JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Promoting thiol expression increases the durability of antitumor T-cell functions.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ex vivo-expanded CD8(+) T cells used for adoptive immunotherapy generally acquire an effector memory-like phenotype (TEM cells). With regard to therapeutic applications, two undesired features of this phenotype in vivo are limited persistence and reduced antitumor efficacy, relative to CD8(+) T cells with a central memory-like phenotype (TCM cells). Furthermore, there is incomplete knowledge about all the differences between TEM and TCM cells that may influence tumor treatment outcomes. Given that TCM cells survive relatively longer in oxidative tumor microenvironments, we investigated the hypothesis that TCM cells possess relatively greater antioxidative capacity than TEM cells. Here, we report that TCM cells exhibit a relative increase compared with TEM cells in the expression of cell surface thiols, a key target of cellular redox controls, along with other antioxidant molecules. Increased expression of redox regulators in TCM cells inversely correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proliferative capacity, and glycolytic enzyme levels. Notably, T-cell receptor-transduced T cells pretreated with thiol donors, such as N-acetyl cysteine or rapamycin, upregulated thiol levels and antioxidant genes. A comparison of antitumor CD8(+) T-cell populations on the basis of surface thiol expression showed that thiol-high cells persisted longer in vivo and exerted superior tumor control. Our results suggest that higher levels of reduced cell surface thiols are a key characteristic of T cells that can control tumor growth and that profiling this biomarker may have benefits to adoptive T-cell immunotherapy protocols. Cancer Res; 74(21); 6036-47. ©2014 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Utility of a Monitoring Strategy for Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 Viremia After Liver Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 has been linked to various posttransplant adverse events through immunomodulatory effects. The potential utility of monitoring for HHV-6 and HHV-7 viremia remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of infectious disease consultation on the clinical and economic outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients admitted for infectious complications.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There has been a paucity of data on the healthcare resource utilization of infectious disease-related complications in solid organ transplant recipients. The aims of this study were to report the clinical and economic burden of infectious disease-related complications, along with the impact of infectious disease consultation.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic hypothermia post-cardiac arrest: a clinical nurse specialist initiative in Pakistan.
Clin Nurse Spec
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this project was to assess the feasibility of an evidence-based therapeutic hypothermia protocol in adult post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients in a university hospital in Pakistan.
Related JoVE Video
Immune correlates of protection in human invasive aspergillosis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protective immunity against Aspergillus depends on a highly coordinated interaction between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Fungal recognition via pattern recognition receptors, such as pentraxin 3, dectin-1, and Toll-like receptors, leads to complement activation, phagocytosis, and killing of ingested fungi. Aspergillus-specific T-helper 1 and 17 cells produce cytokines such as interferon ? and interleukin 17, which facilitate macrophage activation and neutrophil recruitment, respectively. Genetic (or drug-induced) defects in components of these networks of antifungal immunity result in increased risk of invasive aspergillosis after chemotherapy or transplantation. We review the most important genetic, immunological, and pharmacological factors that influence human susceptibility to Aspergillus and discuss the potential role of immune biomarkers in risk stratification strategies that facilitate individualized antifungal therapy/prophylaxis in immunocompromised hosts.
Related JoVE Video
Scintigraphic Evaluation of Decontamination Lotion for Removal of Radioactive Contamination From Skin.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skin contamination is one of the most likely risks after accidental or occupational radiological accidents. Using scintigraphy, we assessed a topical lotion for its decontamination efficacy (DE) after exposure with short-lived medical radioisotopes technetium Tc 99m (99mTc) and thallium 201Tl (201Tl).
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced dissolution and bioavailability of grapefruit flavonoid Naringenin by solid dispersion utilizing fourth generation carrier.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Context: Naringenin (NRG), the aglycone flavonoid present in grapefruits, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-lipid peroxidation and hepato-protective effects. However, it is poorly soluble in water and exhibits slow dissolution after oral ingestion, thus restricting its therapeutic efficacy. Objective: With the aim to enhance the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of NRG, solid dispersion technique has been applied using Soluplus® as carrier. Methods: Solid dispersions of NRG were prepared by solvent evaporation and kneading methods using various ratios (1:4, 3:7, 2:3 and 1:1) of NRG:Carrier. Characterization of the optimized formulations was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The in vivo behavior of the optimized formulations was also investigated in Wistar Albino rats. Results: NRG solid dispersion showed a significantly higher solubility and drug dissolution rate than pure NRG (p?
Related JoVE Video
FR-190997, a nonpeptide bradykinin B2-receptor partial agonist, is a potent and efficacious intraocular pressure lowering agent in ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys.
