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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Role of Fractalkine in the Pathogenesis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome: Increased Serum Levels of Fractalkine, Its Expression in Labial Salivary Glands, and the Association with Clinical Manifestations.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To investigate the expression of fractalkine and identify the clinical effects of fractalkine and its receptor (CX3CR1) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS).
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The risk of osteoporotic fractures according to the FRAX model in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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The aim of the current study is to identify patients without osteoporosis who met the criteria of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) of the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) only. The incidence of fractures was investigated in patients who met only the FRAX criteria of the NOF and patients who presented osteoporosis. Five hundred and forty five patients with rheumatoid arthritis who visited a single center were recruited in Korea. In the follow-up period of median 30 months, the new onset of fractures was investigated. Of 223 patients who have no osteoporosis, 39 (17.4%) satisfied the FRAX criteria for pharmacological intervention. During the follow-up period, 2 new onset fractures occurred in patients who met only the FRAX criteria and 22 new onset fractures did in patients with osteoporosis by bone mineral density. The incidence rate for new onset fractures of patients who met only the FRAX criteria was with 295.93 per 10,000 person-years higher than in the general population with 114.99 per 10,000 person-years. Patients who met the FRAX criteria of the NOF only need pharmacological intervention because their numbers of incidence for new onset fractures are similar to those of patients with osteoporosis by BMD.
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Red ginseng extract ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via regulation of STAT3 pathway, Th17/Treg balance, and osteoclastogenesis in mice and human.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA.
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Comparison of clinical efficacies of autologous serum eye drops in patients with primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Autologous serum eye drops are considered to be safe and efficient for the treatment of dry eyes associated with Sjögren syndrome (SS). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of autologous serum eye drops in the management of primary and secondary SS.
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Prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in South Korea: an administrative database study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare autoimmune disease for which a population-based survey on the prevalence of the disease in South Korea has not yet been conducted. Our goal was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of SLE.
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Halofuginone ameliorates autoimmune arthritis in mice by regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The small molecule halofuginone has been shown to inhibit fibrosis, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of halofuginone in preventing autoimmune arthritis in mice.
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STA-21, a promising STAT-3 inhibitor that reciprocally regulates Th17 and Treg cells, inhibits osteoclastogenesis in mice and humans and alleviates autoimmune inflammation in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To investigate the impact of STA-21, a promising STAT-3 inhibitor, on the development and progression of inflammatory arthritis and to determine the possible mechanisms by which STA-21 has antiarthritic effects in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-knockout (IL-1Ra-KO) mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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JAK2-STAT3 blockade by AG490 suppresses autoimmune arthritis in mice via reciprocal regulation of regulatory T Cells and Th17 cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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IL-6-mediated STAT3 signaling is essential for Th17 differentiation and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the antirheumatic effects and T cell regulatory effects of STAT3 inhibition, we studied the effects of the JAK 2 inhibitor AG490 on Th17 cell/regulatory T cell (Treg) balance and osteoclastogenesis. AG490 was administered to mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) via i.p. injection, and its in vivo effects were determined. Differential expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-1?, and IL-6, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and STAT5 and differentiation of Th17 cells and Tregs after AG490 treatment in our CIA model were analyzed by immunostaining. In vitro development of Th17 cells and Tregs was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. AG490 ameliorated the arthritic phenotype in CIA and increased the proportion of Foxp3(+) Tregs. In contrast, the proportion of IL-17A-producing T cells and levels of inflammatory markers were reduced in AG490-treated mice. Numbers of p-STAT3(+) CD4(+) T cells and p-STAT5(+) CD4(+) T cells were reduced and elevated, respectively, after treatment with AG490. Furthermore, AG490 markedly increased the expression of molecules associated with Treg development (ICOS, programmed cell death protein 1, ICAM-1, and CD103). The development and function of osteoclasts were suppressed by AG490 treatment. Our results suggest that AG490, specifically regulating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, may be a promising treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.
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Gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19 attenuates murine autoimmune arthritis by regulation of th17 and treg cells.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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STAT-3 is a key transcriptional factor in the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated differentiation of Th17 cells. Because Th17 is believed to be a central player in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we sought to evaluate whether an endogenous inhibitor of the STAT3 gene, GRIM-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19), could attenuate the progression and severity of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) through suppression of Th17 cells and, reciprocally, could increase expression of Treg cells.
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Ursolic acid ameliorates autoimmune arthritis via suppression of Th17 and B cell differentiation.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in most plant species, which has been shown anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In this study, we examined the effects of UA on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, and to identify the mechanisms underlying the effects.
