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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of Palm and Sunflower Oils on Serum Cholesterol and Fatty Liver in Rats.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ?49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.
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Organic Field-Effect Transistors: Dramatic Inversion of Charge Polarity in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors via a Simple Nitrile Group Substitution (Adv. Mater. 43/2014).
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A record-breaking high electron mobility (up to 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) ) is demonstrated with a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based semiconductor (PDPP-CNTVT), of which a vinylene unit is simply incorporated with only one nitrile group, as described by Y.-H. Kim, Y.-Y. Noh, as described by S.-K. Kwon, and co-workers on page 7300. Both the strong electron-withdrawing property of the nitrile group and its low steric-hindrance effect in the conjugation backbone can help the hole-dominant polymer (PDPP-TVT) to be converted dramatically into an outstanding electron-dominant semiconductor.
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Brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia. sappan suppresses nuclear envelope reassembly by inhibiting BAF phosphorylation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To date, many anticancer drugs have been developed by directly or indirectly targeting microtubules, which are involved in cell division. Although this approach has yielded many anticancer drugs, these drugs possess undesirable side effects. An alternative strategy is needed, and targeting mitotic exit may be one alternative approach. Localization of phosphorylated barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) to the chromosomal core region is essential for nuclear envelope compartment re-localization. In this study, we isolated brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan Leguminosae and demonstrated that it inhibited BAF phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated direct binding between brazilin and BAF. The inhibition of BAF phosphorylation induced abnormal nuclear envelope reassembly and cell death, indicating that perturbation of nuclear envelope reassembly could be a novel approach to anticancer therapy. We propose that brazilin isolated from C. sappan may be a new anticancer drug candidate that induces cell death by inhibiting vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1)-mediated BAF phosphorylation.
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Atomistic mechanisms of codoping-induced p- to n-type conversion in nitrogen-doped graphene.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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It was recently shown that nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) can exhibit both p- and n-type characters depending on the C-N bonding nature, which represents a significant bottleneck for the development of graphene-based electronics. Based on first-principles calculations, we herein scrutinize the correlations between the atomic and electronic structures of NG and particularly explore the feasibility of converting p-type NG with pyridinic, pyrrolic, and nitrilic N atoms into n- or bipolar type by introducing an additional dopant atom. Of the nine candidates B, C, O, F, Al, Si, P, S, and Cl, we find that B-, Al-, and P-codoping can anneal even relatively large vacancy defects in p-type NG. It will be also shown that, while the NG with pyridinic N can be converted into the n-type via codoping, only a bipolar type conversion can be achieved for the NG with nitrilic or pyrrolic N. The amount of work function reduction was up to 0.64 eV for the pyridinic N next to a monovacancy. The atomistic origin of such diverse type changes is analyzed based on Mulliken and crystal orbital Hamiltonian populations, which provide us with a framework to connect the local bonding chemistry with the macroscopic electronic structure in doped and/or defective graphene. Moreover, we demonstrate that the proposed codoping scheme can recover the excellent charge transport properties of pristine graphene. Both the electronic type conversion and conductance recovery in codoped NG should have significant implications for the electronic and energy device applications.
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High performance CNT point emitter with graphene interfacial layer.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential in the development of high-power electron beam sources. However, for such a high-performance electronic device, the electric and thermal contact problem between the metal and CNTs must be improved. Here, we report graphene as an interfacial layer between the metal and CNTs to improve the interfacial contact. The interfacial graphene layer results in a dramatic decrease of the electrical contact resistance by an order of 2 and an increase of the interfacial thermal conductivity by 16%. Such a high improvement in the electrical and thermal interface leads to superior field emission performance with a very low turn-on field of 1.49 V ?m(-1) at 10 ?A cm(-2) and a threshold field of 2.00 V ?m(-1) at 10 mA cm(-2), as well as the maximum current of 16 mA (current density of 2300 A cm(-2)).
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Severe neurologic manifestations in acute intermittent porphyria developed after spine surgery under general anesthesia: a case report.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders resulting from a specific enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are induced by various precipitants. Clinical features include abdominal pain, neurologic manifestations, autonomic neuropathy, and mental disturbance. Diagnosis may be delayed because of variable symptoms that mimic other diseases and because of the rarity of of porphyrias. Although most patients with known porphyria can complete anesthesia and surgery safely, undiagnosed porphyric patients are in danger of porphyric crisis due to inadvertent exposure to precipitating drugs and environment. We report a case of a patient who experienced delayed emergence with neurological disturbance after general anesthesia, ultimately diagnosed as acute intermittent porphyria.
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Semen quality of consecutive ejaculates from cancer patients for fertility preservation.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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To study variations in semen parameters among cancer patients who visited a sperm banking clinic before undergoing cancer treatment.
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Alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in human normal ovaries and neoplastic ovarian cancers.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Most ovarian cancers originate in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Ovarian cancers might undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to various mediators or regulators such as EMT-inducing factors. In this study, ovarian tumor specimens from patients were analyzed to demonstrate alteration of EMT-related markers according to benign and malignant types of ovarian cancers. In the three ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and BG-1, the expression of epithelial (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin) cell markers was identified by RNA and protein analysis. OVCAR-3 and BG-1 cells strongly expressed E-cadherin as well as morphological features such as epithelial cells, but vimentin was not observed. In contrast to these cancer cells, SKOV-3 showed a phenotype typical of mesenchymal cells. Alteration of EMT markers and EMT-related transcriptional factors were confirmed in clinical ovarian tissue samples obtained from 74 patients. E-cadherin was expressed in 57.1% of benign tumors, while vimentin was expressed in 83.3% of normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of E-cadherin and vimentin revealed the phenomenon in the tissue specimens. Evaluation of the EMT-associated transcriptional factors Snail, Slug, and Twist revealed that Snail was overexpressed by 7.1-fold in malignant ovarian cancer compared to normal ovaries or benign tumors. Although expression levels of other factors were higher in benign and malignant ovarian tumors, they were not closely correlated with the aforementioned ovarian cancer types. Overall, Snail may affect the EMT process in ovarian cancer development and upregulation of Snail expression followed by the downregulation of E-cadherin enhances the invasiveness of ovarian cancer.
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Dramatic Inversion of Charge Polarity in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors via a Simple Nitrile Group Substitution.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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A record-breaking high electron mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for n-channel polymer OFETs is reported. By the incorporation of only one nitrile group as an electron-withdrawing function in the vinyl linkage of the DPP-based copolymer, a dramatic inversion of majority charge-carriers from holes to electrons is achieved.
