End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is simultaneously associated with immune activation, systemic inflammation and immune deficiency. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a receptor for viral double-stranded RNA, is involved in immune cell activation in renal diseases and may contribute to chronic inflammatory disease progression. To date, effects of TLR3 polymorphisms on ESRD remain unknown. Therefore, we determined the predictive value of TLR3 polymorphisms and further functionally studied ESRD.
To describe a novel mutation in TRK-fused gene (TFG) as a new cause of dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) identified by exome sequencing and further characterized by in vitro functional studies.
CISD2 is a causative gene associated with Wolfram syndrome (WFS). However, it remains a mystery as to how the loss of CISD2 causes metabolic defects in patients with WFS. Investigation on the role played by Cisd2 in specific cell types may help us to resolve these underlying mechanisms. White adipose tissue (WAT) is central to the maintenance of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis in humans. In this study, adipocyte-specific Cisd2 knockout (KO) mice showed impairment in the development of epididymal WAT (eWAT) in the cell autonomous manner. A lack of Cisd2 caused defects in the biogenesis and function of mitochondria during differentiation of adipocytes in vitro. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and secretion of adiponectin by the Cisd2 KO adipocytes were decreased. Moreover, Cisd2 deficiency increased the cytosolic level of Ca(2+) and induced Ca(2+)-calcineurin-dependent signaling that inhibited adipogenesis. Importantly, Cisd2 was found to interact with Gimap5 on the mitochondrial and ER membranes and thereby modulate mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake associated with the maintenance of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in adipocytes. Thus, it would seem that Cisd2 plays an important role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, which is required for the differentiation and functioning of adipocytes as well as the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice.
Levosimendan, a known calcium sensitizer with positive inotropic and vasodilating properties, might also be cardioprotective during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) insult. Its effects on calcium homeostasis and apoptosis in I/R injury remain unclear. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a critical mediator of calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes, with reverse-mode NCX activity responsible for intracellular calcium overload and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes during I/R. We probed effects and underlying mechanisms of levosimendan on apoptosis and NCX activity in cultured human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CPC)-derived cardiomyocytes undergoing anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R), simulating I/R in vivo. Administration of levosimendan decreased apoptosis of CPC-derived cardiomyocytes induced by A/R. The increase in reverse-mode NCX activity after A/R was curtailed by levosimendan, and NCX1 was translocated away from the cell membrane. Concomitantly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by A/R was attenuated in CPC-derived cardiomycytes treated with NCX-targeted siRNA or levosimendan, with no synergistic effect between treatments. Results indicated levosimendan inhibited reverse-mode NCX activity to protect CPC-derived cardiomyocytes from A/R-induced ER stress and cell death.
Associations between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been extensively studied, with most studies reporting that individuals with the D allele have a higher risk. Although some factors, such as ethnicity, may moderate the association between ACE I/D polymorphisms and CKD risk, gender-dependent effects on the CKD risk remain controversial.
It has been shown that in rat heart NCX1 exists in a macromolecular -complex including PKA, PKA-anchoring protein, PKC, and phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. In addition, several lines of evidence suggest that the interactions of the exchanger with other molecules are closely associated with its function in regulation of [Ca(2+)](i). NCX contains a large intracellular loop (NCXIL) that is responsible for regulating NCX activity. We used the yeast two-hybrid method to screen a human heart cDNA library and found that the C-terminal region of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (sMiCK) interacted with NCX1IL. Among the four creatine kinase (CK) isozymes, both sMiCK and the muscle-type cytosolic creatine kinase (CKM) co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1. Both sMiCK and CKM were able to produce a recovery in the decreased NCX1 activity that was lost under energy-compromised conditions. This regulation is mediated through a putative PKC phosphorylation site of sMiCK and CKM. The catalytic activity of sMiCK and CKM is not required for their regulation of NCX1 activity. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of NCX1 activity and a novel role for CK.
