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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Comparison of thoracoscopic segmentectomy and thoracoscopic lobectomy on the patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a propensity score matching study†
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Thoracoscopic lobectomy has been widely performed on patients with early-stage lung cancer; meanwhile indications of thoracoscopic segmentectomy have not been clearly defined due to technical difficulties and unclear oncological outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare early and late outcomes between thoracoscopic segmentectomy and thoracoscopic lobectomy.
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Regulation of energy balance by the hypothalamic lipoprotein lipase regulator Angptl3.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Hypothalamic lipid sensing is important for the maintenance of energy balance. Angiopoietin-like peptide 3 (Angptl3) critically regulates the clearance of circulating lipids by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The present study demonstrated that Angptl3 is highly expressed in the neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus, an important area in brain lipid sensing. Suppression of hypothalamic Angptl3 increased food intake but reduced energy expenditure and fat oxidation, thereby promoting weight gain. Consistently, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Angptl3 caused the opposite metabolic changes, supporting an important role for hypothalamic Angptl3 in the control of energy balance. Notably, ICV Angptl3 significantly stimulated hypothalamic LPL activity. Moreover, co-administration of the LPL inhibitor apolipoprotein C3 antagonized the effects of Angptl3 on energy metabolism, indicating that LPL activation is critical for the central metabolic actions of Angptl3. Increased LPL activity is expected to promote lipid uptake by hypothalamic neurons, leading to enhanced brain lipid sensing. Indeed, ICV injection of Angptl3 increased long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and LCFA-CoA levels in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, inhibitors of hypothalamic lipid sensing pathways prevented Angptl3-induced anorexia and weight loss. These findings identify Angptl3 as a novel regulator of the hypothalamic lipid sensing pathway.
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Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Intersphincteric Resection for Low Rectal Cancer: Comparison of the Operative, Oncological, and Functional Outcomes.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Robotic surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of laparoscopic surgery and is increasingly used to treat low rectal cancer. In this study, we compared the operative, oncological, and functional outcomes of low rectal cancer patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR).
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Polaron stability in semiconducting polymer neat films.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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We describe a spectroelectrochemical approach to accelerated electrochemical stability studies of conjugated polymers under oxidative stress. The polaron stabilities of alternating copolymers based on (i) thiophene and thiazole, namely , and (ii) bithiophene and thiazole, namely PTTTz, are compared in neat films with that of . is found to be the most stable whilst is found to be the least stable.
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In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications.
Faraday Discuss.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The performance of hybrid (organic-inorganic) photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the thin film morphology. This work studies the film formation process using the in situ thermal decomposition of a soluble precursor to form a well-distributed network of CdS nanoparticles within a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer matrix. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the formation of the inorganic nanoparticles and the corresponding changes in the molecular order of the polymer. We find that the CdS precursor decomposes rapidly upon heating to 160 °C, but that this has a disruptive effect on the P3HT. The extent of this disruption can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, and nanowire aggregates of P3HT are found to have increased susceptibility. Atomic force microscopy reveals that at high temperatures (>200 °C), cracks form in the film, resulting in a 'plateau'-like microstructure. In order to retain the preferable 'granular' microstructure and to control the molecular disruption, low decomposition temperatures are needed. This work identifies a particular problem for optimising the hybrid thin film morphology and shows how it can be partially overcome.
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Prominent protein Z-induced thrombin inhibition in cirrhosis: A new functional assay for hypercoagulability assessment.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Protein Z (PZ) is an anticoagulant that accelerates the inhibitory effect of PZ-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) on coagulation factor Xa. We assessed functional status of PZ system in 158 patients with liver cirrhosis and 59 healthy controls.
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Chimerism monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using quantitative real-time PCR of biallelic insertion/deletion polymorphisms.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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An accurate and sensitive determination of chimerism status is mandatory after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We evaluated the performance of the AlleleSEQR Chimerism Assay, which is based on quantitative real-time PCR of biallelic indel markers, using 79 recipient-donor pairs. When the informativeness of the screening panel composed of 34 markers was determined using 130 unrelated individuals, it presented a >99.9% probability of selecting at least one informative marker. The analytic sensitivity of the indel marker assay was estimated using a serially diluted DNA mixture. The detection limit of the quantitative assay approached 0.024% when 250 ng of DNA was used. We used 175 samples that had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to compare the quantitative real-time PCR assay with short tandem repeat quantitation. Results from the AlleleSEQR Chimerism Assay showed excellent correlation with those from the short tandem repeat method (r(2) = 0.931). Moreover, in some patients with relapsed leukemia, the AlleleSEQR Chimerism Assay was able to detect an early increase in recipient DNA levels that was undetectable using the short tandem repeat method. The indel marker-based AlleleSEQR Chimerism Assay can be a useful tool for following up patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of its high sensitivity compared with the conventional short tandem repeat method.
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Metabolic syndrome related health inequalities in Korean elderly: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHAES).
