Background and study aims: Rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to reduce the incidence of postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). The aim of this study was to determine whether intramuscular diclofenac reduces the risk of PEP. Patients and methods: Patients who underwent ERCP were randomized to receive either 90?mg of diclofenac or placebo by intramuscular injection immediately after the procedure. PEP was defined as elevated serum amylase levels (at least three times the upper limit of normal 24 hours after the procedure) associated with new or worsened upper abdominal, epigastric, or back pain. Results: In total, 380 patients were randomized, and 343 were eligible for analysis. The two groups were similar regarding clinical and demographic factors, as well as patient- and procedure-related risk factors for PEP. PEP developed in 20/170 patients (11.8?%) in the placebo group and in 22/173 patients (12.7?%) in the diclofenac group (P?=?0.87). Multivariate regression analysis failed to illustrate that intramuscular diclofenac prevented PEP (odds ratio 0.79; 95?% confidence interval 0.39?-?1.25; P?=?0.51). Conclusion: Prophylactic intramuscular diclofenac had no beneficial preventive effect on PEP.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01717599.
Advanced gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal malignancies, ADAM (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase)-9 is a cell-surface membrane glycoprotein with oncogenic properties that is overexpressed in several cancers. Herein, we investigated the biological mechanism of ADAM9 in the progression, proliferation and invasion of GC. First, we detected ADAM's expression, processing and protease activity in GC cells. Protease activity was moderately correlated with ADAM9 protein expression, but was better related to a processed smaller molecular weight (84 kDa) form of ADAM9. Knockdown of ADAM9 or specifically targeted monoclonal antibody (RAV-18) suppressed cancer cell proliferation and invasion in high ADAM9 expressing cells, not in low expressing cells. RAV-18 showed in vivo antitumor activity in a GC xenograft model. Hypoxia (1% oxygen) induced ADAM9 expression and functional activity in low expressing GC cells that was inhibited by siRNA knockdown or RAV-18 antibody to levels in normoxic cells. Overall, our studies show that ADAM9 plays an important role in GC proliferation and invasion, and that while expressed in some GC cells at high levels that are responsive to functional inhibition and antitumor activity of a catalytic site directed antibody, other GC cells have low levels of expression and only when exposed to hypoxia do ADAM9 levels increase and the cells become responsive to ADAM9 antibody inhibition. Therefore, our findings suggest that ADAM9 could be an effective therapeutic target for advanced GC.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is well known as the most common malignant primary brain tumor. It could easily spread into the adjacent or distant brain tissue by infiltration, direct extension and cerebro-spinal fluid dissemination. The extranueural metastatic spread of GBM is relatively rare but it could have more progressive disease course. We report a 39-year-old man who had multiple bone metastases and malignant pleural effusion of the GBM without primary site recurrence.
S-1 chemotherapy is effective against advanced biliary tract cancer. The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-1-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer.
In this study, we isolated scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Nakai (Compositae) and tested its effects on melanogenesis. Scopoletin was not toxic to cells at concentrations less than 50 µM and increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. As melanin synthesis increased, scopoletin stimulated the total tyrosinase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. In a cell-free system, however, scopoletin did not increase tyrosinase activity, indicating that scopoletin is not a direct activator of tyrosinase. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that scopoletin stimulated the production of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to assess the use of scopoletin for the treatment of vitiligo.
A credible accounting of national and regional inventories for the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction has emerged as one of the most significant current discussions. This article assessed the regional GHG emissions by three categories of the waste sector in Daejeon Metropolitan City (DMC), Korea, examined the potential for DMC to reduce GHG emission, and discussed the methodology modified from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Korea national guidelines. During the last five years, DMC's overall GHG emissions were 239 thousand tons CO2 eq./year from eleven public environmental infrastructure facilities, with a population of 1.52 million. Of the three categories, solid waste treatment/disposal contributes 68%, whilst wastewater treatment and others contribute 22% and 10% respectively. Among GHG unit emissions per ton of waste treatment, the biggest contributor was waste incineration of 694 kg CO2 eq./ton, followed by waste disposal of 483 kg CO2 eq./ton, biological treatment of solid waste of 209 kg CO2 eq./ton, wastewater treatment of 0.241 kg CO2 eq./m(3), and public water supplies of 0.067 kg CO2 eq./m(3). Furthermore, it is suggested that the potential in reducing GHG emissions from landfill process can be as high as 47.5% by increasing landfill gas recovery up to 50%. Therefore, it is apparent that reduction strategies for the main contributors of GHG emissions should take precedence over minor contributors and lead to the best practice for managing GHGs abatement.