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Immunogenicity of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy in Korean patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) against tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ADAs were detected in 18 (9.8%) patients with RA and in 18 (10.2%) patients with AS of the 360 patients. Development of ADAs was significantly associated with treatment failure in RA patients (P=0.003). When classified by drugs, the prevalence of immunogenicity in descending order was 17 (28.8%) patients treated with infliximab, 17 (10.4%) with adalimumab, and 2 (1.4%) with etanercept. After adjustment for disease and duration of anti-TNF therapy, the odds ratio as a reference of adalimumab-treated patients was 9.159 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.005-41.845) for infliximab and 0.280 (95% CI 0.128-0.611) for etanercept. The immunogenicity of anti-TNF therapy was highest in the infliximab-treated group and significantly lower in the etanercept-treated group.
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Incidence and predictors of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an increased incidence of vertebral fractures (VFs); however the actual incidence and predictors of morphometric VFs are unknown. The present study examined the incidence and predictors of new VFs in a large AS cohort.
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Oestrogen up-regulates interleukin-21 production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which abnormal immune responses are mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complex deposition. Because most SLE patients are women of child-bearing age, oestrogen has been suggested to play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. One proposed role is to induce B-cell activation, culminating in increased autoantibody production. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been shown to be crucial in the differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells. We therefore hypothesized that oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 production and induces subsequent B-cell activation in SLE patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from 22 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls. Expression levels of IL-21 and its receptor in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CD4(+) T cells were higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Exposure of CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients to 17?-oestradiol led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-21 expression, which was abolished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (MAPK kinase, p38, Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors. B cells from healthy controls showed increased antibody production when they were co-cultured with oestrogen-treated CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients. Treatment with IL-21 antibody abrogated the increased antibody production of the co-culture systems. This study revealed the association between oestrogen and IL-21 in SLE patients. Oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 expression of CD4(+) T cells via MAPK-dependent pathways in SLE patients, which in turn induces increased antibody production by B cells.
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Safe re-administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed active tuberculosis on previous anti-TNF? therapy.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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There is no consensus on whether it is safe to re-administer tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS) flared after withdrawal of TNF? inhibitors due to active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the safety of restarting anti-TNF? therapy in patients with TNF?-associated TB. We used data of 1,012 patients with RA or AS treated with TNF? inhibitors at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between January 2003 and July 2013 to identify patients who developed active TB. Demographic and clinical data including the results of tuberculin skin tests (TST) and interferon-? releasing assays (IGRA) were collected. Fifteen patients developed active TB. Five cases were occurred in RA and 10 cases in AS. Nine of 15 patients had a negative TST or IGRA and 6 TST-positive patients had received prophylaxis prior to initiating anti-TNF? therapy. All patients discontinued TNF? inhibitors with starting the treatment of TB. Eight patients were re-administered TNF? inhibitors due to disease flares and promptly improved without recurrence of TB. TNF? inhibitors could be safely resumed after starting anti-TB regimen in patients with RA or AS.
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Increased levels of interleukin 34 in serum and synovial fluid are associated with rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody titers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Interleukin 34 (IL-34) is a recently discovered cytokine that binds macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by increased osteoclastogenesis. To identify the significance of IL-34 in RA, the IL-34 concentration was measured in serum and synovial fluid (SF).
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Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in uveitis associated with autoimmune diseases: ankylosing spondylitis and Behçet disease.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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To determine whether the frequencies of specific killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genotypes are associated with the incidence of uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and Behçet disease (BD).
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Serum level of interleukin-33 and soluble ST2 and their association with disease activity in patients with Behcets disease.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Interleukin (IL)-33 is an important mediator of innate immunity. Behcets disease (BD) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by hyperactivity of the innate immune response. We measured serum levels of IL-33 and its receptor soluble ST2 (sST2) in patients with BD to investigate their association with disease activity. Serum levels of both IL-33 and sST2 were higher in patients with BD compared with those in normal controls (IL-33: 594.48±175.04 pg/mL in BD and 224.23±56.64 pg/mL in normal controls [P=0.048], sST2: 99.01±15.92 pg/mL in BD and 23.56±3.25 pg/mL in normal controls [P<0.001]). IL-33 and sST2 expression in skin tissue, as shown by immunohistochemistry, was higher in patients with BD compared with that in the normal controls. Serum sST2 level correlated significantly with the BD currently active form (BDCAF), Iranian BD dynamic activity measure (IBDDAM), erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Multiple linear regression showed that serum sST2 was an independent factor associated with IBBDAM (regression coefficient, 0.374; P=0.004), and BDCAF (regression coefficient, 0.236; P=0.047). These results demonstrate that IL-33 and sST2 are highly expressed in patients with BD and that serum sST2 is an independent factor associated with IBDDAM and BDCAF, suggesting a potential role for sST2 as a surrogate marker of disease activity in patients with BD.