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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While the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing, little is presently known about this syndrome in Korean elderly. This study aimed to group metabolic risk factors and to examine the associations between groups of health living conditions and metabolic syndrome using data from the Korean National Health Examination and Nutritional Assessment (KNHANES). A total of 1,435 subjects aged over 65 years old with both biochemical and dietary data information were obtained from the 4th and 5th KNHANES (2007¿2012). Using stratified and multistage probability sample data, five components of metabolic syndrome were adopted to identify health inequalities. Our findings show that groups of health living conditions such as dietary pattern, body image, muscle mass, and fat mass were differentially associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Future studies are necessary to examine the underlying mechanisms of individual health living conditions to better understand the role of metabolic risk factors in metabolic syndrome in elderly.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and outcomes of patients treated with first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab for advanced colorectal cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the efficacy of first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy plus bevacizumab and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of angiogenic genes in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Overexpression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and 4-coumaroyl CoA ligase prompted flavone accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis hairy roots.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a species of the Lamiaceae family, is considered as one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to enhance flavone (baicalein, baicalin, and wogonin) content in S. baicalensis roots, we overexpressed a single gene of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumaroyl coenzyme A ligase (4CL) using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated system. SbC4H- and Sb4CL-overexpressed hairy root lines enhanced the transcript levels of SbC4H and Sb4CL compared with those in the control and also increased flavones contents by approximately 3- and 2.5-fold, respectively. We successfully engineered the flavone biosynthesis pathway for the production of beneficial flavones in S baicalensis hairy roots. The importance of upstream gene C4H and 4CL in flavone biosynthesis and the efficiency of metabolic engineering in promoting flavone biosynthesis in S. baicalensis hairy roots have been indicated in this study.
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Assessment of psychometric properties of the Korean SF-12 v2 in the general population.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The psychometric properties of the Korean Short Form-12 Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12 v2) have not been assessed in the general population. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the SF-12 v2 in the general population and to provide SF-12 v2 domain scores according to the general characteristics of the study population.
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Lumbar intradural neurocysticercosis: a case report.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease affecting the central nervous system. Spinal involvement is rare in neurocysticercosis, and isolated spinal involvement without evidence of cranial involvement is even rarer. We report an unusual case of neurocysticercosis with isolated spinal involvement. A 59 year-old male presented with radiating pain in the left leg. He complained of aggravating weakness and numbness in the left leg since his previous visit one month ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple peripheral wall-enhanced intradural cystic masses from L1 to L5. The patient underwent a total laminectomy of L4. Dissection revealed abnormal cystic masses compressing the nerve roots. The cyst was punctured, spilling clear mucoid fluid into the surgical field. The exposed cysticerci, white and mucoid, was easily removed. Patient received course of steroids and oral albendazole. The patient experienced symptomatic improvement without further neurologic deficits except for mild sensory impairment. Clinicians should include spinal neurocysticercosis in differential diagnosis of radiculopathies. Although isolated spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, it can be satisfactorily managed with surgery and medication.
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Standardization of Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: A Structured International Expert Consensus.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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To establish a structured international expert consensus on a detailed technical description of the laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME).
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Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium.
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Suicide in cancer patients within the first year of diagnosis.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A diagnosis of cancer is associated with an increased suicide risk, and this risk is the highest within the first year of diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors of suicide occurring within the first year of cancer diagnosis (early suicide).
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Phosphorylation regulates mycobacterial proteasome.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a proteasome system that is required for the microbe to resist elimination by the host immune system. Despite the importance of the proteasome in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, the molecular mechanisms by which proteasome activity is controlled remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the ?-subunit (PrcA) of the M. tuberculosis proteasome is phosphorylated by the PknB kinase at three threonine residues (T84, T202, and T178) in a sequential manner. Furthermore, the proteasome with phosphorylated PrcA enhances the degradation of Ino1, a known proteasomal substrate, suggesting that PknB regulates the proteolytic activity of the proteasome. Previous studies showed that depletion of the proteasome and the proteasome-associated proteins decreases resistance to reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) but increases resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here we show that PknA phosphorylation of unprocessed proteasome ?-subunit (pre-PrcB) and ?-subunit reduces the assembly of the proteasome complex and thereby enhances the mycobacterial resistance to H2O2 and that H2O2 stress diminishes the formation of the proteasome complex in a PknA-dependent manner. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of the M. tuberculosis proteasome not only modulates proteolytic activity of the proteasome, but also affects the proteasome complex formation contributing to the survival of M. tuberculosis under oxidative stress conditions.
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Asymmetric Aneuploidy in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Detected by In Situ Karyotyping and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: Suggestions for Reference Values for Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Cytogenetic testing is important to ensure patient safety before therapeutic application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the standardized methods and criteria for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities of MSCs have not yet been determined. We investigated the frequency of cytogenetic aberrations in MSCs using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and suggest reference values for aneuploidy in MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 103 consecutive cultures from 68 MSCs (25 adipose-origin, 20 bone marrow-origin, 18 cord blood-origin, and 5 neural stem cells; 8 from adipose tissue of patients with breast cancer and 60 from healthy donors). We compared the MSC aneuploidy patterns with those of hematological malignancies and benign hematological diseases. Interphase FISH showed variable aneuploid clone proportions (1%-20%) in 68 MSCs. The aneuploidy patterns were asymmetric, and aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X occurred most frequently. Clones with polysomy were significantly more abundant than those with monosomy. The cutoff value of maximum polysomy rates (upper 95th percentile value) was 13.0%. By G-banding, 5 of the 61 MSCs presented clonal chromosomal aberrations. Aneuploidy was asymmetric in the malignant hematological diseases, while it was symmetric in the benign hematological diseases. We suggest an aneuploidy cutoff value of 13%, and FISH for aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X would be informative to evaluate the genetic stability of MSCs. Although it is unclear whether the aneuploid clones might represent the senescent cell population or transformed cells, more attention should be focused on the safety of MSCs, and G-banding combined with FISH should be performed.
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Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane (CH4) production and carbon dioxide (CO2) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However, inoculation of the bacterium may increase CH4 and CO2 in vitro.
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Insulin action in the hypothalamus and dorsal vagal complex.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Insulin resistance is a hallmark feature of type 2 diabetes and obesity. In addition to the classical view that insulin resistance in the liver, muscle and fat disrupts glucose homeostasis, studies in the past decade have illustrated that insulin resistance in the hypothalamus dysregulates hepatic glucose production and food intake, leading to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This invited review argues that in addition to the hypothalamus, insulin signalling in the dorsal vagal complex regulates hepatic glucose production and food intake. A thorough understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin action in the hypothalamus and dorsal vagal complex is necessary in order to identify therapeutic targets for obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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Robotics in general surgery: an evidence-based review.