A 28-year-old male patient with right maxillar, zygomatic arch, orbital wall, and nasal bone fractures had an orthognathic and nasal surgery. Naso-endotracheal intubation is the first choice during surgical correction of dentofacial deformities in an orthognathic surgery; however, its presence can interfere with concomitant surgical procedures on the nose. Traditionally, the naso-endotracheal tube will be removed and replaced with an oro-endotracheal tube. We changed the endotracheal tube from nasal to oral by using an airway exchange catheter.
Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention.
Primary paranasal sinus lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy that accounts for only 0.17% of all lymphomas and is often difficult to diagnose. Initially, tumors in this area cause very few symptoms and are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Ophthalmologic signs and symptoms occur early in the disease process because of close proximity of the orbit to the paranasal sinuses. We report on a case of primary malignant lymphoma of the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses with involvement of the cavernous sinus, initially presenting with ophthalmologic signs and symptoms in association with cavernous sinus syndrome.
Inoperable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is known to have an extremely poor prognosis. Although rare, there are some patients who have unexpected long-term survival, but the reason is not yet clear.
Chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) or CRS without NPs (CRSsNPs) is associated with expression of various cytokines. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) generated by autotaxin (ATX), LPA-producing enzyme, initiates signaling cascade involved in the inflammatory responses and participates in diverse biological processes through LPA receptors, including cytokine production. We analyzed the expression and distribution patterns of LPA-related molecules in nasal secretion and sinus mucosa of normal controls and patients with CRSwNPs and CRSsNPs, to evaluate the possible effects of the ATX-LPA receptor axis on the pathogenesis of CRS.
Recently, we demonstrated that leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3 (LGI3) is expressed in human skin. However, the effects of LGI3 on melanocytes remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that LGI3 can serve to stimulate melanogenesis without affecting cell viability. To determine the effects of LGI3 on melanin synthesis, normal human melanocytes and Mel-Ab cells were treated with recombinant LGI3 and melanin content was measured. Our results showed that LGI3 promoted melanin synthesis in both cell types. Moreover, upregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase was observed at both the mRNA and protein levels via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of LGI3 increased in the basal layer of melasma skin samples, whereas it decreased slightly in vitiligo samples. These results suggest that LGI3 may play a role as a melanogenic cytokine in human skin.
We investigated the effects of ML106 on melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Our results showed that ML106 decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, ML106 did not inhibit microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, but did decrease tyrosinase expression. Thus, we further investigated the expression and degradation of tyrosinase and related signal transduction pathways. Although ML106 increased glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) activation, the level of beta-catenin level was not affected. Thus, we excluded the involvement of GSK3beta and beta-catenin in ML106-induced hypopigmentation. However, ML106 induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), causing down-regulation of tyrosinase. Thus, we next investigated whether tyrosinase down-regulation was due to proteasomal degradation by p38 MAPK activation. We found that ML106-induced tyrosinase down-regulation was restored by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Thus, we propose that ML106 has hypopigmentary activity through tyrosinase degradation via p38 MAPK phosphorylation.
Aminoglycosides such as neomycin are one of the most commonly prescribed types of antibiotics worldwide. However, these drugs appear to generate free radicals within the inner ear, which can result in permanent hearing loss. We evaluated the effects of edaravone, a neuroprotective agent, on neomycin-induced ototoxicity in transgenic zebrafish. The 5-day post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 125 ?M neomycin and various concentrations of edaravone for 1 h. Hair cell survival was calculated as average numbers of the hair cells in the control group, which was not exposed to neomycin. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Edaravone protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss in the neuromasts (1000 ?M: 11.6 ± 1.1 cells, neomycin only: 5.5 ± 0.5 cells; n = 10, P<0.05) and decreased the TUNEL reaction for detecting apoptosis. In ultrastructural analysis, structures of mitochondria and hair cells within neuromasts were preserved in zebrafish exposed to 125 ?M neomycin and 1000 ?M edaravone for 1 h. Edaravone protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss by preventing apoptosis.