Drug Dev. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preclinical Research FR-190997 (8-[2,6-dichloro-3-[N-[(E)-4-(N-methylcarbamoyl) cinnaminoacetyl]-N-methylamino]benzyloxy]-2-methyl-4- (2-pyridylmethoxy) quinoline), a nonpeptide bradykinin (BK) B2-receptor-selective agonist, represents a novel class of ocular hypotensive agents. FR-190997 exhibited a high affinity for the human cloned B2-receptor (Ki?=?9.8?nM) and a relatively high potency (EC50?=?155?nM) for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in human ocular cells from nonpigmented ciliary epithelium; trabecular meshwork [h-TM]; ciliary muscle [h-CM] that are involved in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP). Unlike BK, FR-190997 behaved as a partial agonist (Emax?=?38-80%) in these cells and its [Ca(2+)]i-mobilizing effects were blocked by the B2-receptor-selective antagonists (HOE-140, Ki?=?0.8-7?nM; WIN-64338, Ki?=?157-425?nM). FR-190997 stimulated the production of prostaglandins (PGs) in h-CM and h-TM cells (EC50?=?15-19?nM; Emax?=?27-33%); an effect that was reduced by the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor bromfenac, and by HOE-140. FR-190997 also induced pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 release from h-CM cells. FR-190997 significantly lowered IOP (37% [P?
Related JoVE Video
Elevated CXCL10 (IP-10) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is associated with acute cellular rejection after human lung transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CXCL10 (IP-10) is a potent chemoattractant for T cells that has been postulated to play a role in infection and acute cellular rejection (ACR) in animal models. We measured CXCL10 (IP-10) (and other cytokines previously implicated in the pathogenesis of ACR) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) to determine the association between CXCL10 (IP-10) and ACR in LTRs.
Related JoVE Video
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of the poorly water-soluble grapefruit flavonoid Naringenin: design, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Naringenin (NRG), predominant flavanone in grapefruits, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, hepato-protective and anti-lipid peroxidation effects. Slow dissolution after oral ingestion due to its poor solubility in water, as well as low bioavailability following oral administration, restricts its therapeutic application. The study is an attempt to improve the solubility and bioavailability of NRG by employing self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery technique. Preliminary screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, based on solubilization and emulsification efficiency of the components. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the area of nanoemulsification. The developed self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were evaluated in term of goluble size, globule size distribution, zeta potential, and surface morphology of nanoemulsions so obtained. The TEM analysis proves that nanoemulsion shows a droplet size less than 50?nm. Freeze thaw cycling and centrifugation studies were carried out to confirm the stability of the developed SNEDDS. In vitro drug release from SNEDDS was significantly higher (p?
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for late-onset cytomegalovirus infection or disease in kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CMV-D+/R- serostatus is the only well-established risk factor for late-onset cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease (i.e., incident CMV infection/disease after cessation of prophylactic antiviral therapy). This study aimed to explore other potential risk factors for late-onset CMV infection/disease in kidney transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production by ?-Opioid Receptors during Glaucomatous Injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the roles of nitric oxide in glaucomatous injury and its regulation by ?-opioid-receptor activation, animals were treated with: 1) a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (aminoguanidine; AG; 25 mg/kg, i.p.); 2) ?-opioid-receptor agonist (SNC-121; 1 mg/kg, i.p.); or 3) with both drugs simultaneously for 7 days, once daily. The loss in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) numbers and their function in glaucomatous eyes were significantly improved in the presence of AG or SNC-121; however, we did not see any significant additive or synergistic effects when animals were treated with both drugs simultaneously. The levels of nitrate-nitrite were significantly increased in the glaucomatous retina when compared with normal retina (normal retina 86±9 vs. glaucomatous retina 174±10 mM/mg protein), which was reduced significantly when animals were treated either with SNC-121 (121±7 mM/mg protein; P<0.05) or AG (128±10 mM/mg protein; P<0.05). Additionally, SNC-121-mediated reduction in nitrate-nitrite levels was not only blocked by naltrindole (a ?-opioid-receptor antagonist), but naltrindole treatment potentiated the nitrate-nitrite production in glaucomatous retina (235±4 mM/mg protein; P<0.001). As expected, naltrindole treatment also fully-blocked SNC-121-mediated retina neuroprotection. The nitrotyrosine level in the glaucomatous retina was also increased, which was significantly reduced in the SNC-121-treated animals. Additionally, the expression level of iNOS was clearly increased over the control levels in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerves, which was also reduced by SNC-121 treatment. In conclusion, our data support the notion that nitric oxide plays a detrimental role during glaucomatous injury and inhibition of nitric oxide production provided RGC neuroprotection. Furthermore, ?-opioid receptor activation regulates the production of nitric oxide via inhibiting the activity of iNOS in the retina and optic nerve.