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MRP8 promotes Th17 differentiation via upregulation of IL-6 production by fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8/MRP14 is an endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand and is abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Belonging to damage-associated molecular patterns, it amplifies proinflammatory mediators and facilitates a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-helper (Th)17 cells have a crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and IL-6 is the key factor promoting Th17 differentiation. We investigated whether the level of MRP8/MRP14 is positively associated with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF and found that MRP8/MRP14 level had a significant correlation with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF. We also observed that MRP8-induced IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells but MRP14 did not. Upon stimulation with MRP8, IL-6 production was enhanced by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and was further elevated by coculturing RA FLS with activated CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MRP8-activated IL-6 production by RA FLS promoted differentiation of Th17 cells using the coculture system consisting of CD4+ T cells and RA FLS. In addition, IL-6 blockade attenuated Th17 polarization of CD4+ T cells in the cocultures. Inhibitor studies revealed that MRP8 increased IL-6 production in RA FLS via TLR4/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our results show that MRP8 has a crucial role in stimulating IL-6 expression by RA FLS, and subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation in RA, suggesting that neutralizing MRP8 level in RA synovium may be an effective therapeutic strategy in RA treatment.
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TWEAK promotes osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Bone destruction is critical in the functional disability of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Osteoclasts, specialized bone-resorbing cells regulated by cytokines, such as receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), are primarily implicated in bone destruction in RA. The aim of the study was to examine whether tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has osteoclastogenic activity in patients with RA and in animal models, including mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and IL-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1RaKO) mice. TWEAK was increased in the synovium, synovial fluid, and serum of patients with RA and in the synovium of CIA mice and IL-1RaKO mice. TWEAK induced RANKL expression in mixed joint cells and splenocytes from CIA mice, IL-1RaKO mice, and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA. Both osteoclast precursor cells and osteoclasts express TWEAK receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14. In addition, TWEAK enhanced in vitro osteoclastogenesis without the presence of RANKL-providing cells and by inducing RANKL expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Moreover, treatment with fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14-Fc inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, indicating that endogenous TWEAK also has osteoclastogenic activity. Our data demonstrated that TWEAK promotes osteoclastogenesis in RA, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting TWEAK could be effective for treatment of patients with RA, especially in preventing bone destruction.
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Temporal differential effects of proinflammatory cytokines on osteoclastogenesis.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Bone destruction and inflammation are closely linked. Cytokines play an important role in inflammatory bone destruction by upregulating the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL). The direct role of cytokines that act in a non-RANKL-dependent manner has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct osteoclastogenic properties of inflammatory cytokines at different time-points of osteoclastogenesis. Mouse bone marrow macrophages were stimulated with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and various concentrations of RANKL. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23, were added to the culture system of osteoclastogenesis. Two time-points of cytokine treatment were set. The early effect of each cytokine was investigated at the time of first RANKL treatment, whereas the late effect was investigated 48 h after the first RANKL challenge. Osteoclast differentiation and function were assessed using an osteoclast marker [tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)] and by visualization of pit formation. A permissive level of RANKL was required for cytokine-associated osteoclastogenesis in all experiments. In the M-CSF/RANKL monocellular culture system, IL-1? enhanced and IL-6 decreased osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, regardless of temporal differences. Other cytokines showed various responses according to the phase of osteoclast maturation and the concentration of each cytokine and RANKL. Furthermore, luciferase assays showed that both IL-1? and RANKL activated the NF-?B signaling pathway. Collectively, our data revealed that targeting IL-1? may be a promising strategy to inhibit inflammation-associated bone destruction and osteoporosis.
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IL-17-mediated Bcl-2 expression regulates survival of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis through STAT3 activation.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) are a major cell population of the pannus that invades adjacent cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was undertaken to determine the effect of interleukin-17 (IL-17) on the survival and/or proliferation of FLSs from RA patients and to investigate whether signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in this process. METHODS: Bcl-2 and Bax expression in FLSs was determined using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of Bcl-2 and phosphoSTAT3 in synovial tissues was investigated by confocal microscope. Apoptosis of FLSs was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and/or phase contrast microscopy. The proliferation of FLSs was determined by CCK-8 ELISA assay. RESULTS: The pro-apoptotic Bax is decreased and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 is increased in FLSs from RA patients compared with those from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). IL-17 upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 in FLSs from RA patients, but not in FLSs from OA patients. STAT3 was found to mediate IL-17-induced Bcl-2 upregulation in FLSs from RA patients. Additionally, IL-17 promoted the survival and proliferation of FLSs from RA patients. Most importantly, treatment with STAT3 inhibitor reversed the protective effect of IL-17 on FLSs apoptosis induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that STAT3 is critical in IL-17-induced survival of FLS from RA patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target the IL-17/STAT3 pathway might be strong candidates for RA treatment modalities.