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNPs) or CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNPs) is characterized by persistent inflammation of sinonasal mucosa. No one causative factor fully explains for the pathological manifestations of CRS. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to participate in inflammatory diseases, functioning as an inflammatory mediator in various organs. We analyzed the contents and synthesis activity of H2S, the expression and distribution pattern of H2S-generating enzymes, cystathione ?-synthase (CBS), and cystathione ?-lyase (CSE) in CRSwNPs and CRSsNPs. The effects of H2S on the expression of CRS-relevant cytokines and the effects of cytokines on the expression of CBS and CSE were assessed in an in vitro experiment.
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RIE) occurs predominantly in intravenous drug users in western countries, and it has a relatively good prognosis. Clinical features and prognosis of RIE occurring in non-drug users are not well known. We investigated the clinical findings of RIE in non-drug users. We retrospectively reviewed 345 cases diagnosed with IE. Cases with RIE or left-sided infective endocarditis (LIE) defined by the vegetation site were included and cases having no vegetation or both-side vegetation were excluded. Clinical findings and in-hospital outcome of RIE were compared to those of LIE. Among the 245 cases, 39 (16%) cases had RIE and 206 (84%) cases had LIE. RIE patients were younger (40 ± 19 yr vs 50 ± 18 yr, P=0.004), and had a higher incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) (36% vs 13%, P<0.001) and central venous catheter (CVC) (21% vs 4%, P=0.001) compared to LIE patients. A large vegetation was more common in RIE (33% vs 9%, P<0.001). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of RIE, while Streptococcus viridans were the most common cause of LIE. In-hospital mortality and cardiac surgery were not different between the two groups. CHD and use of CVC were common in non-drug users with RIE. The short-term clinical outcome of RIE is not different from that of LIE.
Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is currently employed for the treatment of ampullary adenoma. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic characteristics related to complications and long-term outcomes of EP.
Angiogenin (ANG) is reportedly multifunctional, with roles in angiogenesis and autoimmune diseases. This protein is involved in the innate immune system and has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. Although ANG may be involved in the anti-inflammatory response, there is no evidence that it has direct anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we sought to determine whether ANG has an anti-inflammatory effect in human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) exposed to media containing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). We found that ANG reduced the mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), -6, -8 and TNF-? receptors (TNFR) 1 and 2. In contrast, ANG increased the mRNA expression of IL-4 and -10. Protein levels of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) were reduced by ANG in HCFs treated with TNF-?. Moreover, ANG diminished the expression of IL-6 and -8 and monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-) 1. The protein expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) was downregulated by ANG treatment. These findings suggest that ANG suppressed the TNF-?-induced inflammatory response in HCFs through inhibition of TBK1-mediated NF-?B nuclear translocation. These novel results are likely to play a significant role in the selection of immune-mediated inflammatory therapeutic targets and may shed light on the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Second-line chemotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer has shown disappointing survival outcomes due to rapid disease progression and performance deterioration. The aim of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adoptive immunotherapy using ex vivo-expanded, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who showed disease progression during gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. For generation of CIK cells, peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient and cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody and IL-2. Patients received CIK cells intravenously 10 times, every week for 5 weeks and then every other week for 10 weeks. Twenty patients were enrolled between November 2009 and September 2010. The disease control rate was 25 % (4/16 patients). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI 8.8-13.2), and the median overall survival (OS) was 26.6 weeks (95 % CI 8.6-44.6). Grade 3 toxicities included general weakness in two patients and thrombocytopenia in one patient. Grade 4 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicity was not observed. Patients showed improvement in pancreatic pain, gastrointestinal distress, jaundice, body image alterations, altered bowel habits, health satisfaction, and sexuality when assessing quality of life (QoL). Adoptive immunotherapy using CIK cells showed comparable PFS and OS to survival data of previous trials that assessed conventional chemotherapies while maintaining tolerability and showing encouraging results in terms of patient QoL in gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer (clinicalTrials.gov number NCT00965718).
Among borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC), group B BRPC patients have findings that are suggestive but not diagnostic of metastasis. In this study, we attempted to validate whether group B could truly be categorized as a borderline resectable group.
It has been suggested that glucocorticoids might act in target tissues to increase their own intracellular availability in response to inflammatory stimuli. These mechanisms depend on the local metabolism of glucocorticoids catalyzed by 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2).