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The difference in diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient between spontaneous and postoperative intracranial infection.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Abstract Background. Although the roles of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) have been accepted as the initial or confirmatory diagnostic tool for spontaneous intracranial infections, the usefulness of these has rarely been investigated in intracranial infections after a craniotomy procedure. Through an analysis of the clinico-radiological characteristics of spontaneous and postoperative intracranial infections, the authors revealed the specific factors that affect the accuracy of DWI and ADC in diagnosing intracranial infections. Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed 67 intracranial infections confirmed using preoperative MR imaging, including the DWI, ADC and gadolium-enhanced (Gd) images, and by peroperative pus drainage. Results. In 67 enrolled patients, no or uncertain diffusion restriction on DWI and ADC was found in 9 cases (13%). All the cases showed typical peripheral enhancement on Gd images. Among nine cases without diffusion restriction, postoperative infection was seen in five cases (62.5% [5/8 postoperative infection group] vs. 6.8% [4/59 spontaneous infection group], p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, postoperative infection was the predictive factor for false-negative restriction on DWI and ADC (hazard ratio: 41.2, 95% confidential index: 2.39-710.25, p = 0.01). Conclusion. Despite the excellent availability of DWI and ADC for diagnosing spontaneous intracranial infections, negative restriction results of those images are not sufficient to exclude postoperative intracranial infection.
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Identification and characterization of outer membrane vesicle-associated proteins in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a primary cause of enteric diseases and has acquired a variety of virulence factors during its evolution into a pathogen. Secreted virulence factors interact with commensal flora and host cells and enable Salmonella to survive and thrive in hostile environments. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from many Gram-negative bacteria function as a mechanism for the secretion of complex mixtures, including virulence factors. We performed a proteomic analysis of OMVs that were isolated under standard laboratory and acidic minimal medium conditions and identified 14 OMV-associated proteins that were observed in the OMV fraction isolated only under the acidic minimal medium conditions, which reproduced the nutrient-deficient intracellular milieu. The inferred roles of these 14 proteins were diverse, including transporter, enzyme, and transcriptional regulator. The absence of these proteins influenced Salmonella survival inside murine macrophages. Eleven of these proteins were predicted to possess secretion signal sequences at their N termini, and three (HupA, GlnH, and PhoN) of the proteins were found to be translocated into the cytoplasm of host cells. The comparative proteomic profiling of OMVs performed in this study revealed different protein compositions in the OMVs isolated under the two different conditions, which indicates that the OMV cargo depends on the growth conditions and provides a deeper insight into how Salmonella utilizes OMVs to adapt to environmental changes.
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Cavernous hemangioma of the third ventricle: a case report and review of the literature.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Although cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) can be found anywhere in the central nervous system, CHs of the third ventricle have been reported in only 29 patients (including our case). In the current case report, we discuss the clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of CHs of the third ventricle.
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Ionic Liquid Enabled FeS2 for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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High-energy-density FeS2 cathodes en-abled by a bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-) anion-based room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte are demonstrated. A TFSI-based ionic liquid (IL) significantly mitigates polysulfide dissolution, and therefore the parasitic redox shuttle mechanism, that plagues sulfur-based electrode chemistries. FeS2 stabilization with a TFSI(-) -based IL results in one of the highest energy density cathodes, 542 W h kg(-1) (normalized to cathode composite mass), reported to date.
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Outcomes of manual aspiration thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke refractory to stent-based thrombectomy.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The optimal treatment for patients with acute stroke refractory to stent-based thrombectomy (SBT) is unclear. This study aimed to report clinical outcomes of manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke refractory to SBT.
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Urinary excretion of ?2-microglobulin as a prognostic marker in immunoglobulin A nephropathy.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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?2-microglobulin (?2-MG) is freely filtered at the glomerulus and subsequently reabsorbed and catabolized by proximal renal tubular cells. Urinary ?2-MG is an early and sensitive biomarker of acute kidney injury; however, its utility as a biomarker of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is unclear.
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NVP-BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, induces cell death through alternate routes in prostate cancer cells depending on the PTEN genotype.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Deregulation of the PI3K-AKT/mTOR pathway due to mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN frequently occurs in human prostate cancer and is therefore considered to be an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we investigated how the PTEN genotype affected the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235 in human prostate cancer cells. In this setting, NVP-BEZ235 induced cell death in a PTEN-independent manner. NVP-BEZ235 selectively induced apoptotic cell death in the prostate cancer cell line DU145, which harbors wild-type PTEN; however, in the PC3 cell line, which is PTEN-null, treatment with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in autophagic cell death. Consistently, NVP-BEZ235 treatment did not result in the cleavage of caspase-3; instead, it resulted in the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, indicating autophagic cell death; these results suggest that an alternate mechanism of cell death is induced by NVP-BEZ235 in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells. Based on our findings, we conclude that the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway is critical for prostate cancer survival, and targeting PI3K signaling by NVP-BEZ235 may be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer, independent of the PTEN genotype.
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Efficient diketopyrrolopyrrole-based small-molecule bulk-heterojunction solar cells with different electron-donating end-groups.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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A series of small molecules that contained identical ?-spacers (ethyne), a central diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit, and different aromatic electron-donating end-groups were synthesized and used in organic solar cells (OSCs) to study the effect of electron-donating groups on the device performance. The three compounds, DPP-A-Ph, DPP-A-Na, and DPP-A-An, possessed intense absorption bands that covered a wide range, from 350 to 750?nm, and relatively low HOMO energy levels, from -5.50 to -5.55?eV. DPP-A-An, which contained anthracene end-groups, demonstrated a stronger absorbance and a higher hole mobility than DPP-A-Ph, which contained phenyl groups, and DPP-A-Na, which contained naphthalene units. The power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of OSCs based on organic:PC71BM blends (1:1, w/w) with a processed DIO additive were 3.93% for DPP-A-An, 3.02% for DPP-Na, and 2.26% for DPP-A-Ph. These findings suggest that a DPP core that is functionalized with electron-donating capping groups constitutes a promising new class of solution-processable small molecules for OSC applications.
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Role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its effects on embryonic stem cells.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for embryonic development and the formation of various tissues or organs. However, EMT dysfunction in normal cells leads to diseases, such as cancer or fibrosis. During the EMT, epithelial cells are converted into more invasive and active mesenchymal cells. E-box-binding proteins, including Snail, ZEB and helix-loop-helix family members, serve as EMT-activating transcription factors. These transcription factors repress the expression of epithelial markers, for example, E-cadherin, rearrange the cytoskeleton and promote the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, fibronectin and other EMT-activating transcription factors. Signaling pathways that induce EMT, including transforming growth factor-?, Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase-3?, Notch and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, interact with each other for the regulation of this process. Although the mechanism(s) underlying EMT in cancer or embryonic development have been identified, the mechanism(s) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remain unclear. In this review, we describe the underlying mechanisms of important EMT factors, indicating a precise role for EMT in ESCs, and characterize the relationship between EMT and ESCs.
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Laparoendoscopic single-site myomectomy versus conventional laparoscopic myomectomy: a comparison of surgical outcomes.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate laparoendoscopic single-site myomectomy (LESS-M) for the surgical treatment of fibroids and to compare surgical outcomes and postoperative pain with conventional laparoscopic myomectomy (CLM).