Asian J Endosc Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Since its introduction, robotic surgery has been rapidly adopted to the extent that it has already assumed an important position in the field of general surgery. This rapid progress is quantitative as well as qualitative. In this review, we focus on the relatively common procedures to which robotic surgery has been applied in several fields of general surgery, including gastric, colorectal, hepato-biliary-pancreatic, and endocrine surgery, and we discuss the results to date and future possibilities. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the current robotic system are reviewed, and the advanced technologies and instruments to be applied in the near future are introduced. Such progress is expected to facilitate the widespread introduction of robotic surgery in additional fields and to solve existing problems.
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Robotic-assisted surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma: short-term and midterm outcomes from 200 consecutive cases at a single institution.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Although robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of rectal cancer, its oncologic safety remains uncertain.
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Clusterin/ApoJ enhances central leptin signaling through Lrp2-mediated endocytosis.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Hypothalamic leptin signaling plays a central role in maintaining body weight homeostasis. Here, we show that clusterin/ApoJ, recently identified as an anorexigenic neuropeptide, is an important regulator in the hypothalamic leptin signaling pathway. Coadministration of clusterin potentiates the anorexigenic effect of leptin and boosts leptin-induced hypothalamic Stat3 activation. In cultured neurons, clusterin enhances receptor binding and subsequent endocytosis of leptin. These effects are mainly mediated through the LDL receptor-related protein-2 (Lrp2). Notably, inhibition of hypothalamic clusterin, Lrp2 or endocytosis abrogates anorexia and hypothalamic Stat3 activation caused by leptin. These findings propose a novel regulatory mechanism in central leptin signaling pathways.
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Prognostic and predictive role of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in recurrent pulmonary adenocarcinoma after curative resection.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment prolongs the progression-free survival of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring EGFR mutations. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing survival after recurrence, and the effectiveness of EGFR-TKIs in patients with recurrent pulmonary adenocarcinoma after curative resection.
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Health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Korea.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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There are few publications on quality measurement of COPD health state according to the severity level using EQ-5D in Korea. The present study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in terms of disease severity in Korea.
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Polymerase subunit gamma 2 affects porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase subunit gamma (POLG) is an enzyme encoded by the mitochondrial Polg gene. Polymerase (DNA directed), gamma 2, accessory subunit, also known as POLG2, is involved in mitochondrial replication. In the present study, we examined the role of Polg2 in the maturation of porcine oocytes. After Polg2 knockdown, the mitochondrial DNA copy number was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in the control group. However, there was no decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. The decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number led to reductions in adenosine-5'-triphosphate content (P < 0.05) and the maturation rate (P < 0.05) of oocytes. Furthermore, in the Polg2-knockdown group, maturation-promoting factor activity was decreased (P < 0.05) and the percentage of oocytes displaying abnormal actin filaments and microtubules was significantly increased (P < 0.05). This likely led to the reduced development rate and number of cells per blastocyst in this group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Polg2 seems to be critical for mitochondrial replication and regulation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate content and affects porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development.
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Laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision: West meets East.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Complete mesocolic excision is a relatively new concept in western literature. It follows the same concept of total mesorectal excision and units' routinely performing complete mesocolic excisions have good pathological results as well as good improvements in overall survival, disease free survival and local recurrence. And yet unlike total mesorectal excision, uptake in the West has been relatively slow with many units sceptical of the true benefits gained by taking up a more technically challenging and potentially more morbid procedure when there is a paucity of literature to support these claims. This article reviews complete mesocolic excision for colon cancer, attempting to identify the risks and benefits of the technique and particularly looking at the reasons why its uptake has not been universal. It also discusses the similarities of a complete mesocolic excision to a colon resection with a D3 lymphadenectomy as well as the role of a laparoscopic approach to this technique. Considering a D3 lymphadenectomy has been the standard of care for stage II and III colon cancers in many of our Asian neighbours for over 20 years, combining this data with data on complete mesocolic excision may provide enough evidence to support or refute the need for complete mesocolic excisions. Maybe there might be lessons to be learnt from our colleagues in the east.
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Association between C-reactive Protein and type of coronary arterial plaque in asymptomatic patients: assessment with coronary CT angiography.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To determine whether C-reactive protein is associated with the type of coronary plaque seen at computed tomographic (CT) angiography.
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A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the sigmoid colon presenting as a semipedunculated polyp.
Clin Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are characterized by lymphoepithelial lesions pathologically. Colonic MALT lymphomas are relatively rarer than lymphomas of the stomach or small intestine. Endoscopically, colonic MALT lymphoma frequently appears as a nonpedunculated protruding polypoid mass and/or an ulceration in the cecum and/or rectum. We report a unique case of a colonic MALT lymphoma presenting as a semipedunculated polyp. A 54-year-old man was found to have a 2-cm semipedunculated polyp in the sigmoid colon during screening colonoscopy. The polyp was removed by endoscopic mucosal resection. Histologic examination of the resected polyp revealed diffuse epithelial infiltration by discrete aggregates of lymphoma cells. We diagnosed the tumor as low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma by immunohistochemical staining.
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Molecular identification of a TPR-FGFR1 fusion transcript in an adult with myeloproliferative neoplasm, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, and a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2).
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is an aggressive neoplasm associated with chromosomal abnormalities involving rearrangement of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene. We report herein a rare case of a t(1;8)(q25;p11.2) with a TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement, in which the patient presented with myeloproliferative neoplasm-like symptoms and T-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Sequence analysis revealed a fusion transcript with exon 22 of the TPR gene joined to exon 13 of the FGFR1 gene, which is a novel breakpoint for the TPR gene in the TPR-FGFR1 rearrangement.