Based on the close relationship between histamine and interleukin 6 (IL-6), we hypothesized that histamine may regulate the production of cytokines, such as IL-6, during allergic inflammation. Here, we examined the role of histamine in IL-6 production and histamine receptor activity in nasal fibroblasts, along with the mechanisms underlying these effects.
The drug utilization review (DUR) system, which checks any conflict event of medications, contributes to improve patient safety. One of the important barriers in its adoption is doctors' resistance. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of doctors' resistance on the success of the DUR system.
To characterize neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) according to classification used in the study by Baron et al. (Baron classification), a classification of neuropathic pain based on the mechanism. To also compare the patterns of neuropathic pain in SCI patients with those in patients with other etiologies and to determine the differences in patterns of neuropathic pain between the etiologies.
Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm accounting for 0.3% of all gastrointestinal tract carcinomas. We herein present one case of duodenal adenocarcinoma after duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Poorly differentiated duodenal neuroendocrine carcinoma with liver metastasis (TxNxM1) was confirmed, and eight cycles of palliative chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/etoposide/cisplatin) were administered. The patient was then in a clinically complete response status. About 1 year later, newly developed adenocarcinoma was detected at the same site. It was completely surgically resected, and the patient was cured.
Functional consequences to which vertebrate GATA transcription factors contribute in the adult brain remain largely an open question. The present study examines how human GATA-1 and GATA-2 (hGATA-1 and hGATA-2) are linked to neuronal differentiation and depressive behaviors in rats. We investigated the effects of adeno-associated viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 (AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus on dendrite branching and spine number. We also examined the influence of AAV-hGATA1 and AAV-hGATA2 infusions into the dorsal hippocampus on rodent behavior in models of depression. Viral expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 cDNA in rat hippocampal neurons impaired dendritic outgrowth and spine formation. Moreover, viral-mediated expression of hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 in the dorsal hippocampus caused depressive-like deficits in the forced swim test and learned helplessness models of depression, and decreased the expression of several synapse-related genes as well as spine number in hippocampal neurons. Conversely, shRNA knockdown of GATA-2 increased synapse-related gene expression, spine number, and dendrite branching. The results demonstrate that hGATA-1 and hGATA-2 expression in hippocampus is sufficient to cause depressive like behaviors that are associated with reduction in spine synapse density and expression of synapse-related genes.
The accepted palliative treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is surgical bypass or placement of self-expandable metal stents. We developed a safe and simple natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique for gastrojejunostomy using a fully covered, anastomosing metal stent in a porcine model.
Although exercise testing has been suggested to help predict clinical outcome, limited data are available to guide how exercise Doppler echocardiography (ECG) can be used clinically in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of exercise echocardiographic testing in asymptomatic patients with severe AS.
Trimetazidine (TMZ) is known to reduce the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of TMZ on neomycin-induced ototoxicity in transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP).
Abstract Purpose: Zinc finger protein known to induce squamous metaplasia and regulate vitamin A expression has been few investigated as tear protein. We investigated tear protein variations in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Materials and methods: Tears from healthy subjects as control and patients with DES were collected. Tear proteins were separated by one-dimensional electrophoresis. The protein bands were analyzed by nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Compared to the controls, significant down-regulation of lactoferrin and lysozyme was detected, while significant up-regulation was observed for serum albumin in patients with DES. DES grade 4 patients showed different protein patterns. Zinc-finger motif-enhancer binding-protein-1 gamma and bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain 2B were detected in DES grade 4 patients. Conclusions: Tear protein changes are valuable to diagnosis DES. Zinc finger proteins may be associated with pathophysiology of severe DES. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship of zinc finger proteins in tear of patients with DES.
Acute pancreatitis is one of the potentially lethal complications that occurs after cardiac surgery. We tried to identify risk factors for and the prognosis of acute pancreatitis after cardiac valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Prominent expression of YKL-40 has been associated with pathological conditions characterized by tissue remodeling. We determined the expression level and distribution pattern of YKL-40 in allergic nasal mucosa and evaluated the effect of YKL-40 on the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, the production of the mediators related to tissue remodeling, and collagen production. Additionally, the cytokine-driven regulation of YKL-40 expression was evaluated in cultured epithelial cells.
Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its interaction with chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) have been noted for participating in the wound healing process, and may paradoxically develop hypertrophic scarring. With viewing pterygia as a product of exaggerated wound formation, we evaluated the effects of SDF-1 and CXCR4 on determining the severity of pterygia.
The aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the effect of isolated uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) on subjective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms in adult patients regardless of the response to surgery, and ultimately 2) to investigate the differences in changes in subjective OSA symptoms between successful and unsuccessful surgery groups.
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa and many inflammatory cells and cytokines are involved in its pathogenesis. High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that has a proinflammatory function when secreted into extracellular space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of HMGB1 in paranasal sinus mucosa and to determine the difference of HMGB1 expression between CRS patients and normal controls.
Pancreatic cysts are being detected more frequently with advances in abdominal imaging. We designed this study to identify the characteristics of pancreatic cysts upon long-term follow-up and to define the proper management of them.
Aortic root size is an important parameter in vascular diseases and can be easily assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. However, measurements values may vary according to cardiac cycle and the definition used for edge. This study aimed to define normal values according to the measurement method specified by two different guidelines to determine the influence of the different methods on echocardiographic measurements.
The aims of the present study were twofold. We sought to compare two methods of titrating the level of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - auto-adjusting titration and titration using a predictive equation - with full-night manual titration used as the benchmark. We also investigated the reliability of the two methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
Because the exercise treadmill test (ETT) based on ST-segment analysis is limited due to low sensitivity and specificity, there has been an interest in the additional analysis of high-frequency components of QRS (HFQRS) for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to evaluate the feasibility and clinical usefulness of HFQRS analysis during exercise stress echocardiography (ESE).
Erlotinib and gemcitabine combined chemotherapy is becoming the treatment of choice in advanced pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the effectiveness of treatment with erlotinib plus gemcitabine and the prognostic factors for chemotherapeutic response in Korean pancreatic cancer patients.
Biliary stenting is the most effective decompressive method for treating malignant biliary obstructive jaundice. Although the main cause of stent occlusion is tumor growth, few studies have investigated whether stent patency is affected by the combination of cancer-treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local radiotherapy on metal-stent patency in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether extended-release hydromorphone (osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system [OROS] hydromorphone) treatment provided pain relief in cancer patients whose pain was inadequately controlled by other analgesics.
Surgical resection is the only curative treatment for pancreatic cancer, but surgical outcomes for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) are generally poor because of the complexity of the surgery and the advanced nature of the tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) in BRPC patients could improve surgical outcome.
Hepatolithiasis is a known risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Due to the high risk of complications that accompany endoscopic and surgical stone removal, it is often difficult to decide whether it is beneficial to remove intrahepatic ductal stones. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk of developing CC and the benefit of stone removal in patients with hepatolithiasis.
NecroX-5, one of the derivatives of NecroX series compounds, is a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenger that inhibits cell death against various kinds of oxidative stresses. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NecroX-5 on neomycin-induced ototoxicity in transgenic zebrafish (Brn3C: EGFP). Five days post-fertilization, zebrafish larvae were exposed to 125 ?M neomycin and one of the following NecroX-5 concentrations for 1 h: 10, 25, 50, and 75 ?M. Hair cells within the neuromasts of the supraorbital (SO1 and SO2), otic (O1), and occipital (OC1) lateral lines were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy (n = 10). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and 2-[4-(dimethylamino) styryl]-N-ethylpyridiniumiodide (DASPEI) assay were performed for evaluation of apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. NecroX-5 decreased neomycin-induced hair cell loss in the neuromasts (NecroX-5 50 ?M: 13.4 ± 2.0 cells, 125 ?M neomycin only: 8.1 ± 1.2 cells; n = 10, P < 0.05) and decreased the TUNEL reaction. The ultrastructural analysis showed that the structures of mitochondria and hair cells within the neuromasts were preserved in zebrafish exposed to 125 ?M neomycin and 50 ?M NecroX-5. NecroX-5 decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. In conclusion, NecroX-5 attenuated neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN.
Severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction are known to have worse outcome. We aimed to investigate whether LGE on CMR would be useful in early detection of subclinical LV structural and functional derangements in AS patients.
The management of late tricuspid regurgitation after left-sided valve operations in rheumatic patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of tricuspid valve procedures after left-sided valve operations in rheumatic patients.