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Comparison of growth hormone treatment in patients with idiopathic short stature and idiopathic growth hormone deficiency.
Chonnam Med J
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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After recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was introduced in the treatment of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS), many studies have addressed the effect of GH treatment and changes in the height standard deviation score (SDS) after GH treatment. However, few studies comparing the effect of GH in Korean patients with idiopathic GHD and ISS have been designed. Therefore, this study focused on the difference in effect of GH treatment between the two groups. We retrospectively reviewed the height SDS of 34 patients with idiopathic GHD and 12 patients with ISS. The mean ages of the patients with idiopathic GHD and ISS were 9.84±2.09 and 10.72±1.48 years, respectively. All patients were treated with GH for 1 year and body parameters were recorded before and after the GH treatment. Change in height SDS in patients with idiopathic GHD was significantly higher than that in patients with ISS (0.62±0.33 vs. 0.40±0.27, p=0.03). However, body mass index, insulin-like growth factor-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 were not significantly different between the two groups after GH treatment. These results suggest that GH treatment has a more powerful effect on increasing height SDS in patients with idiopathic GHD than in patients with ISS.
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Factors affecting the spontaneous expulsion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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To estimate the incidence of, and identify risk factors for, spontaneous expulsion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).
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Laminaria japonica combined with probiotics improves intestinal microbiota: a randomized clinical trial.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Laminaria japonica--a widely used ingredient in seaweed kimchi--and lactic acid bacteria (LAB)--a main component of traditional fermented Korean food--may alter human intestinal microbiota composition and have a positive effect on various digestive problems. However, few clinical trials have investigated the potential benefits of L. japonica when combined with LAB for human intestinal microbiota. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of L. japonica and representative LAB on the human intestine. Forty participants with no known digestive diseases were randomly assigned to one of the two combination groups: (1) L. japonica with LAB and (2) L. japonica with placebo LAB. The study agents were administered for 4 weeks with a 2-week follow-up period. The primary outcome measure was the number of each of the seven LAB species in the human intestine, and the secondary outcome measures included the Korean version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and bowel functions. The primary outcome was evaluated before and after administration of the study agents (0 and 4 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were evaluated at 0, 4, and 6 weeks. Four of the seven LAB species were found to be significantly increased in the L. japonica with the LAB group and five species were significantly different from those of the placebo group. The secondary outcome measures did not change significantly. In conclusion, L. japonica with LAB facilitated the proliferation of beneficial human intestinal microbiota. (
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Effect of necrostatin on mouse ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate the effects of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) supplementation on vitrification, warming and transplantation of ovarian tissue.
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The clinical experience of recurrent central nervous system hemangioblastomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Hemangioblastomas (HBLs) of the central nervous system are benign vascular tumors that may occur sporadically or in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHLD). We analyzed the clinical and radiological findings of HBLs focusing on recurrence.
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Hierarchical porous framework of Si-based electrodes for minimal volumetric expansion.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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A tunable hierarchical porous framework is fabricated to house the volumetric changes outputted by Si. The nSi@cPAN/cPAN electrodes only expand by 14.3% at full initial lithiation and remain within 23% expansion from its uncycled state after 20 cycles with remarkable cycling stability and high coulombic efficiencies in excess of 99.5%.
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Luteolin suppresses cancer cell proliferation by targeting vaccinia-related kinase 1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Uncontrolled proliferation, a major feature of cancer cells, is often triggered by the malfunction of cell cycle regulators such as protein kinases. Recently, cell cycle-related protein kinases have become attractive targets for anti-cancer therapy, because they play fundamental roles in cellular proliferation. However, the protein kinase-targeted drugs that have been developed so far do not show impressive clinical results and also display severe side effects; therefore, there is undoubtedly a need to investigate new drugs targeting other protein kinases that are critical in cell cycle progression. Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a mitotic kinase that functions in cell cycle regulation by phosphorylating cell cycle-related substrates such as barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), histone H3, and the cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB). In our study, we identified luteolin as the inhibitor of VRK1 by screening a small-molecule natural compound library. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of luteolin as a VRK1-targeted inhibitor for developing an effective anti-cancer strategy. We confirmed that luteolin significantly reduces VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of the cell cycle-related substrates BAF and histone H3, and directly interacts with the catalytic domain of VRK1. In addition, luteolin regulates cell cycle progression by modulating VRK1 activity, leading to the suppression of cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, our study suggests that luteolin-induced VRK1 inhibition may contribute to establish a novel cell cycle-targeted strategy for anti-cancer therapy.
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Effective DQE (eDQE) and dose to optimize radiographic technical parameters: a survey of pediatric chest X-ray examinations in Korea.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various technical parameters for dose optimization in pediatric chest radiological examinations by evaluating effective dose and effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE).
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Optimization of configuration parameters in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effects of variable projection-view (PV) and angular dose (AD) distributions on the reconstructed image quality for improving microcalcification detection. The PV densities at central and peripheral sites were varied through the distribution of 21 PVs acquired over ±25° angular range. To vary the AD distribution, 7 PVs in the central region were targeted with two, four and six times the peripheral dose, and the number of central PVs receiving four times the peripheral dose was increased from 3 to 11. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for in-focus plane quality and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of artifact spread function (ASF) for resolution in the z-direction were used. Although the ASF improved with increasing PV densities at two peripheral sites, the CNRs were inferior to those obtained with other subsets. With increasing PV density in the central area, the vertical resolution decreased but the CNR increased. Although increasing the central PV or AD concentrations improved image quality, excessive central densities reduced image quality by increasing noise in peripheral views.
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Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3,5-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 hepatoma cells, and in vivo, through stimulation of PGC-1?. NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required cGMP, and was mimicked by the cGMP analogue (8-bromoguanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate [8-Br-cGMP]). Activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by SNAP required HO-1, as it could be reversed by genetic interference of HO-1; and by treatment with the HO inhibitor tin-protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP) in vitro and in vivo. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-IX, an HO-1 inducing agent, stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, which could be reversed by the CO scavenger hemoglobin. Application of CO, using the CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3), stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a cGMP-dependent manner. Both CoPP and CORM-3-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation and phosphorylation of Akt. The natural antioxidant resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a manner dependent on NO biosynthesis, cGMP synthesis, Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation, and endogenous CO production. Furthermore, resveratrol preserved mitochondrial biogenesis during lipopolysaccharides-induced hepatic inflammation in vivo. Innovation and Conclusions: The complex interplay between endogenous NO and CO production may underlie the mechanism by which natural antioxidants induce mitochondrial biogenesis. Strategies aimed at improving mitochondrial biogenesis may be used as therapeutics for the treatment of diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting-refeeding process.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24h. Also, NF-?B is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-?, IL1-?, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting-refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-?B target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting-refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.
