followed by G1790A, C111A, and rs2057482. Overall, C1772T and G1790A but not rs2057482 were associated with increased risk for cancer. When stratified by cancer type, C1772T was associated with increased risk for cervical cancer (T/T vs. C/T+C/C: OR = 8.80, 95 % CI = 2.30-33.70), prostate cancer (T vs. C: OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.30), and other cancers (T vs. C: OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.89), but not oral, breast, colorectal, endometrial, lung, and bladder cancers or renal cell carcinoma. G1790A was associated with marginal but insignificant risk for prostate cancer (A vs. G: OR = 1.46, 95 % CI = 1.00-2.13, P?=?0.056) and with increased risk for oral (A vs. G: OR = 9.66, 95 % CI = 1.31-71.15), lung (A vs. G: OR = 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.74-2.96), and other cancers (A vs. G: OR = 2.06, 95 % CI = 1.26-3.37) and renal cell carcinoma (A/A vs. G/A+G/G: OR = 3.05, 95 % CI = 1.36-6.84), but not breast, colorectal, cervical, or bladder cancer. Furthermore, we detected increased cancer risk in haplotypes TA and CA and in those carrying at least one risk allele, and decreased cancer risk in haplotype TG regarding C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms. Further well-designed studies on various cancer types are warranted to verify our findings.
Related JoVE Video
Iodine Modified Carbon Nitride Semiconductors as Visible Light Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An optimized and general synthetic strategy based on in-situ iodine modifying of polymeric graphitic carbon nitride is discussed. The as-prepared iodine functionalized g-CN shows enhanced electronic and optical properties, as well as increased photocatalytic activities in an assay of hydrogen evolution.
Related JoVE Video
A standardized extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human hepatoma cell lines.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus are two traditional Chinese medicines, which are commonly used in Chinese herb prescription to treat liver diseases. The protective effects of the extract prepared from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus (PAE) on liver fibrosis have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, its effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated to date. In this study, the effects of PAE on the apoptosis, proliferation, migration and invasion of the human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were investigated. Our data demonstrated that treatment with PAE (50-200 mg/l) caused an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721. Furthermore, PAE induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells and SMMC-7721 cells, which was demonstrated by PI staining. In addition, immunocytochemistry and western blotting showed that PAE significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, while the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in HepG2 cells and SMMC-7721 cells was significantly increased after treatment with PAE. These results clearly demonstrated that PAE induced hepatoma cell apoptosis through increasing the Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio and upregulating the activation of caspase-3. In addition, the results of wound healing assay and Matrigel invasion assay showed that PAE displayed inhibitory activity on the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Taken together, the present data provides evidence that PAE is a potent antineoplastic drug candidate for the treatment of HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Tuning nanoparticle catalysis for the oxygen reduction reaction.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Advances in chemical syntheses have led to the formation of various kinds of nanoparticles (NPs) with more rational control of size, shape, composition, structure and catalysis. This review highlights recent efforts in the development of Pt and non-Pt based NPs into advanced nanocatalysts for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under fuel-cell reaction conditions. It first outlines the shape controlled synthesis of Pt NPs and their shape-dependent ORR. Then it summarizes the studies of alloy and core-shell NPs with controlled electronic (alloying) and strain (geometric) effects for tuning ORR catalysis. It further provides a brief overview of ORR catalytic enhancement with Pt-based NPs supported on graphene and coated with an ionic liquid. The review finally introduces some non-Pt NPs as a new generation of catalysts for ORR. The reported new syntheses with NP parameter-tuning capability should pave the way for future development of highly efficient catalysts for applications in fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and even in other important chemical reactions.
Related JoVE Video
Production of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosidic derivatives from the aqueous-organic extracted residue of litchi pericarp with Aspergillus awamori.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous work exhibited Aspergillus awamori fermentation of the litchi pericarp increased significantly antioxidant activity and DNA protection effect. In this present study, the litchi pericarp and its aqueous-organic extracted residues were fermented by A. awamori in order to elucidate the enhanced beneficial effects. The study identified that rutin which present in litchi pericarp could be deglycosylated to form quercetin and quercetin-3-glucoside after the fermentation. Application the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol) further revealed the effective biotransformation by A. awamori fermentation. It was hypothesised that rutin was initially dehydroxylated to form kaempferol-3-rutinoside and then deglycosylated to form kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol. To our best knowledge, it is the first report on dehydroxylated effect of polyphenols caused by A. awamori fermentation. Thus, A. awamori fermentation can provide an effective way to produce health benefiting value-added products from litchi pericarp in food industry.