BACKGROUND: Several polymorphisms in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 genes are associated with the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain genetic polymorphisms may modify the deleterious effects of environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and may also modify the inherited risk. We investigated the association of six ACE and ACE2 polymorphisms with ESRD to determine whether a relationship exists between gene-smoking interactions and ESRD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a case-control association study and genotyped 683 ESRD patients and 653 healthy controls. All subjects were genotyped for ACE (I/D, G2350A and A-240T) and ACE2 (G8790A, A1075G and G16854C) gene polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. RESULTS: Significant associations were observed between ACE I/D and G2350A polymorphisms and ESRD. There was no difference in ACE2 genotype distribution between ESRD patients and healthy controls. Haplotype analysis showed that DAA and DAT haplotypes were risk factors for ESRD. Moreover, a gene-environment interaction was observed between ACE I/D polymorphism and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSION: ACE I/D and ACE G2350A polymorphisms were associated with the development of ESRD. The interaction between ACE I/D polymorphism and smoking is also associated with an enhanced risk of ESRD.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited neuropathies. Mutations in approximately 45 genes have been identified as being associated with CMT. Nevertheless, the genetic etiologies of at least 30% of CMTs have yet to be elucidated. Using a genome-wide linkage study, we previously mapped a dominant intermediate CMT to chromosomal region 3q28-q29. Subsequent exome sequencing of two affected first cousins revealed heterozygous mutation c.158G>A (p.Gly53Asp) in GNB4, encoding guanine-nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 (G?4), to cosegregate with the CMT phenotype in the family. Further analysis of GNB4 in an additional 88 unrelated CMT individuals uncovered another de novo mutation, c.265A>G (p.Lys89Glu), in this gene in one individual. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that G?4 was abundant in the axons and Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and that expression of G?4 was significantly reduced in the sural nerve of the two individuals carrying the c.158G>A (p.Gly53Asp) mutation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both the p.Gly53Asp and p.Lys89Glu altered proteins impaired bradykinin-induced G-protein-coupled-receptor (GPCR) signaling, which was facilitated by the wild-type G?4. This study identifies GNB4 mutations as a cause of CMT and highlights the importance of G?4-related GPCR signaling in peripheral-nerve function in humans.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in Taiwan and an increasing number of patients are affected, with a high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and huge medical expenses. It has been predicted that the presence of hypertension increases with decreasing renal function due to a decrease in sodium excretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic variants of the RAS gene on CKD. We performed a case control association study and genotyped 135 CKD patients and 270 healthy controls among Han Chinese in Taiwan. All subjects were genotyped for angiotensinogen (AGT-M235T, T174M, A-20C), angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE-A2350G) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1-A1166C, C573T, C-521T) polymorphisms of RAS genes by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Significant associations were observed in ACE-A2350G and AGTR1-C573T polymorphism between CKD patients and controls. In regard to ACE-A2350G, compared with the AA genotype the GG genotype protected against CKD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.34; p = 0.01). In regard to AGTR1-C573T, the CT genotype was a risk for CKD compared with the CC genotype (adjusted OR = 1.82; p = 0.03). We conclude that ACE-A2350G and AGTR1-C573T polymorphisms are likely candidate determinants of CKD.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality with more than 1.4 million deaths per year worldwide. To search for significant somatic alterations in lung cancer, we analyzed, integrated and manually curated various data sets and literatures to present an integrated genomic database of non-small cell lung cancer (IGDB.NSCLC, http://igdb.nsclc.ibms.sinica.edu.tw). We collected data sets derived from hundreds of human NSCLC (lung adenocarcinomas and/or squamous cell carcinomas) to illustrate genomic alterations [chromosomal regions with copy number alterations (CNAs), gain/loss and loss of heterozygosity], aberrant expressed genes and microRNAs, somatic mutations and experimental evidence and clinical information of alterations retrieved from literatures. IGDB.NSCLC provides user friendly interfaces and searching functions to display multiple layers of evidence especially emphasizing on concordant alterations of CNAs with co-localized altered gene expression, aberrant microRNAs expression, somatic mutations or genes with associated clinicopathological features. These significant concordant alterations in NSCLC are graphically or tabularly presented to facilitate and prioritize as the putative cancer targets for pathological and mechanistic studies of lung tumorigenesis and for developing new strategies in clinical interventions.