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Aspiration pneumonia caused by fentanyl-induced cough -a case report-.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Although fentanyl-induced cough is generally transient and benign, it can give rise to serious problems in patients to whom increasing intracranial, intraocular or intraabdominal pressures may create dangerous situations. This case demonstrates aspiration pneumonia as a complication, exhibiting severe cough induced by intravenous injection of fentanyl.
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Reversible High-Capacity Si Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Enabled by Molecular Layer Deposition.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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The molecular layer deposition of a flexible coating onto Si electrodes produces high-capacity Si nanocomposite anodes. Using a reaction cascade based on inorganic trimethylaluminum and organic glycerol precursors, conventional nano-Si electrodes undergo surface modifications, resulting in anodes that can be cycled over 100 times with capacities of nearly 900 mA h g(-1) and coulombic efficiencies in excess of 99%.
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Deep-blue phosphorescence from perfluoro carbonyl-substituted iridium complexes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The new deep-blue iridium(III) complexes, (TF)2Ir(pic), (TF)2Ir(fptz), (HF)2Ir(pic), and (HF)2Ir(fptz), consisting of 2,4?-difluororphenyl-3-methylpyridine with trifluoromethyl carbonyl or heptafluoropropyl carbonyl at the 3 position as the main ligand and a picolinate or a trifluoromethylated-triazole as the ancillary ligand, were synthesized and characterized for applications in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Density function theory (DFT) calculations showed that these iridium complexes had a wide band gap, owing to the introduction of the strong electron withdrawing perfluoro carbonyl group. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations suggested that their lowest triplet excited state was dominated by a HOMO ? LUMO transition and that the contribution of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) was higher than 34% for all four complexes, indicating that strong spin-orbit coupling exists in the complexes. The 10 wt % (TF)2Ir(pic) doped 9-(3-(9H-carbazole-9-yl)phenyl)-3-(dibromophenylphosphoryl)-9H-carbazole (mCPPO1) film exhibited the highest photoluminescence quantum yield of 74 ± 3% among the films based on the four complexes. Phosphorescent OLEDs based on (TF)2Ir(pic) and (TF)2Ir(fptz) exhibited maximum external quantum efficiencies of 17.1% and 8.4% and Commission Internationale de lEclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.141, 0.158) and (0.147, 0.116), respectively. These CIE coordinates represent some of the deepest blue emissions ever achieved from phosphorescent OLEDs with considerably high EQEs.
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Roles of YehZ, a Putative Osmoprotectant Transporter, in Tempering Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Salmonella, a main cause of foodborne diseases, encounters a variety of environmental stresses and overcomes the stresses by multiple resistance strategies. One of the general responses to hyperosmotic stress is to import or produce compatible solutes so that cells maintain fluid balance and protect proteins and lipids from denaturation. The ProP and ProU systems are the main transport systems for compatible solutes. The OsmU system, recently identified as a third osmoprotectant transport system, debilitates excessive growth as well by reducing production of trehalose. We studied a fourth putative osmoprotectant transport system, YehZYXW, with high sequence similarity with the OsmU system. A Salmonella strain lacking YehZ, a predicted substrate-binding protein, did not suffer from hyperosmolarity but rather grew more rapidly than the wild type regardless of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant, suggesting that the YehZYXW system controls bacterial growth irrespective of transporting glycine betaine. However, the growth advantage of ?yehZ was not attributable to an increase in OtsBA-mediated trehalose production, which is responsible for the outcompetition of the ?osmU strain. Overexpressed YehZ in trans was capable of deaccelerating bacterial growth vice versa, supporting a role of YehZ in dampening growth. The expression of yehZ was increased in response to nutrient starvation, acidic pH, and the presence of glycine betaine under hyperosmotic stress. Identifying substrates for YehZ will help decipher the role of the YehZYXW system in regulating bacterial growth in response to environmental cues.
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New chemical constituents from Oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Five new constituents, 5,4-dihydroxy-7,3-dimethoxyflavone-4-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate (1), 5,4-dihydroxy-7,3-dimethoxyflavone-4-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-octadecanoate (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate (3), methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d?1e)-2d-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2e?1f)-2e-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f?1g)-2f-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g?1h)-2g-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8,10-dioic acid-1-oate (4), and oleioyl-?-D-arabinoside (5), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from a methanol extract of Oryza sativa straw. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination with IR, ESI/MS, and HR-ESI/FTMS. In bioassays with blue-green algae, the efficacies of the algicidal activities of the five new compounds (1-5) were evaluated at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L. Compound 5 had the highest growth inhibition (92.6 ± 0.3%) for Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 at a concentration of 100 ppm (mg/L). Compound 5 has high potential for the ecofriendly control of weeds and algae harmful to water-logged rice.
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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Botulinum Toxin Type A in a Complete Freunds Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Knee Joint of Hind Leg on Rat Model.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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The objective of the study is to verify histopathologically the anti-inflammatory effect of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in a Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritic knee joint of hind leg on rat model using immunofluorescent staining of anti-ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) antibody. Twenty-eight experimental rats were injected with 0.1 ml of CFA solution in the knee joint of the hind leg bilaterally. Three weeks after CFA injection, the BoNT-A group (N = 14) was injected with 20 IU (0.1 ml) of BoNT-A bilaterally while the saline group (N = 14) was injected with 0.1 ml of saline in the knee joint of the hind leg bilaterally. One and two weeks after BoNT-A or saline injection, joint inflammation was investigated in seven rats from each group using histopathological and immune-fluorescent staining of Iba-1 and IL-1? antibody. The number of Iba-1 and IL-1? immune-reactive (IR) cells was counted in the BoNT-A and saline groups for comparison. There was a significant reduction in joint inflammation and destruction in the BoNT-A group at 1 and 2 weeks after BoNT-A injection compared with the saline group. The binding of Iba-1 and IL-1? antibody was significantly lower in the BoNT-A group than the saline group at 1 and 2 weeks after BoNT-A injection. The number of Iba-1 and IL-1?-IR cells at 1 and 2 weeks after the injection of BoNT-A were significantly different from the corresponding number of Iba-1 and IL-1?-IR cells in the saline group. To conclude, BoNT-A had an anti-inflammatory effect in a CFA-induced arthritic rat model, indicating that BoNT-A could potentially be used to treat inflammatory joint pain.
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Structure of the hypothetical protein Ton1535 from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 reveals unique structural properties by a left-handed helical turn in normal ?-solenoid protein.