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Relationship between the severity of diversion colitis and the composition of colonic bacteria: a prospective study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Diversion colitis is the inflammation of the excluded segment of the colon in patients undergoing ostomy. It has been suggested that a change in colonic flora may lead to colitis; however, direct evidence for this disease progression is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of diversion colitis and the composition of colonic bacteria.
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Deriving a mapping algorithm for converting SF-36 scores to EQ-5D utility score in a Korean population.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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There is no research on mapping algorithms between EQ-5D and SF-36 in Korea. The aim of this study was to derive a predictive model for converting the SF-36 health profile to the EQ-5D index using data from several studies.
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Celiac Disease in a Predisposed Subject (HLA-DQ2.5) with Coexisting Graves Disease.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disorder, triggered by ingestion of a gluten-containing diet in genetically susceptible individuals. The genetic predisposition is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, especially HLA-DQ2-positive patients. The prevalence of celiac disease has been estimated to be ~1% in Europe and the USA, but it is rarer and/or underdiagnosed in Asia. We report a case of celiac disease in a predisposed patient, with a HLA-DQ2 heterodimer, and Graves disease that was treated successfully with a gluten-free diet. A 47-year-old woman complained of persistent chronic diarrhea and weight loss over a 9-month period. Results of all serological tests and stool exams were negative. However, the patient was found to carry the HLA DQ2 heterodimer. Symptoms improved after a gluten-free diet was initiated. The patient has been followed and has suffered no recurrence of symptoms while on the gluten-free diet. An overall diagnosis of celiac disease was made in a genetically predisposed patient (HLA-DQ2 heterodimer) with Graves disease.
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Right ventricular dysfunction as an echocardiographic prognostic factor in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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We investigated whether right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) as assessed by echocardiogram can be used as a prognostic factor in hemodynamically stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Short-term mortality has been investigated only in small studies and the results have been controversial.
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Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Organic light-emitting diodes have been recently focused for flexible display and solid-state lighting applications and so much effort has been devoted to achieve highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes. Here, we improve the efficiency of inverted polymer light-emitting diodes by introducing a spontaneously formed ripple-shaped nanostructure of ZnO and applying an amine-based polar solvent treatment to the nanostructure of ZnO. The nanostructure of the ZnO layer improves the extraction of the waveguide modes inside the device structure, and a 2-ME+EA interlayer enhances the electron injection and hole blocking in addition to reducing exciton quenching between the polar-solvent-treated ZnO and the emissive layer. Therefore, our optimized inverted polymer light-emitting diodes have a luminous efficiency of 61.6 cd A(-1) and an external quantum efficiency of 17.8%, which are the highest efficiency values among polymer-based fluorescent light-emitting diodes that contain a single emissive layer.
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Leg muscle activation and distance setting of the leg cycle ergometer for use by the elderly.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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[Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.
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MYD88 L265P mutations are correlated with 6q deletion in korean patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a malignant lymphoplasma-proliferative disorder with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. A recent whole-genome study identified MYD88 L265P as the key mutation in WM. We investigated MYD88 mutations in conjunction with cytogenetic study in 22 consecutive Korean WM patients. Conventional G-banding and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed at regions including 6q21 using bone marrow (BM) aspirates. Sixteen patients were subjected to Sanger sequencing-based MYD88 mutation study. Five patients (28%) showed cytogenetic aberrations in G-banding. The incidence of 6q21 deletion was 17% by conventional G-banding and 37% by FISH. Ten patients (45%) showed cytogenetic aberrations using FISH: 6q deletion in eight (37%) and IGH rearrangement in four (18%). Two patients had both the 6q deletion and IGH rearrangement, and two had only the IGH rearrangement. Eleven patients (69%) presented with the MYD88 L265P mutation. MYD88 mutations were significantly associated with the presence of 6q deletions (P = 0.037). Six patients with the 6q deletion for whom sequencing was possible were found to harbor MYD88 mutations. The MYD88 L265P mutation was also associated with increased lymphocyte burden in BM biopsy. This is the first report of high frequency MYD88 L265P mutations in Korean WM patients.
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Coronary computed tomographic angiographic findings in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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There are limited data regarding the role of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We analyzed 557 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients who underwent CCTA. Cardiac event was defined as a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome requiring hospitalization, or late revascularization. Atherosclerotic plaques were observed in 395 patients (70.9%), and 170 patients (30.5%) showed significant coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA. Ninety-two patients (16.5%) were associated with a significant stenosis in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery. During the follow-up period (33.7 ± 7.8 months), although an excellent prognosis was observed in patients without significant CAD on CCTA, those with significant CAD showed more cardiac events (7.1% vs 0.5%) and lower 3-year event-free survival rates (99.2 ± 0.6% vs 90.9 ± 2.6%, p <0.001). Furthermore, in group with significant CAD, patients with significant CAD in the left main or proximal left anterior descending artery had more cardiac events (10.9% vs 2.6%) and lower 3-year event-free survival rates (97.4 ± 1.8% vs 86.1 ± 4.2%, p = 0.049). On multivariate analysis, family history of premature CAD, previous history of stroke, higher UK Prospective Diabetes Study 10-year risk scores, neuropathy, and retinopathy were independent clinical predictors of having significant CAD and left main or proximal left anterior descending artery significant CAD on CCTA. In conclusion, about 1/3 of asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients had significant CAD on CCTA with a subsequent high risk for cardiac events. These findings suggest that CCTA may have a potential role in identifying patients with high cardiovascular risks in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes.
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Association between metabolic syndrome and incident fractures in Korean men: a 3-year follow-up observational study using national health insurance claims data.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Although the prevalence of both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and fractures increases with advancing age, studies on possible associations between these conditions in men are limited and the results are inconsistent.