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Periarticular osteoporosis is a prominent feature in early rheumatoid arthritis: estimation using shaft to periarticular bone mineral density ratio.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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We aimed to quantify periarticular osteoporosis and investigate its significance in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 106 controls. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine the ratio of shaft to periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) as an index of periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis was measured by conventional radiography. The BMDs of shaft and periarticular regions in eight designated areas on proximal phalanges were quantified. Clinical variables were examined to identify risk factors for periarticular osteoporosis. The assessment of periarticular osteoporosis on X-ray images reached a moderate degree of interobserver agreement among four physicians (? = 0.47). For BMD quantification, we designed three types of mathematical formulae: the ratio of shaft to periarticular BMD, the mean of the ratios, and the ratio of the sums. These ratios were significantly higher in the patients with early RA (disease duration ? 3 yr) than in controls (P < 0.01). The findings were not as distinctive in patients with established RA. Body mass index, cumulative dose of corticosteroid, and C-terminal telopeptide were correlated with BMD ratios. Conclusively, DXA-assisted localized quantification and BMD ratio calculations are feasible for assessing periarticular demineralization. Periarticular osteoporosis is a relatively distinctive feature of early RA.
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Shared epitope and radiologic progression are less prominent in elderly onset RA than young onset RA.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the influence of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes on the disease susceptibility and the disease severity in elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) compared with young onset rheumatoid arthritis (YORA) in Korean patients. Genetic analysis of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles was performed in three groups. Group 1 included 63 patients who were diagnosed with (rheumatoid arthritis) RA after the age of 60 (EORA). Group 2 consisted of 109 patients who were diagnosed with RA before the age of 60 (YORA). Group 3 involved 133 normal controls. The shared-epitope-coding alleles included the members of the HLA-DRB1*04 allele group (*0401, *0404, *0405, *0408, *0410), HLA-DRB1*01 allele group (*0101,*0102), HLA-DRB1*1001, and HLA-DRB1*1402. The disease severity was assessed by the modified total sharp score (mTSS). The shared-epitope-coding alleles were more frequently observed in the RA patients than in the normal controls. The shared-epitope-coding alleles were less frequently found in EORA group than YORA group (31/63 (49.2%) in group 1, 72/109 (66.1%) in group 2, 45/133 (33.8%) group 3, p = 0.02). Although the mTSS of the group 1 was higher than group 2 at symptom onset, the overall mean mTSS of the group 1 was lower than that of group 2 (26.8 vs. 57.5, p < 0.05). HLA-DQ*04 showed the higher frequency in the patients group than in normal controls (p < 0.001). And HLA-DQ*04 was less commonly found in the patients with EORA than YORA (p < 0.05). The influence of shared epitope and HLA-DQ*04 alleles may be less significant on disease susceptibility in EORA. The presence of shared-epitope-coding alleles did not appear to influence on disease severity in EORA patients as well as in YORA patients. Radiologic deterioration in EORA group was less severe than in YORA group. The presence of shared epitope and radiologic progression are less prominent in EORA patients than YORA patients.
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p53 controls autoimmune arthritis via STAT-mediated regulation of the Th17 cell/Treg cell balance in mice.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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To investigate the connection between p53 and interleukin-17-producing Th17 cell/Treg cell balance in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome in adult Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study and literature review.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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To determine the characteristics of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in adult Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Predictors of chronic kidney disease in Korean patients with lupus nephritis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Since chronic kidney disease (CKD) is closely associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality as well as endstage renal disease, prediction of progressive CKD is a clinically important issue. We investigated the independent risk factors for the development of CKD in patients with lupus nephritis (LN).
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A case of leukoencephalopathy associated with adalimumab-treated rheumatoid arthritis and a review of literature.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor is recently being widely used to treat autoimmune diseases, but some noticeable adverse events were reported and neurological events have especially been described. It is mandatory to compare these cases for finding the risk factors, the duration of the neurological events, their processes and their outcomes. We present here the case of leukoencephalopathy secondary to adalimumab, which is a tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) inhibitor. We also reviewed the other 14 published leukoencephalopathy cases associated with the use of TNF inhibitors. Eleven patients had underlying rheumatoid arthritis, and the others had psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Stills disease. The median duration of treatment with anti-TNF-? before the presentation of neurological symptoms was 9.2 months (range: 1.5-24). The duration of using anti-TNF-? was not related with the outcome. Although cases of neurological adverse events associated with anti-TNF-? treatment are rare, it is very important to monitor the neurological signs and symptoms suggestive of a demyelinating disorder in RA patients who are receiving anti-TNF-? treatment and especially those patients who are older and who have a history of MS or demyelination.