Proteins
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The crystal structure of Ton1535, a hypothetical protein from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, was determined at 2.3 Å resolution. With two antiparallel ?-helices in a helix-turn-helix motif as a repeating unit, Ton1535 consists of right-handed coiled N- and C-terminal regions that are stacked together using helix bundles containing a left-handed helical turn. One left-handed helical turn in the right-handed coiled structure produces two unique structural properties. One is the presence of separated concave grooves rather than one continuous concave groove, and the other is the contribution of ?-helices on the convex surfaces of the N-terminal region to the extended surface of the concave groove of the C-terminal region and vice versa. Proteins 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Quercetin Induces Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Activation of HO-1 in HepG2 Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The regeneration of mitochondria by regulated biogenesis plays an important homeostatic role in cells and tissues and furthermore may provide an adaptive mechanism in certain diseases such as sepsis. The heme oxygenase (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system is an inducible cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian cells. Natural antioxidants can provide therapeutic benefit, in part, by inducing the HO-1/CO system. This study focused on the mechanism by which the natural antioxidant quercetin can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells. We found that quercetin treatment induced expression of mitochondrial biogenesis activators (PGC-1 ? , NRF-1, TFAM), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and proteins (COX IV) in HepG2 cells. The HO inhibitor SnPP and the CO scavenger hemoglobin reversed the effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells. The stimulatory effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis could be recapitulated in vivo in liver tissue and antagonized by SnPP. Finally, quercetin conferred an anti-inflammatory effect in the liver of mice treated with LPS and prevented impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis by LPS in vivo. These salutary effects of quercetin in vivo were also antagonized by SnPP. Thus, our results suggest that quercetin enhances mitochondrial biogenesis mainly via the HO-1/CO system in vitro and in vivo. The beneficial effects of quercetin may provide a therapeutic basis in inflammatory diseases and sepsis.
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Synthesis and transistor properties of asymmetric oligothiophenes: relationship between molecular structure and device performance.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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A series of three thiophene-naphthalene-based asymmetric oligomers-5-decyl-2,2:5,2:5,2-quaterthiophene (DtT), 5-decyl-5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2:5,2-terthiophene (D3TN), and 5-(4-decylphenyl)-5-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2-bithiophene (DP2TN)-was synthesized by Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. The long alkyl side chains improved both the solubility of the oligomers in solvents and their tendency to self-assemble. UV/Vis absorption measurements suggested that DtT, D3TN, and DP2TN form H-type aggregates with a face-to-face packing structure. In addition, the three oligomers were found to adopt vertically aligned crystalline structures in films deposited on substrates, as revealed by grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. These oligomers were used as the active layers of p-type organic field-effect transistors, and the resulting devices showed field-effect mobilities of 3.3×10(-3) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for DtT, 1.6×10(-2) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for D3TN, and 3.7×10(-2) ?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) for DP2TN. The differences in transistor performances were attributed to the degree of ? overlap and the morphological differences determined by the molecular structures.
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Face-centered-cubic lithium crystals formed in mesopores of carbon nanofiber electrodes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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In the foreseeable future, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for flexible Li-ion batteries. One of the most important components of such batteries will be a freestanding electrode, because the traditional electrodes are easily damaged by repeated deformations. The mechanical sustainability of carbon-based freestanding electrodes subjected to repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions is investigated via nanotensile tests of individual hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs). Surprisingly, the mechanical properties of such electrodes are improved by repeated electrochemical reactions with Li ions, which is contrary to the conventional wisdom that the mechanical sustainability of carbon-based electrodes should be degraded by repeated electrochemical reactions. Microscopic studies reveal a reinforcing mechanism behind this improvement, namely, that inserted Li ions form irreversible face-centered-cubic (FCC) crystals within HCNF cavities, which can reinforce the carbonaceous matrix as strong second-phase particles. These FCC Li crystals formed within the carbon matrix create tremendous potential for HCNFs as freestanding electrodes for flexible batteries, but they also contribute to the irreversible (and thus low) capacity of HCNFs.
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Crystal structures of bifunctional penicillin-binding protein 4 from Listeria monocytogenes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan chain of the bacterial cell wall, are the major molecular target of bacterial antibiotics. Here, we present the crystal structures of the bifunctional peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase (GT)/transpeptidase (TP) PBP4 from Listeria monocytogenes in the apo-form and covalently linked to two ?-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and carbenicillin. The orientation of the TP domain with respect to the GT domain is distinct from that observed in the previously reported structures of bifunctional PBPs, suggesting interdomain flexibility. In this structure, the active site of the GT domain is occluded by the close apposition of the linker domain, which supports the hypothesis that interdomain flexibility is related to the regulation of GT activity. The acylated structures reveal the mode of action of ?-lactam antibiotics toward the class A PBP4 from the human pathogen L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin and carbenicillin can access the active site and be acylated without requiring a structural rearrangement. In addition, the active site of the TP domain in the apo-form is occupied by the tartrate molecule via extensive hydrogen bond interactions with the catalytically important residues; thus, derivatives of the tartrate molecule may be useful in the search for new antibiotics to inhibit PBPs.
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Production of L- and D-lactic acid from waste Curcuma longa biomass through simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) of Curcuma longa waste biomass obtained after turmeric extraction to L- and D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus coryniformis and Lactobacillus paracasei, respectively, was investigated. This is a rich, starchy, agro-industrial waste with potential for use in industrial applications. After optimizing the fermentation of the biomass by adjusting nitrogen sources, enzyme compositions, nitrogen concentrations, and raw material concentrations, the SSCF process was conducted in a 7-l jar fermentor at 140 g dried material/L. The maximum lactic acid concentration, average productivity, reducing sugar conversion and lactic acid yield were 97.13 g/L, 2.7 g/L/h, 95.99% and 69.38 g/100 g dried material for L-lactic acid production, respectively and 91.61 g/L, 2.08 g/L/h, 90.53% and 65.43 g/100 g dried material for D-lactic acid production, respectively. The simple and efficient process described in this study could be utilized by C. longa residue-based lactic acid industries without requiring the alteration of plant equipment.
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Comparison of ramosetron with combined ramosetron and midazolam for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients at high risk following laparoscopic gynaecological surgery.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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This randomized, double-blind study compared the antiemetic efficacy of ramosetron with that of ramosetron combined with midazolam, and investigated whether the timing of midazolam administration affected the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).
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[A case of angiographic embolization of aortoenteric fistula caused by endovascular stent grafting for an abdominal aortic aneurysm].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) developed after treatment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rare but usually fatal complication. We report a rare case of AEF bleeding after endovascular stent grafting for AAA which was managed angiographically. An 81-year-old man presented with hematochezia and acute abdominal pain for 1 day ago. Four years ago, an aortic stent was implanted in the infrarenal aorta for AAA. Endoscopies were performed to evaluate the hematochezia. Evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was observed, but a clear bleeding point was not detected on upper endoscopy and colonoscopy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography performed subsequently showed that the bleeding point was located in the fourth portion of the duodenum as an AEF caused by an inflammatory process in the stent-graft. Intra-arterial angiography showed a massive contrast leakage into the bowel via a small fistula from around the aortic stent graft site. Embolization was successfully performed by injecting a mixture of glue and lipiodol into the AEF tract. The patient was discharged with no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after the embolization.