Modulation of the refractive index of materials is elementary, yet it is crucial for the manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Relying on the inherent properties of natural materials, it has been a long-standing challenge in device engineering to increase the index-modulation contrast. Here, we demonstrate a significant amount of ultrafast index modulation by optically exciting non-equilibrium Dirac fermions in the graphene layer integrated onto a high-index metamaterial. Furthermore, an extremely-large electrical modulation of refractive index up to ?n ~ -3.4 (at 0.69 THz) is achieved by electrical tuning of the density of the equilibrium Dirac fermion in the graphene metamaterial. This manifestation, otherwise remaining elusive in conventional semiconductor devices, fully exploits the characteristic ultrafast charge relaxation in graphene as well as the strong capacitive response of the metamaterial, both of which enable us to drastically increase the light-matter interaction of graphene and the corresponding index contrast in the graphene metamaterials.
The results from the ASCOT CAFÉ study demonstrated the inferiority of beta blockers in reducing central aortic blood pressure. In this study, we wanted to demonstrate whether or not second-generation beta blockers with higher beta 1 selectivity, namely bisoprolol, may counterbalance the effect of bradycardia through reduced reflection wave magnitude resulting from the relative lack of increase in peripheral vascular resistance.
As an adjunct to cancer treatment, the use of health functional foods (HFFs) seems to be increasing. However, little is known for the use of HFFs among cancer patients in Korea. The aims of this study were to investigate the exposure rate of HFF use among gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients and to examine the relationship of socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics with the use of HFFs. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with GI cancer participated in the study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire. Over a half of all the patients surveyed (n = 67; 53.2%) used HFFs. Patients who were younger, had higher income, or longer duration of disease showed a trend to use HFFs more frequently, even though the tendency was not statistically significant. The most commonly used HFF was vitamin complex (n = 20; 16%), followed by red ginseng (n = 15; 12%), and sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) (n = 11; 8.8%). About 26% of all responders expressed concerns for using HFFs. The primary concern was going against physicians recommendations (36.8%). About 63% of respondents expressed a desire to consult with their physicians and follow their recommendations. More basic scientific data and educational materials regarding HFFs are required for both health-care professionals and cancer patients. A larger sample and size-controlled groups representing each cancer type will continue to be recruited for participation in this survey.
Left ventricular (LV) mass is an important prognostic indicator in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Although LV mass can be easily calculated using conventional echocardiography, it is based on geometric assumptions and has inherent limitations in asymmetric left ventricles. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) imaging with single-beat capture provides an opportunity for the accurate estimation of LV mass. The aim of this study was to validate this new technique for LV mass measurement in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
A subset of ventral spinal cord precursors, known as pMN precursor cells, initially generate motor neurons and then oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which migrate and differentiate as myelinating oligodendrocytes in the developing neural tube. The switch between motor neuron and oligodendrocyte production by the pMN neural precursors is an important step in building a functional nervous system. However, the precise mechanism that orchestrates the sequential generation of motor neurons and oligodendrocytes within the common population of pMN precursors is still unclear. The current study demonstrates that Indian Hedgehog b (Ihhb), previously known as Echidna Hedgehog, begins to be expressed in the floor plate cells of the ventral spinal cord at the time of OPC specification in zebrafish embryos. Ihhb loss-of-function analysis revealed that Ihhb function is required for OPC specification from pMN precursors by negatively regulating the proliferation of neural precursors. Finally, results showed that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) could not replace Ihhb function in OPC specification, suggesting that Ihhb and Shh play separate roles in OPC specification. Altogether, data from the present study suggested a novel mechanism, mediated by Ihhb, for the sequential generation of motor neurons and oligodendrocytes from pMN precursors in the ventral spinal cord of zebrafish embryos.
The aim of this study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a newly developed angiotensin II receptor type I blocker (ARB), against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to identify the mechanism by which it reduces mitochondrial damage.
Endoscopic treatment of difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones (diameter ? 10 mm, or four or more) is difficult in patients who have undergone Billroth II (B-II) gastrectomy. Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) can be particularly troublesome due to anatomical changes effected by the gastrectomy.
This study aimed to compare the seventh edition of the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system to the sixth edition to validate its usefulness in predicting prognosis for gallbladder cancer.
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