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Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact.
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Leptin-promoted cilia assembly is critical for normal energy balance.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The majority of mammalian cells have nonmotile primary cilia on their surface that act as antenna-like sensory organelles. Genetic defects that result in ciliary dysfunction are associated with obesity in humans and rodents, which suggests that functional cilia are important for controlling energy balance. Here we demonstrated that neuronal cilia lengths were selectively reduced in hypothalami of obese mice with leptin deficiency and leptin resistance. Treatment of N1 hypothalamic neuron cells with leptin stimulated cilia assembly via inhibition of the tumor suppressors PTEN and glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Induction of short cilia in the hypothalamus of adult mice increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to a positive energy balance. Moreover, mice with short hypothalamic cilia exhibited attenuated anorectic responses to leptin, insulin, and glucose, which indicates that leptin-induced cilia assembly is essential for sensing these satiety signals by hypothalamic neurons. These data suggest that leptin governs the sensitivity of hypothalamic neurons to metabolic signals by controlling the length of the cell's antenna.
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Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage III/IV urothelial carcinoma of the upper tract.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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In order to define the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT), the clinical outcomes of patients with stage III/IV urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UTUC) were reviewed.
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Elevated telomerase activity in essential thrombocythemia with extreme thrombocytosis.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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We performed a comparative analysis of telomerase activity (TA) in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The relationships between TA and known prognostic factors were also analyzed.
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Decreased sucrose preference in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Increased sugar consumption may adversely affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Although patients with diabetes are generally thought to prefer sweet tastes, few data are available on the sucrose preference in these individuals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sucrose preference in patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with subjects without diabetes.
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The assessment of the stability in mandibular setback surgery related to spatial factors under rotational control of the proximal segment.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To evaluate the surgical relapse of mandibular setback, related to the magnitude of setback and LeFort I osteotomy under rotational control of the proximal segment.
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Reverse v-shape kinking of the left lower lobar bronchus after a left upper lobectomy and its surgical correction.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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A 76-year-old male underwent a left upper lobectomy with wedge resection of the superior segment of the left lower lobe using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for non-small-cell lung cancer of the left upper lobe. He presented with shortness of breath, fever, and leukocytosis. Chest radiography showed atelectasis at the remaining left lower lobe. Bronchoscopy revealed narrowing of the left lower bronchus with purulent secretion, and computed tomography showed downward kinking of the left lower lobar bronchus. He underwent exploratory VATS, and intraoperative findings showed an inferiorly kinked left lower lobar bronchus with upward displacement of the left lower lobe. After adhesiolysis, the kinked bronchus was straightened, and bronchopexy was performed to the pericardium to prevent the recurrence of bronchial kinking. Also, the inferior pulmonary ligament was reattached to prevent upward displacement. Postoperative follow-up bronchoscopy revealed no evidence of residual bronchial obstruction, and chest radiography showed no atelectasis thereafter.
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Identification of Acorus gramineus, A. calamus, and A. tatarinowii using sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) primers for monitoring of Acori graminei rhizoma in Korean markets.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acori Graminei Rhizoma (AGR), widely used in traditional herbal medicine, is composed of the roots of Acorus gramineus Soland. The family Acoraceae includes A. gramineus, A. calamus, and A. tatarinowii, among others. We compared genomic DNA sequences of AGR for polymorphisms. The sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA, the rbcL region of chloroplast DNA from A. gramineus, A. calamus, and A. tatarinowii were compared. We designed primers specific to the ITS region of A. calamus and A. tatarinowii (A. cataF4/R4) and the internal primer Araceae Radix (IntAcoF2/R4). Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed a difference in A. calamus using the UBC 681 primer. A specific primer (Aca681-F/R) amplified 138 base pairs of A. calamus. The primers designed for this study (A. cataF4/R4, Aca681-F/R, and IntAcoF2/R2) can be used for multiplex PCR to distinguish the three species of Acorus. An allelic discrimination assay was conducted using commercially available AGR. We used sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to confirm whether AGR purchased at a market was A. gramineus. Our study indicated the SCAR markers could be used as molecular evidence to distinguish Araceae Radix.
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Plasma clusterin (ApoJ) levels are associated with adiposity and systemic inflammation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Obesity and insulin resistance are hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. Clusterin/apolipoprotein J is an abundant plasma chaperone protein that has recently been suggested as a potential biomarker that reflects the inflammatory process in Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated anthropometric and clinical factors affecting the plasma levels of clusterin in healthy Korean subjects. We measured fasting plasma clusterin levels in healthy Korean adults (111 men and 93 women) using ELISA kit. We analyzed the relationship between plasma clusterin concentrations and anthropometric and clinical parameters. Fasting plasma clusterin concentrations were higher in overweight and obese subjects than in lean subjects. Correlation analysis revealed that the plasma clusterin levels were positively associated with indices of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and markers of systemic inflammation such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), uric acid, ferritin and retinol binding protein-4. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that sex, BMI and hsCRP were independent determinants of plasma clusterin levels. Furthermore, plasma clusterin levels showed an upward trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components. These findings suggest that fasting plasma clusterin levels correlate with the parameters of adiposity and systemic inflammation in healthy adults. Therefore, the circulating clusterin level may be a surrogate marker for obesity-associated systemic inflammation.