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. As inflammatory processes and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of CKD, we have investigated the potential genetic contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms in CKD. In a case-control association study, 149 CKD patients and 429 healthy controls were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CKD patients were defined as kidney damage (albuminuria, proteinuria or hematuria) or glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) for 3 months or more. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at TLR-2 G2408A, TLR-4 A12874G and C13174T, and TLR-9 T-1237C, T-1486C, and G1635A were assessed, and linkage disequilibrium calculations and haplotype association analysis were undertaken. The functions of TLR-9 have been documented to recognize the viral and bacterial CpG DNA sequences, whereas detects microbe-derived peptidoglycan and lipopeptides and TLR-4 binds lipopolysaccharides. SNPs within the TLR genes may influence promoter activity, mRNA conformation and subcellular localization, and/or protein structure and function. Our results show that only the TLR-9 T-1237C and G1635A gene polymorphisms demonstrate an association with CKD (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). The TLR-9 TCA haplotype at T-1237C, T-1486C, and G1635A was associated with a lower risk of CKD, whereas the TTA haplotype was associated with a higher risk of CKD. In the Han Chinese population, those who carry the C and A alleles at SNPs T-1237C and G1635A in the TLR-9 gene appear to be more susceptible to the development of CKD.
Rab3A is a small G-protein of the Rab family that is involved in the late steps of exocytosis. Here, we studied the role of Rab3A and its relationship with Munc13-1 and Munc18-1 during vesicle priming. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to enhance the percentage of fusion-competent vesicles and this is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC)-independent Munc13-1 activation and PKC-dependent dissociation of Munc18-1 from syntaxin 1a. Our results show that the effects of PMA varied in cells overexpressing Rab3A or mutants of Rab3A and in cells with Rab3A knockdown. When Munc13-1 was overexpressed in Rab3A knockdown cells, secretion was completely inhibited. In cells overexpressing a Rab-interacting molecule (RIM)-binding deficient Munc13-1 mutant, 128-Munc13-1, the effects of Rab3A on PMA-induced secretion was abolished. The effect of PMA, which disappeared in cells overexpressing GTP-Rab3A (Q81L), could be reversed by co-expressing Munc18-1 but not its mutant R39C, which is unable to bind to syntaxin 1a. In cells overexpressing Munc18-1, manipulation of Rab3A activity had no effect on secretion. Finally, Munc18-1 enhanced the dissociation of Rab3A, and such enhancement correlated with exocytosis. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that the Rab3A cycle is coupled with the activation of Munc13-1 via RIM, which accounts for the regulation of secretion by Rab3A. Munc18-1 acts downstream of Munc13-1/RIM/Rab3A and interacts with syntaxin 1a allowing vesicle priming. Furthermore, Munc18-1 promotes Rab3A dissociation from vesicles, which then results in fusion.
Morphological dynamics of mitochondria is associated with key cellular processes related to aging and neuronal degenerative diseases, but the lack of standard quantification of mitochondrial morphology impedes systematic investigation. This paper presents an automated system for the quantification and classification of mitochondrial morphology. We discovered six morphological subtypes of mitochondria for objective quantification of mitochondrial morphology. These six subtypes are small globules, swollen globules, straight tubules, twisted tubules, branched tubules and loops. The subtyping was derived by applying consensus clustering to a huge collection of more than 200 thousand mitochondrial images extracted from 1422 micrographs of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells treated with different drugs, and was validated by evidence of functional similarity reported in the literature. Quantitative statistics of subtype compositions in cells is useful for correlating drug response and mitochondrial dynamics. Combining the quantitative results with our biochemical studies about the effects of squamocin on CHO cells reveals new roles of Caspases in the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics. This system is not only of value to the mitochondrial field, but also applicable to the investigation of other subcellular organelle morphology.
Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is one of the major mechanisms for removing Ca(2+) from the cytosol especially in cardiac myocytes and neurons, where their physiological activities are triggered by an influx of Ca(2+). NCX contains a large intracellular loop (NCXIL) that is responsible for regulating NCX activity. Recent evidence has shown that proteins, including kinases and phosphatases, associate with NCX1IL to form a NCX1 macromolecular complex. To search for the molecules that interact with NCX1IL and regulate NCX1 activity, we used the yeast two-hybrid method to screen a human heart cDNA library and found that the C-terminal region of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase (sMiCK) interacted with NCX1IL. Moreover, both sMiCK and the muscle-type creatine kinase (CKM) coimmunoprecipitated with NCX1 using lysates of cardiacmyocytes and HEK293T cells that transiently expressed NCX1 and various creatine kinases. Both sMiCK and CKM were able to produce a recovery in the decreased NCX1 activity that was lost under energy-compromised conditions. This regulation is mediated through a putative PKC phosphorylation site of sMiCK and CKM. The autophosphorylation and the catalytic activity of sMiCK and CKM are not required for their regulation of NCX1 activity. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of NCX1 activity.
Engagement of the TCR by antigenic peptides presented by the MHC activates specific T cells to control infections. Recent theoretical considerations have suggested that mechanical forces acting on the TCR may be important for receptor triggering. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that physical forces acting on the TCR can initiate signaling in T cells by micromanipulation of individual T cells bound to artificial APCs expressing engineered TCR ligands. We find that mechanical forces acting on T cells bound to APCs via the TCR complex but not other surface receptors can initiate signaling in T cells in an Src kinase-dependent fashion. Our data indicate that T cells are mechanically sensitive when coupled to APCs by the TCR and indicates that the TCR may act as a mechanosensor. Our data provide new insight into TCR function.
In the present study, we characterized the Ca2+ responses and secretions induced by various secretagogues in mouse chromaffin cells. Activation of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) by carbachol induced a transient intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) increase followed by two phases of [Ca2+](i) decay and a burst of exocytic events. The contribution of the subtypes of AChRs to carbachol-induced responses was examined. Based on the results obtained by stimulating the cells with the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide, high K(+) and the effects of thapsigargin, it appears that activation of nAChRs induces an extracellular Ca2+ influx, which in turn activate Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptors. Muscarine, a muscarinic receptor (mAChRs) agonist, was found to induce [Ca2+](i) oscillation and sustained catecholamine release, possibly by activation of both the receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ entry pathways. The RT-PCR results showed that mouse chromaffin cells are equipped with messages for multiple subtypes of AChRs, ryanodine receptors and all known components of the receptor- and store-operated Ca2+ entry. Furthermore, results obtained by directly monitoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration and by disabling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake suggest that the ER acts as a Ca2+ source, while the mitochondria acts as a Ca2+ sink. Our results show that both nAChRs and mAChRs contribute to the initial carbachol-induced [Ca2+](i) increase which is further enhanced by the Ca2+ released from the ER mediated by Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release and mAChR activation. This information on the Ca2+ signaling pathways should lay a good foundation for future studies using mouse chromaffin cells as a model system.
Membrane trafficking is a very important physiological process involved in protein transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis. The functions of vesicles are strongly correlated with various spatial dynamic properties of vesicles, including their types of movements and morphology. Several methods are used to quantify such dynamic properties, but most of them are specific to particular populations of vesicles. We previously developed the so-called PTrack system for quantifying the dynamics of secretory vesicles near the cell surface, which are small and move slowly. To improve the system performance in quantifying large and fast-moving vesicles, we firstly combined morphological filter with two-threshold image processing techniques to locate granules of various sizes. Next, Kalman filtering was used to improve the performance in tracking fast-moving and large granules. Performance evaluation by using simulation image sequences shown that the new system, called PTrack II, yields better tracking accuracy. The tracking system was validated using time-lapse images of insulin granules in betaTC3 cells, which revealed that PTrack II could track better than PTrack, averaged accuracy up to 56%. The overall tracking results indicate that PTrack II is better at tracking vesicles with various dynamic properties, which will facilitate the acquisition of more-complete information on vesicle dynamics.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.