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Impact of interleukin-21 in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögrens syndrome: increased serum levels of interleukin-21 and its expression in the labial salivary glands.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Interleukin (IL)-21 is a cytokine that controls the functional activity of effector T helper cells and the differentiation of Th17 cells, and promotes B-cell differentiation. To test whether IL-21 participates in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS), serum IL-21 level was measured and IL-21 expression in the labial salivary glands (LSG) was examined.
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IL-15 promotes osteoclastogenesis via the PLD pathway in rheumatoid arthritis.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Osteoclastogenesis plays an important role in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-15 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that appears to help mediate the pathological bone loss. This study was undertaken to explore the signaling molecules essential for osteoclastogenesis mediated by IL-15 in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Expression of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) and osteoclast-related gene expression in synovial tissues and their modulation by treatment with IL-15 and different inhibitors in synovial fibroblasts of RA patients were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The levels of IL-15 in serum and synovial fluid were measured by ELISA. The effects of IL-15 and phosphatidic acid (PA) on osteoclast formation were evaluated in cocultures of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts and peripheral blood monocytes or monocytes alone in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL. The levels of RANKL and PLD1 but not PLD2 were upregulated significantly by IL-15, and the RANKL level was significantly upregulated by PA in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Blocking PA production with 1-butanol and siRNA against PLD1 significantly inhibited the IL-15-stimulated expression of RANKL and PLD1. IL-15 levels were significantly higher in serum and synovial fluid from patients with RA than in osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. IL-15 and PA induced osteoclast formation through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-?B signaling pathways. Activation of PLD1 contributes to IL-15-mediated osteoclastogenesis via the MAPKs and NF-?B signaling pathways in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. Our data suggest that PLD1 might be an efficient therapeutic strategy for preventing bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
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Simultaneous presentation of hemophagocytic syndrome and mesenteric vasculitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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We report an 18-year old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who developed fever, pancytopenia, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. Computed tomography (CT) and bone marrow aspirate revealed lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). Serologic tests for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) indicated its reactivation. This case demonstrates that HPS and concomitant LMV associated with viral reactivation can occur as clinical manifestations of SLE flare.
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Macrophage activation syndrome resistant to medical therapy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and its remission with splenectomy.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A bone marrow biopsy often provides pathologic evidence of MAS, and MAS usually responds to corticosteroids alone or with the addition of cyclosporine A. We describe a case of MAS developing in a pregnant patient with SLE, who presented with fever and pancytopenia. Extensive investigations could not find the evidence of infection. Although intensive medical treatment was performed with a suspicion of MAS based on clinical grounds, no response was observed and bone marrow biopsy showed no evidence of hemophagocytosis. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) suggested the possible cause of fever was in the spleen where fluorodeoxyglucose uptake was markedly increased. After splenectomy, the patient was improved and numerous hemophagocytic macrophages were proved in the splenic tissue. With this unique case, we would like to emphasize that bone marrow biopsy cannot always be relied on in making a diagnosis of MAS and PET/CT can provide helpful information in the diagnosis of MAS.
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Engagement of toll-like receptor 3 induces vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Angiogenesis, which is a critical step in the initiation and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), involves pro-angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the regulation of pro-angiogenic factors in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
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IL-10 suppresses Th17 cells and promotes regulatory T cells in the CD4+ T cell population of rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
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Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are the dominant pathogenic cellular component in autoimmune inflammatory diseases, including autoimmune arthritis. IL-10 promotes the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells via the IL-10 receptor signal. The objective of this study was to examine whether IL-10, which acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has a suppressive effect on the activation of human Th17 cells. Expression of IL-17 and IL-10 was examined immunohistochemically in tissue obtained from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells were isolated and cultured under various stimulatory conditions. Th17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells were detected by flow cytometry. The gene expression of related cytokines and transcription factors were assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR. IL-17 was overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis patients. IL-10 treatment significantly decreased the numbers of IL-17-producing and RORc-expressing cells among human CD4(+) T cells that had been activated in vitro by Th17-differentiating conditions in autoimmune arthritis patients. IL-10 induced Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the human CD4(+) T cell population. Our results demonstrate that IL-17 is overexpressed in autoimmune disease patients and that IL-10 suppresses IL-17 expression. IL-10 may be useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
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Type II collagen oral tolerance; mechanism and role in collagen-induced arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Oral tolerance means a diminished immune response to previously fed antigens. Repeated oral administrations of type II collagen (CII) induce oral tolerance and inhibit the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Dendritic cells (DCs) in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) take up the CII and then present it to T cells to generate regulatory T cells (Tregs), which induce systemic immune tolerance to CII. Inhibitory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin (IL)-10, and several immune regulatory molecules, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and retinoic acid, play an important role in Treg generation. Each DC subset may play different roles, and CD11c+CD11b+DCs and IDO+DCs are important in the generation of antigen-inducible Tregs in CII oral tolerance. Upon stimulation with the antigen involved in its generation, Treg is activated and regulates the immune response through inhibitory cytokine production, cell-to-cell contact-dependent mechanisms, DC modification, and bystander suppression. The DCs and Tregs are deeply involved in oral tolerance through reciprocal interactions. Several clinical trials have been conducted in RA patients to examine the efficacy of CII oral tolerance. An understanding the mechanism of oral tolerance to CII would give clinicians new insights into the development of natural immune tolerance and new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
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Lupus mesenteric vasculitis can cause acute abdominal pain in patients with SLE.