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Zinc regulates meiotic resumption in porcine oocytes via a protein kinase C-related pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Zinc is an extremely important trace element that plays important roles in several biological processes. However, the function of zinc in meiotic division of porcine oocytes is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of zinc during meiotic resumption in in vitro matured porcine oocytes. During meiotic division, a massive release of zinc was observed. The level of free zinc in the cytoplasm significantly increased during maturation. Depletion of zinc using N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), a Zn2+ chelator, blocked meiotic resumption in a dose dependent manner. The level of phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p34cdc2 kinase activity were reduced when zinc was depleted. Moreover, zinc depletion reduced the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase C (PKC) substrates in a dose dependent manner. Real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of the MAPK- and maturation promoting factor related genes C-mos, CyclinB1, and Cdc2 was downregulated following zinc depletion. Treatment with the PKC agonist phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased phosphorylation of PKC substrates and MAPK and increased p34cdc2 kinase activity. This rescued the meiotic arrest, even in the presence of TPEN. Activation of PKC by PMA increased the level of zinc in the cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that zinc is required for meiotic resumption in porcine oocytes, and this appears to be regulated via a PKC related pathway.
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A higher serum gamma-glutamyl transferase level could be associated with an increased risk of incident osteoporotic fractures in Korean men aged 50 years or older.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2013
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Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on bone metabolism, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is known to play an important role in the generation of free radical species through the extra-cellular hydrolysis of glutathione, the main cellular antioxidant. We performed a large longitudinal study with an average follow-up period of 3 years to investigate the association between baseline serum GGT levels and the development of future osteoporotic fractures (OFs) in men. A total of 16,036 Korean men aged 50 years or older who had undergone comprehensive routine health examinations were enrolled. Incident fractures at osteoporosis-related sites (e.g., hip, spine, distal radius, and proximal humerus) that occurred after baseline examinations were identified from the nationwide claims database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea using selected ICD-10 codes. Among the study subjects, 156 cases (1.0%) developed incident OFs during the study period. The event rate was 32.7 (95% CI = 28.0-38.3) per 10,000 person-years. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, and medical and drug histories revealed that the hazard ratio per standard deviation increase of the baseline GGT levels for the development of incident fractures was 1.115 (95% CI = 1.011-1.230). These data provide the first epidemiological evidence, in support of previous in vitro and animal studies, of the harmful effects of GGT on bone metabolism, and indicate that the serum GGT level may be a useful biomarker of poor bone health outcomes in men.
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Early clinical outcomes of robot-assisted surgery for anterior mediastinal mass: its superiority over a conventional sternotomy approach evaluated by propensity score matching.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2013
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We performed this study to assess early clinical outcomes of robot-assisted surgery for anterior mediastinal mass by comparing results of the robot group with those of the sternotomy group after propensity score matching.
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization panel for monitoring of minimal residual disease in patients with double minute chromosomes.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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A double minute chromosome (dmin) is a small fragment of extrachromosomal DNA bearing amplified genes observed in malignancies. We investigated the incidence and characteristics of dmins in hematologic malignancies, and the quantitative changes during the treatment follow-up. Once a dmin was observed in conventional G-banding, it was characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the panel of MYC, NMYC, and MLL probes. Quantitative changes of malignant cells were measured using G-banding and FISH during the follow up. Dmins were observed in 1.23% of patients (6/489) at the initial diagnosis including 4 with MYC amplification, 1 with MLL and 1 with NMYC. All 6 had complex karyotypes and showed short overall survival (7.7months). In follow-up specimens, FISH detected dmins in 11 cases out of which G-banding detected dmins in 9 cases. The number of dmins detected by FISH and G-banding did not correlate well. Amplification of NMYC in dmins is reported for the first time. A FISH panel composed of frequently amplified oncogenes (MYC, NMYC, and MLL) in dmins is useful for characterization of dmins. FISH is a sensitive method in detecting dmins and will be useful in monitoring of the minimal residual disease.
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Work function engineering of ZnO electrodes by using p-type and n-type doped carbon nanotubes.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Transparent electrodes in organic electronic devices are strongly needed in order to replace indium tin oxide (ITO). Some of the best candidates are ZnO films, which have shown both good electronic properties and solution processability compatible with roll-to-roll production of the devices. We present the possibility to engineer the work function of ZnO by blending it with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). B-doped (p-type), N-doped (n-type) and undoped CNTs as well as their blends with ZnO have been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results of Raman spectroscopy demonstrate the substitutional doping of carbon nanotubes, which preserves their covalent structure although increasing the disorder within the nanotubes. The roughness and average shape of grains of ZnO when blended with the doped nanotubes have been measured by AFM. Finally, SKPM shows that the work function of the blends can be engineered from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 4.9 ± 0.1 eV according to the kind of nanotube that is blended even if only a small amount of nanotubes is added to the blend (0.08 wt%).
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Virtual reality training improves da vinci performance: a prospective trial.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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Abstract Introduction: The DV-Trainer™ (a virtual reality [VR] simulator) (Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) is one of several different robotic surgical training methods. We designed a prospective study to determine whether VR training could improve da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) performance. Subjects and Methods: Surgeons (n=12) were enrolled using a randomized protocol. Groups 1 (VR training) and 2 (control) participated in VR and da Vinci exercises. Participants time and moving distance were combined to determine a composite score: VR index=1000/(time×moving distance). The da Vinci exercises included needle control and suturing. Procedure time and error were measured. A composite index (DV index) was computed and used to measure da Vinci competency. After the initial trial with both the VR and da Vinci exercises, only Group 1 was trained with the VR simulator following our institutional curriculum for 3 weeks. All members of both groups then participated in the second trial of the VR and da Vinci exercises and were scored in the same way as in the initial trial. Results: In the initial trial, there was no difference in the VR index (Group 1 versus Group 2, 8.9±3.3 versus 9.4±3.7; P=.832) and the DV index (Group 1 versus Group 2, 3.85±0.73 versus 3.66±0.65; P=.584) scores between the two groups. At the second time point, Group 1 showed increased VR index scores in comparison with Group 2 (19.3±4.5 versus 9.7±4.1, respectively; P=.001) and improved da Vinci performance skills as measured by the DV index (5.80±1.13 versus 4.05±1.03, respectively; P=.028) and by suturing time (7.1±1.54 minutes versus 10.55±1.93 minutes, respectively; P=.018). Conclusions: We found that VR simulator training can improve da Vinci performance. VR practice can result in an early plateau in the learning curve for robotic practice under controlled circumstances.