Related JoVE Video
Interferon-gamma (IFN-?)-mediated retinal ganglion cell death in human tyrosinase T cell receptor transgenic mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have recently demonstrated the characterization of human tyrosinase TCR bearing h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model, which exhibits spontaneous autoimmune vitiligo and retinal dysfunction. The purpose of current study was to determine the role of T cells and IFN-? in retina dysfunction and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death using this model. RGC function was measured by pattern electroretinograms (ERGs) in response to contrast reversal of patterned visual stimuli. RGCs were visualized by fluorogold retrograde-labeling. Expression of CD3, IFN-?, GFAP, and caspases was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. All functional and structural changes were measured in 12-month-old h3T-A2 mice and compared with age-matched HLA-A2 wild-type mice. Both pattern-ERGs (42%, p = 0.03) and RGC numbers (37%, p = 0.0001) were reduced in h3T-A2 mice when compared with wild-type mice. The level of CD3 expression was increased in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 174 ± 27% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.04). The levels of effector cytokine IFN-? were also increased significantly in h3T-A2 mice (h3T-A2: 189 ± 11% vs. HLA-A2: 100%; p = 0.023). Both CD3 and IFN-? immunostaining were increased in nerve fiber (NF) and RGC layers of h3T-A2 mice. In addition, we have seen a robust increase in GFAP staining in h3T-A2 mice (mainly localized to NF layer), which was substantially reduced in IFN-? ((-/-)) knockout h3T-A2 mice. We also have seen an up-regulation of caspase-3 and -9 in h3T-A2 mice. Based on our data we conclude that h3T-A2 transgenic mice exhibit visual defects that are mostly associated with the inner retinal layers and RGC function. This novel h3T-A2 transgenic mouse model provides opportunity to understand RGC pathology and test neuroprotective strategies to rescue RGCs.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-Aspergillus Prophylaxis in Lung Transplantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Curr Infect Dis Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aspergillus is the most common cause of invasive fungal infection in lung transplant recipients. Most transplant centers employ routine antifungal prophylaxis to prevent the development of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We identified 22 studies from the literature to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis, in order to assess the development of IA and Aspergillus colonization with and without antifungal prophylaxis. Similarly, differences in the toxicities of different formulations of amphotericin-B and azoles were analyzed. Nineteen of 235 (8.1 %) and 28 of 196 (14.3 %) developed IA in the universal prophylaxis and no-prophylaxis arms, respectively (RR: 0.36, CI: 0.05-2.62). We did not find a significant reduction in IA or Aspergillus colonization with universal anti-aspergillus prophylaxis. There was no difference in the adverse events of inhaled amphotericin-B deoxycholate and lipid formulations of inhaled amphotericin-B. However, voriconazole was more hepatotoxic than itraconazole. These results should be interpreted with caution due to heterogeneity of the studies. A multicenter randomized controlled trial is warranted to assess the efficacy of anti-aspergillus prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.
Related JoVE Video
Delta-opioid receptors attenuate TNF-?-induced MMP-2 secretion from human ONH astrocytes.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined the signaling mechanisms involved in ?-opioid-receptor agonist, SNC-121-mediated attenuation of TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) secretion from human optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Immune reconstitution syndrome-like entity in lung transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Incidence, characteristics, and risk-factors for invasive aspergillosis (IA)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS) in lung transplant recipients are not known.
Related JoVE Video
Mold infections in lung transplant recipients.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fungal infections continue to produce morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients despite the widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis. There has been a decline in Candida infections but Aspergillus species predominate. Other mold pathogens including Fusarium, Scedosporium, and Zygomycetes also cause infections in lung transplant recipients. Furthermore, the widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has prompted a delay in onset of Aspergillus infection in lung transplant recipients. Pulmonary parenchymal disease has become the most common manifestation of invasive aspergillosis. Among the risk factors pre- or posttransplant Aspergillus colonization is the most important risk factor reported in several retrospective studies. Recently posttransplant colonization has been implicated in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Other factors that have been reported include preceding cytomegalovirus infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and single-lung transplantation. The risk factors for other mold infections such as Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Zygomycetes are not well studied. The best antimold prophylaxis strategy and choice of drug remains to be elucidated. Most lung transplant centers use either voriconazole or inhaled amphotericin preparations. However, data have emerged regarding the increased risk of squamous cell cancer in lung transplant recipients on voriconazole prophylaxis. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis have resulted in a significant decrease in mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Community-acquired respiratory viral infections in lung transplant recipients.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-acquired respiratory virus (CARV) infections are a significant cause of morbidity and sometimes mortality in lung transplant recipients (LTRs); this review will focus on the most recent advances in this field.
Related JoVE Video
Skin decontamination cream for radiological contaminants: Formulation development and evaluation.