Nat Rev Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Lupus mesenteric vasculitis (LMV) is a unique clinical entity found in patients who present with gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, and is the main cause of acute abdominal pain in these patients. LMV usually presents as acute abdominal pain with sudden onset, severe intensity and diffuse localization. Other causes of abdominal pain, such as acute gastroenteritis, peptic ulcers, acute pancreatitis, peritonitis, and other reasons for abdominal surgery should be ruled out. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of LMV is critical to ensure implementation of appropriate immunosuppressive therapy and avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention. The pathology of LMV comprises immune-complex deposition and complement activation, with subsequent submucosal edema, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and thrombus formation; most of these changes are confined to small mesenteric vessels. Abdominal CT is the most useful tool for diagnosing LMV, which is characterized by the presence of target signs, comb signs, and other associated findings. The presence of autoantibodies against phospholipids and endothelial cells might provide information about the likelihood of recurrence of LMV. Immediate, high-dose, intravenous steroid therapy can lead to a favorable outcome and prevent serious complications such as bowel ischemia, necrosis and perforation.
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CTLA4-Ig modifies dendritic cells from mice with collagen-induced arthritis to increase the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell population.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and IgG fusion protein, CTLA4-Ig, is a therapeutic agent used for rheumatoid arthritis. It binds B7 molecules on dendritic cells (DCs) and thereby blocks B7/CD28 costimulatory interaction and inhibits effective T cell proliferation. However, the effect of CTLA4-Ig on the regulatory T cell (Treg) is still not known. In this study, we investigated the influence of CTLA4-Ig on the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CTLA4-Ig suppressed CIA and increased the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population in joint and spleen. When CD11c + DCs and CD4+T cells from CIA mice were cultured with anti-CD3, CTLA4-Ig increased the CD4+CD25 + Foxp3+ Treg population in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. When CD11c + DCs from CIA mice were treated with CTLA4-Ig and adoptively transferred into CIA-induced mice, arthritis did not develop in association with the increase in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population. However, in CTLA4-Ig-untreated DC-transferred CIA mice, arthritis developed and then rapidly progressed. Our study demonstrated that CTLA4-Ig suppressed CIA by modifying DCs from CIA mice into tolerogenic DCs to increase the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population and this seems to be the new immune regulatory mechanism of CTLA4-Ig.
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Proinflammatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis: prospects for therapeutic intervention.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Recent experimental and clinical studies have placed new emphasis on the role of angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are the best characterized system in the regulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by angiogenesis. Furthermore, in addition to its angiogenic role, VEGF can act as a direct proinflammatory mediator during the pathogenesis of RA, and protect rheumatoid synoviocytes from apoptosis, which contributes to synovial hyperplasia. Therefore, the developments of synovial inflammation, hyperplasia, and angiogenesis in the joints of RA patients seem to be regulated by a common cue, namely, VEGF. Agents that target VEGF, such as anti-VEGF antibody and aptamer, have yielded promising clinical data in patients with cancer or macular degeneration, and in RA patients, pharmacologic modulations targeting VEGF or its receptor may offer new therapeutic approaches. In this review, the authors integrate current knowledge of VEGF signaling and information on VEGF antagonists gleaned experimentally and place emphasis on the use of synthetic anti-VEGF hexapeptide to prevent VEGF interacting with its receptor.
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Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors for relapse in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
Rheumatol. Int.