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with lower pulmonary complications than open lobectomy: a propensity score-matched analysis.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at an increased risk of pulmonary complications after pulmonary resection. This study aimed to identify whether video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy can reduce postoperative pulmonary complications compared with lobectomy by thoracotomy in NSCLC patients with COPD.
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Role of hypothalamic autophagy in the control of whole body energy balance.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Autophagy is a catabolic process involving the rearrangement of subcellular membranes to sequester cytoplasm and organelles for delivery to lysosomes, where the sequestered material is degraded and recycled. Autophagy is important for maintenance of intracellular energy homeostasis and the quality control of organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, which suggests that dysregulated autophagy might play a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. In an attempt to elucidate the role of autophagy in metabolic disorders, diverse in vivo and in vitro models have been employed. Site-specific autophagy knockout models that are autophagy-deficient specifically in pancreatic ?-cells, skeletal muscle, adipose tissues or liver have been produced. These models have generated valuable information regarding the role of autophagy in body metabolism. The role of autophagy in the hypothalamus, which controls whole body energy balance, appetite and energy expenditure, has also been investigated. Thus, mice with autophagy deficiency in the hypothalamus have shown diverse phenotypes (lean vs. obese) depending on the site of autophagy deficiency or the method of autophagy abrogation.
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Clinical implication of negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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To evaluate the prognostic implication of the negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status before surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with predicted circumferential resection margin involvement.
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Phytophthora database 2.0: update and future direction.
Phytopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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The online community resource Phytophthora database (PD) was developed to support accurate and rapid identification of Phytophthora and to help characterize and catalog the diversity and evolutionary relationships within the genus. Since its release in 2008, the sequence database has grown to cover 1 to 12 loci for ?2,600 isolates (representing 138 described and provisional species). Sequences of multiple mitochondrial loci were added to complement nuclear loci-based phylogenetic analyses and diagnostic tool development. Key characteristics of most newly described and provisional species have been summarized. Other additions to improve the PD functionality include: (i) geographic information system tools that enable users to visualize the geographic origins of chosen isolates on a global-scale map, (ii) a tool for comparing genetic similarity between isolates via microsatellite markers to support population genetic studies, (iii) a comprehensive review of molecular diagnostics tools and relevant references, (iv) sequence alignments used to develop polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostics tools to support their utilization and new diagnostic tool development, and (v) an online community forum for sharing and preserving experience and knowledge accumulated in the global Phytophthora community. Here we present how these improvements can support users and discuss the PDs future direction.
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Understanding the relationship between molecular order and charge transport properties in conjugated polymer based organic blend photovoltaic devices.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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We report a detailed characterization of the thin film morphology of all-polymer blend devices by applying a combined analysis of physical, chemical, optical, and charge transport properties. This is exemplified by considering a model system comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT). We show that the interactions between the two conjugated polymer components can be controlled by pre-forming the P3HT into highly ordered nanowire structures prior to blending with F8BT, and by varying the molecular weight of the F8BT. As a result, it is possible to produce films containing highly ordered P3HT with hole mobilities enhanced by three orders of magnitude over the pristine blends. Raman spectroscopy under resonant excitation conditions is used to probe the molecular order of both P3HT and F8BT phases within the blend films and these morphological studies are complemented by measurements of photocurrent generation. The resultant increase in photocurrent is associated with the enhanced charge carrier mobilities. The complementary analytical method demonstrated here is applicable to a wide range of polymer blend systems for all applications where the relationships between morphology and device performance are of interest.
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Controlling Microstructure of Pentacene Derivatives by Solution Processing: Impact of Structural Anisotropy on Optoelectronic Properties.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The consideration of anisotropic structural properties and their impact on optoelectronic properties in small-molecule thin films is vital to understand the performance of devices incorporating crystalline organic semiconductors. Here we report on the important relationship between structural and optoelectronic anisotropy in aligned, functionalized-pentacene thin films fabricated using the solution-based zone-casting technique. The microstructure of thin films composed of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) and 6,13-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TES-pentacene) is systematically controlled by varying the casting speed. By controlling the structural alignment, we were able to experimentally decouple, for the first time in these films, an intramolecular absorption transition dipole (at ?440 nm) oriented close to the pentacene short axis and an intermolecular absorption transition dipole (at ?695 nm) oriented predominantly along the conjugated pentacene-pentacene core stacking axis (crystallographic a-axis) in both films. Using the intermolecular absorption as a signature for intermolecular delocalization, much higher optical dichroism was obtained in TES-pentacene (16 ± 6) than TIPS-pentacene (3.2 ± 0.1), which was attributed to the 1D packing structure of TES-pentacene compared to the 2D packing structure of TIPS-pentacene. This result was also supported by field-effect mobility anisotropy measurements of the films, with TES-pentacene exhibiting a higher anisotropy (?21-47, depending on the casting speed) than TIPS-pentacene (?3-10).
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New players in high fat diet-induced obesity: LETM1 and CTMP.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Obesity contributes to insulin resistance and is a risk factor for diabetes. C-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and leucine zipper/EF-hand-containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) have been reported to influence the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathway via the modulation of PKB activity, a key player for insulin signaling. However, it remains unclear whether CTMP and LETM1 are associated with PI3K/PKB signaling in mouse models of obesity.
