Unusual metal ion selectivities of the highly preorganized tetradentrate ligand 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide: a thermodynamic and fluorescence study.
Some metal ion complexing properties of the ligand PDAM (1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxamide) in aqueous solution are reported. Using UV-visible spectroscopy to follow the intense ?-?* transitions of PDAM as a function of metal ion concentration, log K(1) values in 0.1 M NaClO(4) and at 25 °C are, for Cu(II), 3.56(5); Ni(II), 3.06(5); Zn(II), 3.77(5); Co(II), 3.8(1); Mg(II), 0.1(1); Ca(II), 1.94(4); and Ba(II), 0.7(1). For more strongly bound metal ions, competition reactions between PDAM and EDTA (ethylenedinitrilo-tetraacetic acid) or tetren (1,4,7,10,13-pentaazatridecane), monitored following the UV spectrum of PDAM, gave the following log K(1) values in 0.1 M NaClO(4) and at 25 °C: Cd(II), 7.1(1); Pb(II), 5.82(5); In(III), 9.4(1); and Bi(III), 9.4(1). The very low log K(1)(PDAM) values for small metal ions such as Cu(II) or Zn(II) are unprecedented for a phen-based ligand (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), which is rationalized in terms of the low basicity of the N donors of the ligand (pK(a) = 0.6) and the fact that PDAM has a best-fit size corresponding to large metal ions of ionic radius ~1.0 Å. Large metal ions with ionic radius ?1.0 Å show large increases in log K(1) relative to their phen complexes, which in turn produces unparalleled selectivities, such as a 3.5 log units greater log K(1)(PDAM) for Cd(II) than for Cu(II). PDAM shows strong fluorescence in aqueous solution, suggesting that its carboxamide groups do not produce a fluorescence-quenching photon-induced electron transfer (PET) effect. Only Ca(II) produces a weak CHEF (chelation enhanced fluorescence) effect with PDAM, while all other metal ions tested produce a decrease in fluorescence, a CHEQ (chelation enhanced quenching effect). The production of the CHEQ effect is rationalized in terms of the idea that coordination of metal ions to PDAM stabilizes a canonical form of the carboxamide groups that promotes a PET effect.