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Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a common inflammatory disease of the elderly in western countries, but the prevalence is apparently different between races and countries. Until now, an epidemiologic study of PMR is limited in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical data of 78 patients with PMR who were treated in 5 tertiary hospitals, and analyzed initial laboratory data, symptoms, therapeutic responses, and prognostic factors for relapse 1 year after treatments. Sixty percent of patients had pain in both shoulder and hip girdles with 10.6 weeks of duration, 75.9 ± 32.7 mm/h of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and 6.2 ± 6.4 mg/dl of C-reactive protein. The rate of relapse and remission at 1 year was 38.4 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of overall relapse was 46.1 %, and the relapse occurred mostly in a year, especially between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. There were more female in relapse group (88.9 %, p = 0.037), and cumulative steroid dose of 1 year was significantly higher in relapse group (5.5 ± 2.7 vs. 4.4 ± 2.5 g, p = 0.018). Independent risk factors for relapse were initial CRP ? 2.5 mg/dl (OR 6.296, p = 0.047) and the use of hydroxychloroquine (OR 6.798, p = 0.035). Initial dosage or tapering speed of steroid did not influence on prognosis. In Korean patients with PMR, baseline clinical characteristics and relapse rate were similar to previous studies, but our patients accompanied no giant cell arteritis and showed lower remission rate as well as delayed therapeutic response and later occurrence of relapse. More aggressive management would be needed according to the clinical status of patients.
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Follow-up of primary Sjogrens syndrome patients presenting positive anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides antibody.
Rheumatol. Int.
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Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP antibody) is very useful for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is associated with articular erosions. The specificity of anti-CCP antibody in the diagnosis of RA has been reported to be about 95 %. Because of its higher specificity in RA, we assessed the clinical features of primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS) who were positive for anti-CCP antibody. We assessed the clinical features of 405 pSS patients. After 60 (range 7-98) months, 23 (5.6 %) patients previously diagnosed with pSS had progressed to RA. Comparing the anti-CCP positive group with the negative group, laboratory test results for anti-CCP titer and rheumatoid factor positivity with respect to clinical outcome and progression to RA, arthralgia and arthritis were significantly different. Multivariate regression analysis also showed that anti-CCP antibody titer was independently associated with progression to RA. The odds ratio of anti-CCP positivity in terms of progression to RA was 2.5 (95 % CI 1.7-3.7). Testing for anti-CCP antibody in pSS patients with arthritis may allow for the prediction of progression to RA.
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Predictors of end-stage renal disease and recurrence of lupus activity after initiation of dialysis in patients with lupus nephritis.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
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The present paper aims at identifying the predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and at determining the long-term outcome of ESRD patients according to renal replacement modality in Korean patients with lupus nephritis (LN).
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Regression of syndesmophyte after bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
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Disease progression of ankylosing spondylitis has been considered irreversible. However, we report a case of spontaneous regression of syndesmophyte development following allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, who was also diagnosed as having ankylosing spondylitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report presenting the partial radiologic regression of syndesmophytes.
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Retinal attenuates inflammatory arthritis by reciprocal regulation of IL-17-producing T cells and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.
Immunol. Lett.
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Retinoids (e.g., vitamin A and its derivatives) can regulate immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine whether all-trans retinaldehyde (retinal), a vitamin A derivative, can inhibit inflammatory responses and joint destruction in DBA/1J mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The arthritis score and incidence of arthritis were lower in mice treated with retinal compared to those treated with cottonseed oil. Histopathologic evidence of joint damage was lower in mice treated with retinal, corresponding with a reduction in the infiltration of immune cells in mice treated with retinal type II collagen (CII)-stimulated spleen cells. In addition, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress proteins, and osteoclast markers were significantly reduced in mice treated with retinal. In vitro, retinal induced increased Foxp3 expression and inhibited Th17 development. The proportion of Foxp3(+) Treg cells was increased in the spleens of mice treated with retinal, whereas the proportion of Th17 cells was reduced. In both mice and a human culture system, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells were significantly reduced after treatment with retinal. The expression of osteoclast differentiation markers was dramatically decreased upon addition of retinal. This is the first study to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of retinal on an autoimmune arthritis model in mice through reciprocal regulation of Th17 and regulatory T cells and protection of differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Taken together, our findings indicate that retinal has profound immunoregulatory functions and potential value for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory disorders.
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Interleukin-27 suppresses osteoclastogenesis via induction of interferon-?.