Related JoVE Video
Simple and compact V-cavity semiconductor laser with 50×100 GHz wavelength tuning.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report simple and compact V-cavity semiconductor laser capable of full-band wavelength tuning. A half-wave coupler is used to obtain high side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) without any grating or epitaxial regrowth. Temperature induced gain spectrum shift is employed in combination with the Vernier tuning mechanism to extend the wavelength tuning range beyond the free spectral range limit. Wavelength tuning of 50 channels at 100GHz spacing with SMSR up to 38 dB has been demonstrated. We show that with a temperature variation of 35°C, the tuning range can be extended by about 15 nm, in contrast to 0.1 nm/°C for thermo-optic tuning range in grating based lasers. At a fixed temperature, consecutive wavelength tuning of 31 channels was achieved. The response time of the channel switching under the current-tuning regime is measured to be about 20?s. The large tuning range that can cover the full C-band will enable such a simple, compact and potentially low-cost tunable laser to be used in wavelength-agile access and data center networks.
Related JoVE Video
Towards Perfectly Ordered Novel ZnO/Si Nano-Heterojunction Arrays.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fabrication of a highly ordered novel ZnO/Si nano-heterojuntion array is introduced. ZnO seed layer is first deposited on the Si (P<111>) surface. The nucleation sites are then defined by patterning the surface through focused ion beam (FIB) system. The ZnO nanorods are grown on the nucleation sites through hydrothermal process. The whole fabrication process is simple, facile and offers direct control of the space, length and aspect ratio of the array. It is found that ZnO/Si nanojunctions show an improved interface when subjected to heat treatment. The recrystallization of ZnO and the tensile lattice strain of Si developed during the heating process contribute the enhancement of their photoresponses to white light. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement result of nano-heterojunction arrays with different parameters is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha polymorphisms in cancers: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The associations between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) and clinicopathological characteristics of cancers have been evaluated in various studies, with the conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by combining available data to derive a more precise estimation of the association. PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched until February 2013 to identify eligible studies. A total of 25 studies were included, with all studies investigating the role of HIF-1? C1772T polymorphism in clinicopathological parameters in cancers while 17 of them investigating HIF-1? G1790A polymorphism only. Results suggested that HIF-1? C1772T polymorphism was associated with histological grade of cancer (T/T + C/T vs. C/C, grade 3 vs. grade 2: OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.08-2.13; grade 2 vs. grade 1: OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97) and increased risk of lymph node metastasis (T/T + C/T vs. C/C: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.13-1.68). HIF-1? G1790A polymorphism was found to be associated with increased risk of larger tumor size (G/G + G/A vs. A/A: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.04-2.58) and borderline significant risk of lymph node metastasis (G/G + G/A vs. A/A: OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.00-1.78). Therefore, HIF-1? polymorphisms could be a potential prognostic factor for cancer. Further studies with larger data set and well-designed models are required to validate our findings.
Related JoVE Video
Structural identification of (1?6)-?-d-glucan, a key responsible for the health benefits of longan, and evaluation of anticancer activity.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Longan is a delicious subtropical fruit with great health-beneficial effects. It has been utilized for disease prevention and health care since ancient age. To explore the chemicals responsible for the health benefits, water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from longan flesh in this work. A pure polysaccharide (LPS1) was obtained through column purification. Analysis by gas chromatography showed LPS1 was a homopolysaccharide of glucose with glycosidic linkage of ?6)-d-Glc-(1?. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra indicated that the configuration of anomeric carbon in glucose residual was ?-form. The polysaccharide structure was further confirmed to be (1?6)-?-d-glucan by chemcial shift of C6. The molecular weight of LPS1 was calculated to be 108 kDa, which had 661 glucose residuals. Anticancer assay showed that LPS1 had anticancer activity against the growth of HepG2 cells to a certain extent. However, it did not show any cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.