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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Expression of the new CXCL12 receptor, CXCR7, in gliomas.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Gliomas are very invasive brain tumors with poor prognosis and therefore any attempt to limit tumor cell dissemination in the brain is expected to improve glioma treatment. The recent deorphanization of CXCR7 as additional receptor for CXCL12 and CXCL11 has raised key issues on its interaction with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as a mechanism to modulate glioma cell migration. In this work we investigated protein and mRNA expression of the two chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL11, together with their receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in human glioma specimens and cell lines by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The main purpose of this study was to find out whether and at what extent CXCR4 and CXCR7 are differentially expressed in glioma cells. In human glioma specimens the levels of CXCL11 and CXCR4 mRNA were significantly higher in glioblastomas compared to non-tumor controls or low grade gliomas, whilst no difference was found for CXCL12 and CXCR7 mRNA expression. In cell lines, flow cytometry and immunocytochemical experiments showed CXCR4 was mainly expressed irrespective of its membrane or intracellular localization. In contrast, a predominant intracellular localization together with a negligible membrane expression of CXCR7 was found in all cells examined. In in vitro experiments CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonists and the silencing of CXCR4 showed complete inhibition of glioma proliferation. Our findings, in agreement with previous data, suggest that in human glioma cells the prevalent intracellular localization of CXCR7 might modulate the functionality of CXCL11/12 either acting as a scavenger for these chemokines or interfering with the signaling pathways activated by the stimulation of CXCR4.
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Store-operated Ca(2+) entry is expressed in human endothelial progenitor cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be recruited from the bone marrow to sites of tissue regeneration to sustain neovascularization and reendothelialization after acute vascular injury. This feature makes them particularly suitable for cell-based therapy. In mature endothelium, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is activated following emptying of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive stores, and controls a wide number of functions, including proliferation, nitric oxide synthesis, and vascular permeability. The present work aimed at investigating SOCE expression in EPCs harvested from both peripheral blood (PB-EPCs) and umbilical cord blood (UCB-EPCs) by employing both Ca(2+) imaging and molecular biology techniques. SOCE was induced upon either pharmacological (ie, cyclopiazonic acid) or physiological (ie, ATP) depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+) pool. Further, store-dependent Ca(2+) entry was inhibited by the SOCE inhibitor, N-(4-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]phenyl)-4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-5-carboxamide (BTP-2). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that both PB-EPCs and UCB-EPCs express all the molecular candidates to mediate SOCE in differentiated cells, including TRPC1, TRPC4, Orai1, and Stim1. Moreover, pharmacological maneuvers demonstrated that, as well as in differentiated endothelial cells, the signal transduction pathway leading to depletion of the intracellular Ca(2+) pool impinged on the phospholipase C/inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway. Finally, blockage of SOCE with BTP-2 impaired PB-EPC proliferation. These findings provide the first evidence that EPCs express SOCE, which might thus be regarded as a novel target to enhance the regenerative outcome of cell-based therapy.
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Small molecule integrin antagonists in cancer therapy.
Mini Rev Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Integrins are a large family of dimeric receptors composed by alpha and beta subunits that, once bound to extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins, regulate a variety of cellular processes such as cell motility, migration, and proliferation. The integrins transduce signals from inside-out and outside-in the cell, thus representing the cellular link to the external environment. For these properties, integrin activation has been involved in pathological processes like tumor growth and metastasis formation. Recent advances in the elucidation of the crystallographic structures of the alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbeta3 integrins are promoting studies focused to the search of small molecule antagonists that can block the integrin binding to ECM and inhibit the biological effects exerted by these receptors. In this review we will focus on small molecule antagonists of alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrin as tools for cancer therapy while other integrins will only be briefly mentioned. Cilengitide (cyclic peptidic alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 antagonist) is currently in clinical trials for anti cancer therapy. Combination of integrin alphavbeta3 antagonists and other traditional therapeutic approaches may represent a future strategy to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis spreading.
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Endothelin B receptor antagonists block proliferation and induce apoptosis in glioma cells.
Pharmacol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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The proliferative and antiapoptotic actions of endothelin (ET)-1 in cancer cells have been documented and ET receptor antagonists have been exploited as potential anticancer drugs. Glioblastoma cell lines express both ETA and ETB receptors and previous works have shown that ETB receptors are involved in the proliferation of different cancer cell types. In this study we have investigated the effects of two structurally unrelated ETB receptor antagonists, BQ788 and A192621, on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis in 1321-N1, U87 and IPDDCA2 glioma cell lines. BQ788 and A192621 reduced glioma cells viability and proliferation assessed by BrdU incorporation and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, while in contrast the ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 had no effect on cell survival. TUNEL assay and immunocytochemical experiments showed that BQ788 and A192621 trigger apoptotic processes mainly via activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-9 activation, AIF release and cytochrome c translocation. Furthermore, treatment with ETB antagonists downregulates ERK- and p38MAPK-dependent pathways but does not affect VEGF mRNA levels. Our findings support the hypothesis that ETB antagonists represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of high grade gliomas.
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Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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In this study the mRNA levels of five EGFR indirectly related genes, EGFR, HB-EGF, ADAM17, PTEN, and MMP9, have been assessed by Real-time PCR in a panel of 37 glioblastoma multiforme specimens and in 5 normal brain samples; as a result, in glioblastoma, ADAM17 and PTEN expression was significantly lower than in normal brain samples, and, in particular, a statistically significant inverse correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels. To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines. In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression. PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels were also employed to identify subgroups of specimens within the different glioma malignancy grades and to define a gene expression-based diagnostic classification scheme. In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.
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A small-molecule RGD-integrin antagonist inhibits cell adhesion, cell migration and induces anoikis in glioblastoma cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
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In cancer cells integrins modulate important cellular events that regulate the metastasic cascade which involves detachment from the tumor mass, dissemination and attachment to the oncogenic niche. The ?5?1, ?v?3 and ?v?5 integrins are widely expressed in different cancer types and recognize the tripeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif present in several extracellular matrix proteins. In human glioblastoma, ?v?3 integrin expression correlates with tumor grade, suggesting that this integrin may play a crucial role in the highly infiltrative behavior of high grade gliomas. However, few selective RGD-like antagonists have been developed and few studies have investigated their effects in in vitro models of human glioblastoma. In this study, we investigated several cellular effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms exerted by a new small-molecule RGD antagonist, 1a-RGD, in the U251 and U373 human glioblastoma cell lines. Treatment with 1a-RGD (20 µM) demonstrated a weak effect on cell viability and cell proliferation but strongly inhibited cell attachment and cell migration together with actin cytoskeleton disassembly. Prolonged 1a-RGD treatment (72 h) induced anoikis, assessed by Annexin staining and nucleosome assay, particularly in the detached cells. When integrin-linked transduction pathways were investigated, 1aRGD was found to exert a marked reduction in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation without affecting the AKT- and ERK-dependent pathways. Our data indicate that 1a-RGD, probably via modulation of the FAK-dependent pathway, inhibits cell migration and attachment and induces anoikis in glioblastoma cells. This novel finding suggests that the development of an RGD-like molecule may represent a promising tool for the pharmacological approach aimed at reducing the malignancy of glioblastoma cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.