Int J Pharm Investig
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased use of the radioactive materials in the field of research, medical, nuclear power plant, and industry has increased the risk of accidental exposure. Intentional use of the radioisotopes by terrorist organizations could cause exposure/contamination of a number of the population. In view of the accidental contamination, there is a need to develop self-usable decontamination formulations that could be used immediately after contamination is suspected.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral montelukast in acute asthma exacerbation.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are well established in the management of outpatient asthma. However, there is very little information as to their role in acute asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that LTRAs may accelerate lung function recovery when given in an acute exacerbation.
Related JoVE Video
Cytomegalovirus infection post-pancreas-kidney transplantation--results of antiviral prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen affecting solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Prophylactic strategies have decreased the rate of CMV infection/disease among SOT. However, data on the effect of current prophylactic strategies for simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) or pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant remain limited. We report our experience of CMV prophylaxis in SPK/PAK recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Delta-opioid agonist SNC-121 protects retinal ganglion cell function in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined if the delta-opioid (?-opioid) receptor agonist, SNC-121, can improve retinal function and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival during glaucomatous injury in a chronic ocular hypertensive rat model.
Related JoVE Video
Relationships between maternal ethnicity, gestational age, birth weight, weight gain, and severe retinopathy of prematurity.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop an algorithm that allows advanced identification of infants requiring treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors and outcomes in lung transplant recipients with nodular invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether nodular lesions have specific risk-factors or influence outcomes in lung transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis, is not fully known.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacoeconomic assessment of therapy for invasive aspergillosis.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Economic expenditures prompted by this invasive fungal infection (IFI) are significant. Although, the duration and associated costs of hospitalization comprise the largest proportion of costs in large surveillance studies, the newer oral antifungal agents may impact significantly on these costs. A review of the pharmacoeconomic (PE) studies is provided focussing on primary therapy, salvage therapy, empiric therapy and prophylaxis for IA. PE evaluations have demonstrated the cost effectiveness and dominance of voriconazole for targeted primary treatment of IA compared with other available agents. Differences in the drug choice and analytic methodology of the PE analyses of empiric antifungal strategy hamper definitive conclusions about the agents employed as empiric antifungal that may be directed at suspected IA although both caspofungin and voriconazole appear to be cost effective and dominant over liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB), whereas LAmB is more costly than conventional amphotericin B. Posaconazole is the most cost-effective agent for antifungal prophylaxis against IFI and IA.
Related JoVE Video
Protein expression, biochemical pharmacology of signal transduction, and relation to intraocular pressure modulation by bradykinin B? receptors in ciliary muscle.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the bradykinin (BK) B?-receptor system in human and monkey ciliary muscle (CM) using immunohistochemical techniques, and to pharmacologically characterize the associated biochemical signal transduction systems in human CM (h-CM) cells. BK-induced modulation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in pigmented Dutch-Belt rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys was also studied.
Related JoVE Video
Small polaron hopping conduction mechanism in Fe doped LaMnO3.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structural and electrical transport properties of LaMn(1-x)Fe(x)O(3) (0.1 ? x ? 0.6) bulk samples have been investigated. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns at room temperature show that all samples are formed in single phase. The temperature dependent resistivity data have been fitted with the Motts variable-range hopping (VRH) model for an entire studied range of the temperature (77-300 K) to calculate the hopping distance (R(h)) and the density of states at Fermi level (N(E(F))). It is found that all parameters vary systematically with the increase in Fe concentration. Moreover, the resistivity data were also fitted in the small polaron hopping (SPH) model. The non-adiabatic SPH conduction mechanism is followed by all samples. This type conduction mechanism is far accompanied by subtle electronically induced structural changes involving in Fe-O-Fe and Fe-O-Mn bond angles and bond lengths. Thus we suggest that the transport properties can be explained according to the additional localization of charge carriers induced by Fe doping.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR panels for rapid detection of respiratory viral infections.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Respiratory viral infections are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in children, the elderly and immunocompromised persons. Rapid identification of viral etiology is critical in ruling out non-viral infections, initiating antiviral treatment and limiting the spread of the infection. Multiplex assays of more than one viral gene target in a single tube have the advantage of rapid screening of a large number of potential viral pathogens in a short time. A multiplex real-time PCR assay was used in this study for detection of respiratory RNA and DNA viral infections in 728 specimens received from 585 adult and pediatric patients comprised of symptomatic and asymptomatic organ transplant recipients and non-recipients for diagnosis of respiratory illnesses and for routine clinical monitoring. Multiplex PCR was more sensitive than the multiplex immunofluoresence culture assay (R-mix) and also detected additional respiratory viruses that were not covered by the R-mix panel. The number of respiratory viruses detected in symptomatic patients was significantly higher than asymptomatic patients in both adult and pediatric patients. Herpesviral infections were the predominant cause of lower respiratory tract infection in the organ transplant recipients, whereas respiratory syncytial virus was the most common pathogen in non-transplant patients particularly children. Multiplex real-time PCR for detection of respiratory viruses has the potential for rapid identification of viral pathogens. In this era of emerging viral infections, addition of newer viral targets to the multiplex PCR panels will be beneficial in determining both patient management and public health epidemiology.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients and nonimmunocompromised patients with pandemic H1N1 infection: a retrospective cohort study.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pandemic H1N1 influenza has been associated with a worldwide outbreak of febrile respiratory illness. Although impaired cell mediated immunity, such as that caused by transplant immunosuppression, has been identified as a risk factor for severe infection with this virus, the course of this infection has not been adequately characterized in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in comparison with nontransplanted controls. We report our experience with severe pH1N1 infection in transplant recipients and compare this group with nonimmunosuppressed patients.