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Rhodanobacter umsongensis sp. nov., isolated from a Korean ginseng field.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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A bacterial isolate designated GR24-2(T) was isolated from Korean soil used for cultivating ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). The strain was aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, and rod-shaped. It grew optimally at 28-30°C, pH 7.0, and in a range of 0-1% NaCl. Phylogenetically, the strain clustered with members of the genus Rhodanobacter. The strain exhibited the highest sequence similarities (>98%) with R. panaciterrae LnR5-47(T) (98.4%), R. soli DCY45(T) (98.2%), and R. ginsengisoli GR17-7(T) (98.0%). However, it also showed high sequence similarities (>97%) with some other Rhodanobacter and Dyella species. The strain contained Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major fatty acids (greater than 10% of the total fatty acids) were iso-C17:1 ?9c (24.5%), iso-C16:0 (22.8%), anteiso-C15:0 (10.5%), and iso-C15:0 (10.1%). Its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, and an unknown aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content of strain GR24-2(T) was 65.6 mol%. The strain showed less than 70% DNA relatedness values between the closely related Rhodanobacter and Dyella species. The phylogeny, phenotype, DNA-DNA hybridization, and chemotaxonomic data generated in this study reveal that the isolate is a novel species of the genus Rhodanobacter. The name proposed for this strain is Rhodanobacter umsongensis sp. nov. (type strain GR24-2(T) =KACC 12917(T) =DSM 21300(T)).
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The structure of TON1937 from archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 reveals a eukaryotic HEAT-like architecture.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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The members of the ARM/HEAT repeat-containing protein superfamily in eukaryotes have been known to mediate protein-protein interactions by using their concave surface. However, little is known about the ARM/HEAT repeat proteins in prokaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of TON1937, a hypothetical protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. The structure reveals a crescent-shaped molecule composed of a double layer of ?-helices with seven anti-parallel ?-helical repeats. A structure-based sequence alignment of the ?-helical repeats identified a conserved pattern of hydrophobic or aliphatic residues reminiscent of the consensus sequence of eukaryotic HEAT repeats. The individual repeats of TON1937 also share high structural similarity with the canonical eukaryotic HEAT repeats. In addition, the concave surface of TON1937 is proposed to be its potential binding interface based on this structural comparison and its surface properties. These observations lead us to speculate that the archaeal HEAT-like repeats of TON1937 have evolved to engage in protein-protein interactions in the same manner as eukaryotic HEAT repeats.
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Distinct Mechanisms of DNA Sensing Based on N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes with Enhanced Conductance and Chemical Selectivity.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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N-doped capped carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes applied to DNA sequencing are studied by first-principles calculations. For the face-on nucleobase junction configurations, a conventional conductance ordering is obtained where the largest signal results from guanine according to its high highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, whereas for the edge-on counterparts a distinct conductance ordering is observed where the low-HOMO thymine provides the largest signal. The edge-on mode is shown to operate based on a novel molecular sensing mechanism that reflects the chemical connectivity between N-doped CNT caps that can act both as electron donors and electron acceptors and DNA functional groups that include the hyperconjugated thymine methyl group.
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Effect of korean herbal medicine combined with a probiotic mixture on diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Introduction. Although combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics is gaining popularity for controlling diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) symptoms, few studies have investigated its clinical effects. Materials and Methods. Fifty-three patients with D-IBS were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 groups: herbal medicine (Gwakhyangjeonggisan; GJS) plus probiotics (Duolac7S; DUO), GJS plus placebo DUO, placebo GJS plus DUO, and placebo GJS plus placebo DUO. The study period consisted of a 2-week run-in, 8 weeks of administration, and 2 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcomes were weekly adequate relief (AR) of overall IBS symptoms and the proportion of responders (PR) during the administration period. The secondary outcomes included individual IBS symptoms, stool assessment, and quality of life. Changes of intestinal microbiota and intestinal permeability were also analyzed. Results and Discussion. Weekly AR was not different among the 4 groups throughout the treatment period. However, the 3 treatment groups exhibited significant improvements in PR compared to the findings in the placebo group. In the intestinal microbiota assessment, herbal medicine and probiotics synergistically increased beneficial bacteria counts. Conclusion. Combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics appears to relieve overall IBS symptoms by synergistically increasing beneficial intestinal microbe counts.
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Optimization of the key imaging parameters for detection of microcalcifications in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different acquisition parameters and to characterize their relationships in order to improve the detection of microcalcifications using digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT).
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Hg(II)-mediated intramolecular cyclization reaction in aqueous media and its application as Hg(II) selective indicator.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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The Hg(II)-specific intramolecular cyclization reaction of ethynyl phenols was carried out for the first time in semiaqueous media at ambient temperature. The reaction unit (ethynyl phenol) was coupled with a malononitrile derivative (signal unit), which afforded the chromogenic Hg(II) indicator 7. The reaction of the chromogenic Hg(II) indicator 7 was further optimized in DMSO/water (3:7, v/v) (10 mM PBS buffer, pH = 7.0). Compound 7 displays a color change from blue to pale yellow in the presence of Hg(II).
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Sniffing for gene-silencing efficiency of siRNAs in HeLa cells in comparison with that in HEK293T cells: correlation between knockdown efficiency and sustainability of sirnas revealed by FRET-based probing.
Nucleic Acid Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Investigation of the intracellular fate of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) following their delivery into cells is of great importance to elucidate their dynamics in cytoplasm. Here we describe the use of an advanced fluorescence-based method to probe the dissociation and/or degradation of double-labeled siRNAs in HeLa cells in comparison with that in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells. This work was performed with three siRNAs labeled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) dyes, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of the dissociation and degradation state of siRNAs in cultured cells. Our FRET analysis not only shows the asymmetric degradation as well as the time-dependent dissociation of each siRNA strand during the measured time period, underlining the high intrinsic nuclease resistance of duplex siRNAs, but also reveals the longer sustainability of siRNAs in HeLa cells compared with that in HEK293T cells, explaining the gene silencing in HeLa cells is more efficient than that in HEK293T cells. In addition, our single-molecule FRET assays demonstrate the potential of the delineated fluorescence-based technique for future research on biological behavior of siRNAs even at the single-molecule level. The fluorescence-based method is a straightforward technique to gain direct information on siRNA integrity inside living cells, which can provide a detection tool for dynamics of biological molecules.
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Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules reverse leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Leptin, a circulating hormone, regulates food intake and body weight. While leptin resistance represents a major cause of obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress can contribute to leptin resistance. Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule, exerts antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of tissue injury. We hypothesized that CO could inhibit leptin resistance during ER stress. Thapsigargin or tunicamycin was used to induce ER stress in human cells expressing the leptin receptor. These agents markedly inhibited leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, confirming that ER stress induces leptin resistance. The CO-releasing molecule CORM-2 blocked the ER stress-dependent inhibition of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. CORM-2 treatment induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? and enhanced PERK phosphorylation during ER stress. Furthermore, CORM-2 inhibited X-box binding protein-1 expression, activating transcription factor-6 cleavage, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE)1? phosphorylation induced by ER stress. IRE1? knockdown rescued leptin resistance, whereas PERK knockdown blocked CO-dependent regulation of IRE1?. In vivo, CO inhalation normalized body weight in animals fed high-fat diets. Furthermore, CO modulated ER stress pathways and rescued leptin resistance in vivo. In conclusion, the pathological mechanism of leptin resistance may be ameliorated by the pharmacological application of CO.