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The application of an in situ karyotyping technique for mesenchymal stromal cells: a validation and comparison study with classical G-banding.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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The cytogenetic analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is essential for verifying the safety and stability of MSCs. An in situ technique, which uses cells grown on coverslips for karyotyping and minimizes cell manipulation, is the standard protocol for the chromosome analysis of amniotic fluids. Therefore, we applied the in situ karyotyping technique in MSCs and compared the quality of metaphases and karyotyping results with classical G-banding and chromosomal abnormalities with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Human adipose- and umbilical cord-derived MSC cell lines (American Type Culture Collection PCS-500-011, PCS-500-010) were used for evaluation. The quality of metaphases was assessed by analyzing the chromosome numbers in each metaphase, the overlaps of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1. FISH was performed in the interphase nuclei of MSCs for 6q, 7q and 17q abnormalities and for the enumeration of chromosomes via oligo-FISH in adipose-derived MSCs. The number of chromosomes in each metaphase was more variable in classical G-banding. The overlap of chromosomes and the mean length of chromosome 1 as observed via in situ karyotyping were comparable to those of classical G-banding (P=0.218 and 0.674, respectively). Classical G-banding and in situ karyotyping by two personnel showed normal karyotypes for both cell lines in five passages. No numerical or structural chromosomal abnormalities were found by the interphase-FISH. In situ karyotyping showed equivalent karyotype results, and the quality of the metaphases was not inferior to classical G-banding. Thus, in situ karyotyping with minimized cell manipulation and the use of less cells would be useful for karyotyping MSCs.
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Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusion: initial experience.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) for patients diagnosed with basilar artery (BA) occlusion.
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Long-term changes in serum IGF-1 levels after successful surgical treatment of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Successful treatment of acromegaly is known to normalize serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels within days after surgery. However, our clinical observations indicate that many cases of acromegaly show delayed normalization of serum IGF-1 levels after complete tumor resection.
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Selective use of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for T3 rectal cancer can be justified: analysis of local recurrence.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) is performed to reduce local recurrence and improve the rate of radical resection for rectal cancer. Currently, it is recommended for all suspected T3 rectal cancers. However, the survival benefit of this procedure is controversial, and complications of RT are often overlooked. The present study was designed to assess the validity of our institutional policies regarding selective use of preoperative CXRT for T3 rectal cancer.
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PHF20 regulates NF-?B signalling by disrupting recruitment of PP2A to p65.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Constitutive NF-?B activation in cancer cells is caused by defects in the signalling network responsible for terminating the NF-?B response. Here we report that plant homeodomain finger protein 20 (PHF20) maintains NF-?B in an active state in the nucleus by inhibiting the interaction between PP2A and p65. We show that PHF20 induces canonical NF-?B signalling by increasing the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B subunit p65. In PHF20 overexpressing cells, the termination of tumour necrosis factor-induced p65 phosphorylation is impaired whereas upstream signalling events triggered by tumour necrosis factor are unaffected. This effect strictly depends on the interaction between PHF20 and methylated lysine residues of p65, which hinders recruitment of PP2A to p65, thereby maintaining p65 in a phosphorylated state. We further show that PHF20 levels correlate with p65 phosphorylation levels in human glioma specimens. Our work identifies PHF20 as a novel regulator of NF-?B activation and suggests that elevated expression of PHF20 may drive constitutive NF-?B activation in some cancers.
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Characterization of fragmented 3-phosphoinsitide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) by phosphosite-specific antibodies.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) activates a number of protein kinases of the AGC subfamily, including protein kinase B and ribosomal S6 protein kinase by phosphorylating these kinases at the activation-loop. PDK1 activity is regulated by auto-phosphorylation and is further increased by stimulation of cells. PDK1 has been shown to have several phosphorylation sites including 5 serine and 3 tyrosine residues. However, Ser241 and Tyr373/376 are only involved in the regulation of PDK1 activity.
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Astrocytic phosphorylation of PDK1 on Tyr9 following an excitotoxic lesion in the mouse hippocampus.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) is suggested to play important roles in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and neuronal cell survival in the mature CNS. Although few studies have investigated the roles of PDK1, little is known about PDK1 changes in glial cells under neuropathological conditions. In current report, phosphorylation of PDK1 was monitored specially on tyrosine residues, following the induction of an excitotoxic lesion in rat brain by using kainic acid administration. In injured hippocampal CA3 region, Tyr9 phosphorylation of PDK1 was increased from 4h until 3 day post-injection. Double immunohistochemistry further evaluated that these phosphorylated forms of PDK1 were localized in astrocytes not other cells. Overexpression of unphosphorylatable mutant, PDK1-Y9F leads to inhibit Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results suggested for the first time that tyrosine phosphorylation of PDK1 is required for PKB and CREB activation in KA-mediated excitotoxic lesion in mouse brain.
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Clusterin and LRP2 are critical components of the hypothalamic feeding regulatory pathway.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Hypothalamic feeding circuits are essential for the maintenance of energy balance. There have been intensive efforts to discover new biological molecules involved in these pathways. Here we report that central administration of clusterin, also called apolipoprotein J, causes anorexia, weight loss and activation of hypothalamic signal transduction-activated transcript-3 in mice. In contrast, inhibition of hypothalamic clusterin action results in increased food intake and body weight, leading to adiposity. These effects are likely mediated through the mutual actions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2, a potential receptor for clusterin, and the long-form leptin receptor. In response to clusterin, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 binding to long-form leptin receptor is greatly enhanced in cultured neuronal cells. Furthermore, long-form leptin receptor deficiency or hypothalamic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 suppression in mice leads to impaired hypothalamic clusterin signalling and actions. Our study identifies the hypothalamic clusterin-low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-2 axis as a novel anorexigenic signalling pathway that is tightly coupled with long-form leptin receptor-mediated signalling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.