Related JoVE Video
Opioid receptor activation: suppression of ischemia/reperfusion-induced production of TNF-? in the retina.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The detrimental role of TNF-? in ischemia-induced tissue damage is known. The authors study examined whether opioid receptor activation alters TNF-? levels in the postischemic retina.
Related JoVE Video
Intrapulmonary disposition of amphotericin B after aerosolized delivery of amphotericin B lipid complex (Abelcet; ABLC) in lung transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhaled amphotericin preparations have been used for prophylaxis against invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. However, no published data exist regarding the pharmacokinetic profile of amphotericin B lipid complex in lung transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of infection risks prior to lung transplantation.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Pretransplant evaluation can identify patients at risk of infectious complications and guide prophylactic strategies post transplantation. This review focuses on studies published from 2006 to the present that relate to the assessment of risk of infection prior to lung transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Fungi and molds following lung transplantation.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The landscape of fungal infections in lung transplant recipients has significantly changed over the course of time. The initial predominance of CANDIDA species has given way to the prominence of ASPERGILLUS species in the current era followed by other mold infections, namely, SCEDOSPORIUM and Zygomycetes, which are emerging as newer pathogens. CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS is another important pathogen responsible for the morbidity in lung transplant recipients. The use of widespread antifungal prophylaxis directed against the mold infections has resulted in delayed onset of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. In recent studies cumulative incidence rate of invasive aspergillosis was noted to be 2.4% at 12 months. Invasive mold infections in lung transplant may present as tracheobronchitis, invasive pulmonary infections, or disseminated disease. Invasive pulmonary infections are now the most common manifestations of mold infections, followed by tracheobronchitis. Pre- or posttransplant ASPERGILLUS colonization, along with preceding cytomegalovirus infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and single-lung transplants are considered significant risk factors for invasive aspergillosis. Recently posttransplant colonization has been implicated in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The appropriate antimold prophylaxis strategy, by the use of either voriconazole or inhaled amphotericin, remains to be fully determined. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis have resulted in significant decreases in mortality. The risk factors for other mold infections such as SCEDOSPORIUM or Zygomycetes are being elucidated. Infections with these organisms, however, carry mortality up to 80%. The current article reviews the changes in the epidemiology of invasive molds and CRYPTOCOCCUS infections and other emerging fungal pathogens and highlights the controversies surrounding antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of central nervous system cryptococcosis vary with host immune function: results from a multi-center, prospective study.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is most commonly encountered among HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed hosts but is less well-characterized among non-immunosuppressed patients.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of histone deacetylase protects the retina from ischemic injury.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PURPOSE. The pathogenesis of retinal ischemia results from a series of events involving changes in gene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Protein acetylation is an essential mechanism in regulating transcriptional and inflammatory events. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective action of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) in a retinal ischemic model. METHODS. To investigate whether HDAC inhibition can reduce ischemic injury, rats were treated with TSA (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) twice daily on days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Seven days after ischemic injury, morphometric and electroretinographic (ERG) analyses were used to assess retinal structure and function. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were used to evaluate TSA-induced changes in histone-H3 acetylation and MMP secretion. RESULTS. In vehicle-treated animals, ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly reduced compared with contralateral responses. In addition, histologic examination of these eyes revealed significant degeneration of inner retinal layers. In rats treated with TSA, amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves from ischemic eyes were significantly increased, and normal inner retina morphology was preserved. Ischemia also increased the levels of retinal TNF-alpha, which was blocked by TSA treatment. In astrocyte cultures, the addition of TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) stimulated the secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-3, which were blocked by TSA (100 nM). CONCLUSIONS. These studies provide the first evidence that suppressing HDAC activity can protect the retina from ischemic injury. This neuroprotective response is associated with the suppression of retinal TNF-alpha expression and signaling. The use of HDAC inhibitors may provide a novel treatment for ischemic retinal injury.