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Crystal structures of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase provide insights into its catalytic mechanism and disease-causing mutations.
Structure
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) is found from bacteria to humans, has important roles in regulating fatty acid metabolism and food intake, and is an attractive target for drug discovery. We report here four crystal structures of MCD from human, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Agrobacterium vitis, and Cupriavidus metallidurans at up to 2.3 Å resolution. The MCD monomer contains an N-terminal helical domain involved in oligomerization and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The four structures exhibit substantial differences in the organization of the helical domains and, consequently, the oligomeric states and intersubunit interfaces. Unexpectedly, the MCD catalytic domain is structurally homologous to those of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, especially the curacin A polyketide synthase catalytic module, with a conserved His-Ser/Thr dyad important for catalysis. Our structures, along with mutagenesis and kinetic studies, provide a molecular basis for understanding pathogenic mutations and catalysis, as well as a template for structure-based drug design.
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Stepwise fluorescence changes of quantum dots: single-molecule spectroscopic studies on the properties of turn-on quantum dots.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Single-molecule spectroscopy of turn-on quantum dots induced by NADPH-dependent biocatalyzed transformations reveals that the fluorescence intensities of quantum dots functionalized with Nile Blue are stepwisely and reversibly changed in the presence of NADPH.
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CO/HO-1 Induces NQO-1 Expression via Nrf2 Activation.
Immune Netw
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a cytoprotective and homeostatic molecule with important signaling capabilities in physiological and pathophysiological situations. CO protects cells/tissues from damage by free radicals or oxidative stress. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is a highly inducible enzyme that is regulated by the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, which is central to efficient detoxification of reactive metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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The role of carbon monoxide in metabolic disease.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Metabolic disease is a complex disorder defined by various factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, the incidence of chronic metabolic disease has dramatically increased throughout the world. These chronic metabolic diseases are associated with elevated inflammatory activities. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to metabolic syndrome. Inflammation and ER stress are linked in the context of metabolic homeostasis and disease. Carbon monoxide (CO), a reaction product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory response and protects cells from ER stress. CO has anti-inflammatory effects via induction of HO-1 expression and prevents ER stress-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the C/EBP homologous protein expression. In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 plays an important role in insulin release and glucose metabolism. In our study, inhalation of CO gas or CO-releasing molecule injection ameliorates 30% fructose or methionine-deficient- and choline-deficient-diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Therefore, CO can be studied in the search for potential therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases via inhibition of inflammatory response and ER stress.
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5-Isobutyryl-2-phenylpyridine-derived iridium complexes for red phosphorescent light-emitting diodes.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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For the development of efficient red materials in organic light emitting diodes, a series of cyclometalated iridium complexes with 5-isobutyryl-2-arylpyridine-derived ligands were synthesized. Complexes 1-4 exhibited red phosphorescence with quantum yields of 0.16-0.48 in degassed CH2Cl2. An OLED device employing iridium complex 3 as a dopant exhibited the best performance with a maximum luminance of 35500 cd/m2 at 14 V and luminance and power efficiencies of 15.5 cd/A and 6.23 Im/W at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. In the device employing complex 2 as the dopant, the maximum luminance was 6300 cd/m2 at 14 V and the maximum luminance efficiency and power efficiencies were 5.23 cd/A and 3.16 Im/W at 5.2 V, respectively, with CIE coordinates of (0.66, 0.32) at 9.0 V, close to the saturated red emission.
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Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial strains isolated from meju samples showed that the dominant species were related to members of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. The community DNAs extracted from nine different meju samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting of the V1 to V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 132,374 sequences, with an average read length of 468 bp, were assigned to several phyla, with Firmicutes (93.6%) representing the predominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (4.5%) and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Other phyla accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial sequences. Most of the Firmicutes were Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc, whose ratio varied among different samples. In conclusion, this study indicated that the bacterial communities in meju were very diverse and a complex microbial consortium containing various microorganisms got involved in meju fermentation than we expected before.
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Ethyl acetate extract from tissue-cultured mountain ginseng adventitious roots inhibits in vitro platelet aggregation in whole human blood and augments peripheral blood flow in mice.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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We previously reported that in vitro anti-platelet activity of tissue-cultured mountain ginseng (TCMG) ethanol extracts show improved efficacy when compared with commercial ginseng products such as Korean red ginseng and Panax ginseng. However, information on the anti-platelet activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from TCMG adventitious roots is limited. Therefore, in this study, we further investigated the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of TCMG (EA-TCMG) adventitious roots on in vitro antiplatelet activity in whole human blood and its effect on peripheral blood flow in mice. We found that EA-TCMG inhibited platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 271, 180, and 147 ?g/mL induced by collagen, adenosine-5?-diphosphate, and arachidonic acid, respectively. Among the three agonists used, thromboxane A2 formation induced by arachidonic acid was markedly suppressed. Furthermore, EA-TCMG improved the peripheral circulatory disturbance by improving vascular blood flow. In conclusion, these results suggest that ethyl acetate extracts from TCMG adventitious roots might inhibit vascular platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.
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The antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside Rb2 via activation of AMPK.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Ginsenosides, which are active compounds found in ginseng (Panax ginseng), are used as antidiabetic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine whether Rb2, a type of ginsenoside, regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) in hyperlipidemic conditions used as an in vitro model of type 2 diabetes. Considering these results, we concluded that Rb2 may inhibit palmitate-induced gluconeogenesis via AMPK-induced SHP by relieving ER stress, a cause of gluconeogenesis.
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Determination of serotonin on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electropolymerization of meso-tetrakis(2-aminophenyl)porphyrin and single walled carbon nanotubes.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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A chemically modified electrode [poly(TAPP)-SWNT/GCE] was prepared by electropolymerization of meso-tetrakis(2-aminophenyl)porphyrin (TAPP)-single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). This modified electrode was employed as an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of serotonin concentration and exhibited a typical enhance effect on the current response of serotonin and lower oxidation overpotential. The biosensor was very effective to determined 5-HT in a mixture. The linear response was in the range 2.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-5) M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 [i(p)(microA) = 3.406 C (microM)+0.132] on the anodic current, with a detection limit of 1 x 10(-9) M. Due to the relatively low currents and different potentials in the electrochemical responses to ascorbic acid and dopamine, the modified electrode is a useful and effective sensing device for the selective and sensitive serotonin determination in the presence of ascorbic acid and dopamine.