Immunology
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Interleukin (IL)-27 is a heterodimeric cytokine that is known to have both stimulatory and inhibitory functions during immune responses. We investigated the effects of IL-27 on arthritis and bone erosion in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of IL-27 on osteoclastogenesis is associated with interferon-? (IFN-?) production by using an IFN-? knockout mouse model. The IL-27-Fc was injected into both CIA and IFN-?-deficient mice. The effects of IL-27-Fc on osteoclast differentiation were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The IL-27-Fc-injected mice showed significantly lower arthritis indices and fewer tartrate-resistant acid-phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in their joint tissues than untreated mice. Interleukin-27 inhibited osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in vitro, which was counteracted by the addition of anti-IFN-? antibody. The IL-27-Fc did not affect arthritis in IFN-? knockout mice. Interleukin-27 also suppressed osteoclast differentiation in human and intriguingly, it could promote the expression of IFN-? on priming osteoclasts. These results imply that IL-27 suppressed the generation of CIA and osteoclastogenesis, which were mediated by the induction of IFN-?.
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Comparative study of immunofluorescent antinuclear antibody test and line immunoassay detecting 15 specific autoantibodies in patients with systemic rheumatic disease.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
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Based on the currently proposed algorithms, antibodies specificities (sp-ANAs) are identified mainly in samples positive for fluorescent antinuclear antibodies (FANA) screening tests. The purpose of the present study was to compare diagnostic performances of FANA and line immune assay (LIA) detecting 15 sp-ANAs in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases (SRD). In 948 sera from the patients with SRD (n = 590) and non-SRD (n = 358), we evaluated the fluorescent patterns and intensities in the FANA test, and compared the FANA results with sp-ANAs against nRNP, Sm, SS-A, Ro52, SS-B, Scl-70, PM/Scl, Jo-1, CENP B, PCNA, dsDNA, nucleosome, histone, ribosomal-P, and M2. The sensitivity and specificity was 75.9% and 52.5% of FANA test and 62.0% and 84.4% of sp-ANAs test for SRD detection. The overall agreement between FANA and sp-ANAs results was 69.2% (Kappa coefficient; 0.404). According to the clinical diagnosis, the levels of agreement varied from 33.3% to 83.1%. The positive predictive values of each FANA pattern for the detection of sp-ANAs were less than 50% except for the discrete speckled pattern (91.7%). The 1:100 intensity of FANA as well as the monoreactivity of LIA, anti-SSA(-)/anti-Ro52(+), or FANA(-)/sp-ANAs(+) was associated with non-SRD. Antibodies against ribosomal-P or PCNA were specific for systemic lupus eryhthematosus. This study highlights the need for careful interpretation of FANA test results to assess sp-ANAs and the application of sp-ANAs tests including less-common autoantibodies. In patients with clinical suspicion of SRD, screening with both FANA and sp-ANAs tests could improve diagnostic efficiency.
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Modulation of STAT-3 in rheumatoid synovial T cells suppresses Th17 differentiation and increases the proportion of Treg cells.
Arthritis Rheum.
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To investigate the impact of STAT-3-mediated regulation on Th17 differentiation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
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Retinoic acid attenuates rheumatoid inflammation in mice.
J. Immunol.
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Retinoic acid is the active vitamin A derivative and is well-known to have diverse immunomodulatory actions. In this study, we investigated the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a biologic key metabolite of vitamin A, on the development of arthritis and the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which ATRA might have antiarthritic effects in animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA; collagen-induced arthritis [CIA] in DBA/1J mice). We showed that treatment with ATRA markedly suppressed the clinical and histologic signs of arthritis in the CIA mice. It reduced the expression of IL-17 in the arthritic joints. Interestingly, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were markedly increased and IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) were decreased in the spleens of ATRA-treated mice. In vitro treatment with ATRA induced the expression of Foxp3 and repressed the IL-17 expression in the CD4(+) T cells in mice. ATRA suppressed the production of total IgG and IgG2a in splenocytes that were stimulated by LPS. It also reduced serum levels of total IgG and IgG2 anti-collagen Abs and germinal center formation in CIA mice. In addition, the ATRA-treated mice showed decreased osteoclast formation in arthritic joints. Moreover, ATRA downregulated the expression of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, the leading player of osteoclastogenesis, in the CD4(+) T cells and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA. Furthermore, ATRA prevented both human monocytes and mice bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophage cells from differentiating into osteoclasts. These data suggest ATRA might be an effective treatment modality for RA patients.
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TLR2 ligation induces the production of IL-23/IL-17 via IL-6, STAT3 and NF-kB pathway in patients with primary Sjogrens syndrome.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
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The study was undertaken to investigate the interrelation of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-17 in the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS) and to determine the role of TLR and IL-17 in the pathophysiology of pSS.
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Low C3 levels is associated with neutropenia in a proportion of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: retrospective analysis.
Int J Rheum Dis
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Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. MDS patients are known to manifest overt rheumatic manifestations and have distinct immunological abnormalities but their clinical significance has yet to be elucidated.
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