Related JoVE Video
Cutaneous cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant recipients.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes of cutaneous cryptococcosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are not fully defined. In a prospective cohort comprising 146 SOT recipients with cryptococcosis, we describe the presentation, antifungal therapy, and outcome of cutaneous cryptococcal disease. Cutaneous cryptococcosis was documented in 26/146 (17.8%) of the patients and manifested as nodular/mass (34.8%), maculopapule (30.4%), ulcer/pustule/abscess (30.4%), and cellulitis (30.4%) with 65.2% of the skin lesions occurred in the lower extremities. Localized disease developed in 30.8% (8/26), and disseminated disease in 69.2% (18/26) with involvement of the central nervous system (88.9%, 16/18), lung (33.3%, 6/18), or fungemia (55.6%, 10/18). Fluconazole (37.5%) was employed most often for localized and lipid formulations of amphotericin B (61.1%) for disseminated disease. Overall mortality at 90 days was 15.4% (4/26) with 16.7% in disseminated and 12.5% in localized disease (P = 0.78). SOT recipients who died were more likely to have renal failure (75.0% vs. 13.6%, P = 0.028), longer time to onset of disease after transplantation (87.5 vs. 22.6 months, P = 0.023), and abnormal mental status (75% vs. 13.6%, P = 0.028) than those who survived. Cutaneous cryptococcosis represents disseminated disease in most SOT recipients and preferentially involves the extremities. Outcomes with appropriate management were comparable between SOT recipients with localized and disseminated cryptococcosis.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective molecular surveillance study evaluating the clinical impact of community-acquired respiratory viruses in lung transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community-acquired respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are common in lung transplant patients and may be associated with acute rejection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). The use of sensitive molecular methods that can simultaneously detect a large panel of respiratory viruses may help better define their effects.
Related JoVE Video
Identifying predictors of central nervous system disease in solid organ transplant recipients with cryptococcosis.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is often deferred in patients with cryptococcal disease, particularly in the absence of neurologic manifestations. We sought to determine whether a subset of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with high likelihood of central nervous system (CNS) disease could be identified in whom CSF analysis must be performed.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
The novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic: unique considerations for programs in cardiothoracic transplantation.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza virus highlights unique aspects of transplant care that will require heightened vigilance in coming months. Recognition of the syndrome, aggressive diagnosis and early treatment should be paired with active preventative measures to stem the impact of infection in the transplant population. This special advisory addresses issues relevant to cardiothoracic transplant candidates, selection of donors, recipient management and those patients with mechanical circulatory support devices.
Related JoVE Video
Wegeners granulomatosis: a diagnostic challenge.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wegeners Granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that primarily involves small vessels in the body. Patient usually presents in the fourth to fifth decade. The clinical presentation is variable; however, majority of patients (90%) seek medical attention for nasal and sinus symptoms with or without lower respiratory symptoms of cough, dyspnoea and haemoptysis. The typical form of WG tends to involve the triad of upper and lower respiratory tract and the kidneys; while involvement of other organs like ocular, cutaneous, rheumatological, neural, gastrointestinal and lower genito-urinary tract is occasionally seen. A "limited" form with clinical findings isolated to the upper respiratory tract or lungs, occur in approximately one-fourth of cases. We present a case of Wegeners Gmnulomatosis in an eighty five year old lady who presented with an acute pneumonia-like illness. She underwent an extensive work-up to reach a definitive diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics, management and outcome of major pulmonary embolism: an experience from a tertiary care center in Pakistan.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the clinical characteristics, risk factors, management and outcome of major pulmonary embolism (PE) in a tertiary care center of Karachi.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) is one of the most common helminthic infections of humans, affecting mainly children and malnourished individuals residing in developing countries. It is estimated the 25% of the worlds population is infected with this nematode. Infection occurs via ingestion of water and food contaminated by Ascaris eggs, causing asymptomatic infection to disease with abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and faecal passage of worms. The present report concerns an unusual case in which AL travelled retrograde and lodged in the vocal cords causing upper airway obstruction leading to asystolic cardiac arrest.