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Amelioration of cerebral infarction and improvement of neurological deficit by a Korean herbal medicine, modified Bo-Yang-Hwan-O-Tang.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Modified Bo-Yang-Hwan-O-Tang (mBHT) is an improved herbal formula of BHT, which has been widely used to treat ischaemic stroke in East Asia, by the addition of five herbs having anti-ischaemic properties. In this study, we investigated whether mBHT would reduce cerebral ischaemic injury in rats.
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Detection of single-base mutation in RNA using T4 RNA ligase-based nick-joining or DNAzyme-based nick-generation.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a common genetic variation when a single nucleotide differs between members of a species or paired chromosome. Due to its association with disease susceptibility and drug resistance, SNP detection is of great value in studying the variation in drug responses. Here we present two quantitative SNP detection methods for a single-base mismatch in RNA, based on nick-joining and nick-generating activities of T4 RNA ligase and DNAzyme, respectively. T4 RNA ligase successfully discriminated a one-base mismatch in the ligation junction, and the designed DNAzyme cleaved RNA by discerning a single-base mismatch in the cleaving site.
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Cohnella soli sp. nov. and Cohnella suwonensis sp. nov. Isolated from soil samples in Korea.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Two bacterial isolates from soil samples taken in Korea, strains YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T), were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-positive, motile with peritrichous flagella, and rod-shaped. Both strains formed ellipsoidal bulging positioned subterminal spores. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a clear affiliation with the Firmicutes. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T) was 96.5%. Strains YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 93.0-96.5% to type strains of recognized Cohnella species. The G+C contents of the DNA of strains YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T) were 52.2 and 55.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids of strains YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T) were anteiso-C15:0 (44.4%), C16:0 (19.2%), and iso-C16:0 (16.8%) and anteiso-C15:0 (46.5%), iso-C16:0 (21.8%), and C16:0 (11.2%), respectively. Both strains contained menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) as the predominant quinone. Both strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic traits indicated that strains YM2-7(T) and WD2-19(T) represented two novel species of the genus Cohnella. The names Cohnella soli sp. nov. (type strain YM2-7(T) =KACC 13346(T) =NBRC 106486(T)), and Cohnella suwonensis sp. nov. (type strain WD2-19T =KACC 13347(T) =NBRC 106485(T)) are proposed for these organisms.
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Paralcaligenes ureilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from soil of a Korean ginseng field.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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A bacterial strain, designated GR24-5(T), was isolated from soil cultivated with Korean ginseng. Cells were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming motile rods. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain GR24-5(T) could be assigned to the family Alcaligenaceae. Strain GR24-5(T) showed the highest sequence similarities with Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.1%), Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (96.9%), Pigmentiphaga kullae DSM 13608(T) (96.5%), and Castellaniella defragrans 54Pin(T) (96.3%). Strain GR24-5(T) demonstrated a low DNA-DNA relatedness (23%) with P. granuli Ch07(T). The major respiratory quinone is ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) and the major fatty acids are C(16:0), C(17:0) cyclo, and summed feature 1 (C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I/C(12:0) aide). Putrescine, spermidine, and 2-hydroxyputrescine are the major polyamines. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, di-phosphatidylglycerol, and an unknown aminophospholipid. Polar lipid patterns of strain GR24-5(T) were unique in having a large amount of phosphatidylmethylethanolamine. Based on phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain GR245(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Paralcaligenes ureilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. aralcaligenes ureilyticus is GR24-5(T) (=KACC 13888 =DSM 24591(T)).
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Microbacterium suwonense sp. nov., isolated from cow dung.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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An actinomycete strain, designated M1T8B9(T), was isolated from cow dung in Suwon, Republic of Korea. The isolate was a Gram-positive, nonmotile, and non-spore-forming bacterium. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that this isolate belongs to the genus Microbacterium, with its closest neighbors being Microbacterium soli DCY17(T) (98.2%) and Microbacterium esteraromaticum DSM 8609(T) (98.0%). The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and one unknown glycolipid. Strain M1T8B9(T) contained the major fatty acids C(15:0) anteiso, C(16:0) iso, C (17:0) anteiso, and C(15:0) iso, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type B2?. According to DNA-DNA hybridization studies, strain M1T8B9(T) showed 42% and 26% relatedness with M. soli DCY17(T) and M. esteraromaticum DSM 8609(T), respectively. On the basis of the data presented, strain M1T8B9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium suwonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M1T8B9(T) (=KACC 14058(T) =NBRC 106310(T)).
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Pedobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. and Pedobacter soli sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Two bacterial strains, 01-96(T) and 15-51(T), isolated from rhizosphere soil of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 01-96(T) was phylogenetically related most closely to Pedobacter suwonensis 15-52(T) and Pedobacter roseus CL-GP80(T) (96.7 and 96.7% similarity, respectively), and strain 15-51(T) to Pedobacter borealis G-1(T) and P. suwonensis 15-52(T) (97.2 and 97.1%, respectively). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 15-51(T) and P. borealis KACC 14287(T) and P. suwonensis KACC 11317(T) were low (<50%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.8 mol% for strain 01-96(T) and 38.6 mol% for strain 15-51(T). The major fatty acids of the two strains were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)?7c). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic data showed that strains 01-96(T) and 15-51(T) could be distinguished from their closest phylogenetic relatives, and that these strains represented two novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the names Pedobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain 01-96(T) =KACC 14938(T) =NBRC 107690(T)) and Pedobacter soli sp. nov. (type strain 15-51(T) =KACC 14939(T) =NBRC 107691(T)) are proposed.
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Fabrication of a microbial biosensor based on QD-MWNT supports by a one-step radiation reaction and detection of phenolic compounds in red wines.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu(2)S-MWNT supports were 0.5-5.0 mM and 0.7-10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor.
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Insecticidal activity of rhamnolipid isolated from pseudomonas sp. EP-3 against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2010
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Microorganisms capable of growth on oils are potential sources of biopesticides, as they produce complex molecules such as biosurfactants and lipopeptides. These molecules have antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but few data are available on their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of a rhamnolipid isolated from diesel oil-degrading Pseudomonas sp. EP-3 (EP-3). The treatment of cell-free supernatants of EP-3 grown on glucose-mineral medium for 96 h led to > 80% mortality of aphids (Myzus persicae) within 24 h. Bioassay-guided chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MADLDI-TOF MS) and (¹H, ¹³C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses was employed to isolate and identify the EP-3 insecticidal metabolites. Dirhamnolipid, with molecular formulas of C??H??O?? and C??H??O??, was identified as a main metabolite exhibiting insecticidal activity against aphids. Dirhamnolipid showed a dose-dependent mortality against aphids, producing about 50% mortality at 40 ?g/mL and 100% mortality at 100 ?g/mL. Microscopy analyses of aphids treated with dirhamnolipid revealed that dirhamnolipid caused insect death by affecting cuticle membranes. This is the first report of rhamnolipid as an insecticidal metabolite against M. persicae. Rhamnolipid shows potential for use as a pesticide to control agricultural pests.
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