Related JoVE Video
Cabergoline: Pharmacology, ocular hypotensive studies in multiple species, and aqueous humor dynamic modulation in the Cynomolgus monkey eyes.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aims of the current studies were to determine the in vitro and in vivo ocular and non-ocular pharmacological properties of cabergoline using well documented receptor binding, cell-based functional assays, and in vivo models. Cabergoline bound to native and/or human cloned serotonin-2A/B/C (5HT(2A/B/C)), 5HT(1A), 5HT(7), alpha(2B), and dopamine-2/3 (D(2/3)) receptor subtypes with nanomolar affinity. Cabergoline was an agonist at human recombinant 5HT(2), 5HT(1A) and D(2/3) receptors but an antagonist at 5HT(7) and alpha(2) receptors. In primary human ciliary muscle (h-CM) and trabecular meshwork (h-TM) cells, cabergoline stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis (EC(50)=19+/-7 nM in TM; 76 nM in h-CM) and intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) mobilization (EC(50)=570+/-83 nM in h-TM; EC(50)=900+/-320 nM in h-CM). Cabergoline-induced [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization in h-TM and h-CM cells was potently antagonized by a 5HT(2A)-selective antagonist (M-100907, K(i)=0.29-0.53 nM). Cabergoline also stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization more potently via human cloned 5HT(2A) (EC(50)=63.4+/-10.3 nM) than via 5HT(2B) and 5HT(2C) receptors. In h-CM cells, cabergoline (1 microM) stimulated production of pro-matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3 and synergized with forskolin to enhance cAMP production. Cabergoline (1 microM) perfused through anterior segments of porcine eyes caused a significant (27%) increase in outflow facility. Topically administered cabergoline (300-500 microg) in Dutch-belted rabbit eyes yielded 4.5 microMM and 1.97 microM levels in the aqueous humor 30 min and 90 min post-dose but failed to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP). However, cabergoline was an efficacious IOP-lowering agent in normotensive Brown Norway rats (25% IOP decrease with 6 microg at 4h post-dose) and in conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys (peak reduction of 30.6+/-3.6% with 50 microg at 3h post-dose; 30.4+/-4.5% with 500 microg at 7h post-dose). In ketamine-sedated monkeys, IOP was significantly lowered at 2.5h after the second topical ocular dose (300 microg) of cabergoline by 23% (p<0.02) and 35% (p<0.004) in normotensive and ocular hypertensive eyes, respectively. In normotensive eyes, cabergoline increased uveoscleral outflow (0.69+/-0.7 microL/min-1.61+/-0.97 microL/min, n=13; p<0.01). However, only seven of the eleven ocular hypertensive monkeys showed significantly increased uveoscleral outflow. These data indicate that cabergolines most prominent agonist activity involves activation of 5HT(2), 5HT(1A), and D(2/3) receptors. Since 5HT(1A) agonists, 5HT(7) antagonists, and alpha(2) antagonists do not lower IOP in conscious ocular hypertensive monkeys, the 5HT(2) and dopaminergic agonist activities of cabergoline probably mediated the IOP reduction observed with this compound in this species.
Related JoVE Video
Unique characteristics of fungal infections in lung transplant recipients.
Clin. Chest Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article focuses on the unique clinical features of prevalent fungal infections and their management implications in lung transplant recipients. Topics include epidemiology, risk factors, clinical syndromes, non invasive diagnostic methods and antifungal prophylaxis. The article not only highlights the current state of knowledge in these areas but also points towards future direction of research to conquer fungal infections in lung transplants.
Related JoVE Video
Opioid receptor-activation: retina protected from ischemic injury.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In nonocular systems, activation of opioid receptors has been shown to ameliorate tissue damage induced by ischemic stress. The current study was an investigation of whether opioid receptors activated by endogenous or exogenous agonists can ameliorate ischemic retinal injury.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of association between beta-herpesvirus infection and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients in the era of antiviral prophylaxis.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus-6 and -7 (HHV-6 and -7) are beta-herpesviruses that commonly reactivate and have been proposed to trigger acute rejection and chronic allograft injury. We assessed the contribution of these viruses in the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed onset CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is estimated that three-quarters of all patients undergoing solid organ transplantation experience new infection or reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV). The adoption of universal antiviral prophylactic strategies among high risk patients has significantly reduced the incidence of CMV infection and disease over the first three months. However, depending on the type of transplant and the pretransplant donor-recipient CMV serostatus, up to 30% of patients may develop disease after three months (late disease), or at any time later than 1-2 years following transplantation (very late disease). The occurrence of late and very late CMV, referred to here as delayed onset CMV, places patients at risk for malignancy, graft loss and mortality. Clinical management of delayed onset CMV disease may be complicated by the presentation of nonspecific or atypical symptoms. The potential for missed diagnoses may be compounded by the long term management of patients by healthcare professionals who do not practice transplantation as a primary specialty. The current clinical goal is to ensure excellent long term outcomes among transplant recipients. Therefore, the present review will discuss the natural history and risk factors, as well as the therapeutic strategies relevant to the occurrence and management of late and very late CMV disease following solid organ transplantation in adults.
Related JoVE Video
Assessment of cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity for the prediction of cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk solid-organ transplant recipients: a multicenter cohort study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease remains an important problem in solid-organ transplant recipients, with the greatest risk among donor CMV-seropositive, recipient-seronegative (D(+)/R(-)) patients. CMV-specific cell-mediated immunity may be able to predict which patients will develop CMV disease.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics and outcome associated with pandemic (2009) H1N1 influenza infection in patients with hematologic malignancies: a retrospective cohort study.
Leuk. Lymphoma
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza has been associated with a worldwide outbreak of febrile respiratory illness. Although impaired immunity, such as that caused by hematologic malignancy, has been identified as a risk factor for severe infection with this virus, the course of this infection has not been adequately characterized in patients with underlying hematologic malignancy in comparison with immune competent controls. We report our experience with severe pH1N1 infection in patients with hematologic cancers and compare this group to non-immunosuppressed patients. Data were retrospectively collected on all patients admitted to our institution with confirmed pH1N1 infection. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes were compared between patients with hematologic malignancies and non-immunocompromised controls. Fifteen patients with hematologic malignancy and 49 controls were identified. The control group had higher baseline rates of asthma (p = 0.01) and smoking (p = 0.05) at baseline. Clinical features of infection in the two groups were similar, except for a higher prevalence of abnormalities on chest imaging in the group with malignancy (p = 0.05). No statistically significant difference in mortality was observed between the groups. Mean duration of hospitalization (22.1 days vs. 9.2 days, p = 0.04) and duration of antiviral treatment (9.9 days vs. 6.7 days, p < 0.05) were greater in the hematologic malignancy group. Hospitalized patients with hematologic malignancies with pH1N1 infection had greater durations of hospitalization and treatment than non-immunocompromised controls, possibly reflecting decreased clearance of the virus as a consequence of impaired immunity.
Related JoVE Video
A coreceptor-independent transgenic human TCR mediates anti-tumor and anti-self immunity in mice.
J. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent advancements in T cell immunotherapy suggest that T cells engineered with high-affinity TCR can offer better tumor regression. However, whether a high-affinity TCR alone is sufficient to control tumor growth, or the T cell subset bearing the TCR is also important remains unclear. Using the human tyrosinase epitope-reactive, CD8-independent, high-affinity TCR isolated from MHC class I-restricted CD4(+) T cells obtained from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) of a metastatic melanoma patient, we developed a novel TCR transgenic mouse with a C57BL/6 background. This HLA-A2-restricted TCR was positively selected on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive cells. However, when the TCR transgenic mouse was developed with a HLA-A2 background, the transgenic TCR was primarily expressed by CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells. TIL 1383I TCR transgenic CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells were functional and retained the ability to control tumor growth without the need for vaccination or cytokine support in vivo. Furthermore, the HLA-A2(+)/human tyrosinase TCR double-transgenic mice developed spontaneous hair depigmentation and had visual defects that progressed with age. Our data show that the expression of the high-affinity TIL 1383I TCR alone in CD3(+) T cells is sufficient to control the growth of murine and human melanoma, and the presence or absence of CD4 and CD8 coreceptors had little effect on its functional capacity.
Related JoVE Video
Non-analgesic effects of opioids: neuroprotection in the retina.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inadequate blood flow in the retina (ischemia) is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness. Retinal ischemia plays a pivotal role in a number of ocular degenerative diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and retinal artery occlusion. The sequence of events by which ischemia leads to retinal degeneration are not completely understood, but likely involve both necrotic and apoptotic processes. A variety of diverse chemical mediators (e.g., glutamate, oxygen free-radical, nitric oxide, and proinflammatory cytokines) have been implicated as participants in ischemic retinal injury. In the eye, experimental and/or clinical evidence has suggested roles for endogenous opioids and their receptors in the regulation of iris function, aqueous humor dynamics, corneal wound healing, and retinal development and neuroprotection. In numerous vital organs, opioid receptor activation prior to ischemia or severe hypoxia is neuroprotective. Recently, activation of opioid-receptors, particularly ?-opioid-receptors (DOR), has been demonstrated to suppress several steps in the deleterious cascade of events during ischemic/hypoxic stress. In providing neuroprotection against ischemia, opioid-receptor activation appears to block proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, and glutamate excitotoxicity. Depending on duration and severity of cellular stress, DOR activation can trigger different mechanisms at multiple levels to preserve neuronal survival, including: stabilized ionic homeostasis, augmented pro-survival signaling (e.g., PKC, ERK, PI3K/Akt) and enhanced anti-oxidative capacity. This review will summarize the potential roles of opioids in protecting the viability of ocular tissues. Special emphasis will be focused on enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of opioid actions in protecting the retina against ischemic/hypoxic injury.
Related JoVE Video
Preservation of retina ganglion cell function by morphine in a chronic ocular-hypertensive rat model.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The current study examined if opioid-receptor-activation by morphine can improve retinal function and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) integrity in a chronic glaucoma rat model.
Related JoVE Video
Pretransplant Aspergillus Colonization of Cystic Fibrosis Patients and the Incidence of Post-Lung Transplant Invasive Aspergillosis.
Transplantation
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing lung transplant. Cystic fibrosis-lung transplant recipients (CF-LTRs) may be at greater risk of IA following lung transplantation because of the presence of Aspergillus in their airways before transplantation. This study evaluated the impact of pretransplant Aspergillus colonization on the risk for IA among CF-LTRs.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.