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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Revisiting pneumonia and exposure status in infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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HIV-exposed uninfected infants are an increasing population. Past analyses have often categorized these infants as uninfected leading to inaccurate conclusions. We present a HIV exposure, rather than infection, based reanalysis of treatment failure among children with pneumonia to show that failure odds among HIV-exposed uninfected infants are intermediate between their unexposed and infected counterparts. Additional prospective studies aimed at better understanding this population are needed.
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Estimates of possible severe bacterial infection in neonates in sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America for 2012: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Bacterial infections are a leading cause of the 2·9 million annual neonatal deaths. Treatment is usually based on clinical diagnosis of possible severe bacterial infection (pSBI). To guide programme planning, we have undertaken the first estimates of neonatal pSBI, by sex and by region, for sub-Saharan Africa, south Asia, and Latin America.
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Systematic review on antibiotic therapy for pneumonia in children between 2 and 59 months of age.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a force to reckon with, as it accounts for 1.1 million of all deaths in children less than 5 years of age globally, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in the low and middle income-countries (LMICs) of Southeast Asia and Africa. Existing strategies to curb pneumonia-related morbidity and mortality have not effectively translated into meaningful control of pneumonia-related burden. In the present systematic review, we conducted a meta-analysis of trials conducted in LMICs to determine the most suitable antibiotic therapy for treating pneumonia (very severe, severe and non-severe). While previous reviews, including the most recent review by Lodha et al, have focused either on single modality of antibiotic therapy (such as choice of antibiotic) or children under the age of 16 years, the current review updates evidence on the choice of drug, duration, route and combination of antibiotics in children specifically between 2 and 59 months of age. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the route, dose, combination and duration of antibiotics in the management of WHO-defined very severe/severe/non-severe CAP. Study participants included children between 2 and 59 months of age with CAP. All available titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion by two review authors independently. All data was entered and analysed using Review Manager 5 software. The review identified 8122 studies on initial search, of which 22 studies which enrolled 20,593 children were included in meta-analyses. Evidence from these trials showed a combination of penicillin/ampicillin and gentamicin to be effective for managing very severe pneumonia in children between 2 and 59 months of age, and oral amoxicillin to be equally efficacious, as other parenteral antibiotics for managing severe pneumonia in children of this particular age group. Oral amoxicillin was also found to be effective in non-severe pneumonia as well. The review further found a short 3 day course of antibiotics to be equally beneficial as 5 day course for managing non-severe pneumonia in children between 2 and 59 months of age. This review updates evidence on the general spectrum of antibiotic recommendation for CAP in children between 2 and 59 months of age, which is an age group that warrants special focus owing to its high disease and mortality burden. Evidence derived from the review found oral amoxicillin to be equally effective as parenteral antibiotics for severe pneumonia in the 2-59 month age group, which holds important implications for LMICs where parenteral drug administration is an issue. Also, the review's finding that 3 day course of antibiotic is equally effective as 5 day course for non-severe pneumonia for 2-59 months of age is again beneficial for LMICs, as a shorter therapy will be associated with a lower cost. The review addresses some research gaps in antibiotic treatment for CAP as well, and this crucial information is presented with the aim of providing a targeted cure for the middle and low income setting.
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Childhood anemia at high altitude: risk factors for poor outcomes in severe pneumonia.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in young children globally, and factors that affect tissue delivery of oxygen may affect outcomes of pneumonia. We studied whether altitude and anemia influence disease severity and outcomes in young children with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia.
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Scientific rationale for study design of community-based simplified antibiotic therapy trials in newborns and young infants with clinically diagnosed severe infections or fast breathing in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Newborns and young infants suffer high rates of infections in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Timely access to appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential for reducing mortality. In an effort to develop community case management guidelines for young infants, 0-59 days old, with clinically diagnosed severe infections, or with fast breathing, 4 trials of simplified antibiotic therapy delivered in primary care clinics (Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya and Nigeria) or at home (Bangladesh and Nigeria) are being conducted.
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Ongoing trials of simplified antibiotic regimens for the treatment of serious infections in young infants in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa: implications for policy.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The current World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for treatment of severe infection in young infants is hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic therapy. Hospital care is generally not available outside large cities in low- and middle-income countries and even when available is not acceptable or affordable for many families. Previous research in Bangladesh and India demonstrated that treatment outside hospitals may be possible.
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Ensuring quality in AFRINEST and SATT: clinical standardization and monitoring.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Three randomized open-label clinical trials [Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT) Bangladesh, SATT Pakistan and African Neonatal Sepsis Trial (AFRINEST)] were developed to test the equivalence of simplified antibiotic regimens compared with the standard regimen of 7 days of parenteral antibiotics. These trials were originally conceived and designed separately; subsequently, significant efforts were made to develop and implement a common protocol and approach. Previous articles in this supplement briefly describe the specific quality control methods used in the individual trials; this article presents additional information about the systematic approaches used to minimize threats to validity and ensure quality across the trials.
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An innovative multipartner research program to address detection, assessment and treatment of neonatal infections in low-resource settings.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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In pursuit of innovative approaches for the management of severe infections in young infants, which is a major cause of mortality, a multipartner research program was conceptualized to provide right care in the right place. The primary objective was to generate evidence and identify a simple, safe and effective treatment regimen for young infants with severe infections that can be provided closer to home by trained health workers where referral is not possible.
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Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The recent series of reviews conducted within the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) addressed epidemiology of the two deadly diseases at the global and regional level; it also estimated the effectiveness of interventions, barriers to achieving high coverage and the main implications for health policy. The aim of this paper is to provide the estimates of childhood pneumonia at the country level. This should allow national policy-makers and stakeholders to implement proposed policies in the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF member countries.
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Follow-up of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis to determine its long-term sequelae.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To measure physical and neurologic impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis on surviving children through short- and long-term follow-up.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: a prospective validation study in Pakistan and Bangladesh on measuring correct treatment of childhood pneumonia.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Antibiotic treatment for pneumonia as measured by Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) is a key indicator for tracking progress in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4. Concerns about the validity of this indicator led us to perform an evaluation in urban and rural settings in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
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Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%), the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool). Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.
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Bottlenecks, barriers, and solutions: results from multicountry consultations focused on reduction of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Millions of children still die unnecessarily from pneumonia and diarrhoea, mainly in resource-poor settings. A series of collaborative consultations and workshops involving several hundred academic, public health, governmental and private sector stakeholders were convened to identify the key barriers to progress and to issue recommendations. Bottlenecks impairing access to commodities included antiquated supply management systems, insufficient funding for drugs, inadequate knowledge about interventions by clients and providers, health worker shortages, poor support for training or retention of health workers, and a failure to convert national policies into action plans. Key programmatic barriers included an absence of effective programme coordination between and within partner organisations, scarce financial resources, inadequate training and support for health workers, sporadic availability of key commodities, and suboptimal programme management. However, these problems are solvable. Advocacy could help to mobilise needed resources, raise awareness, and prioritise childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths in the coming decade.
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Use of a pneumonia management tool to manage children with pneumonia at the first level health care facilities.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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To describe the application and evaluation of Pneumonia Management Tool (PMT) to manage children with non-severe pneumonia (NSP) at the first level health care (FLHC) facilities according to the standard case management (SCM) guidelines for acute respiratory infections (ARI).
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Community case management of severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in children aged 2-59 months in Haripur district, Pakistan: a cluster randomised trial.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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First dose oral co-trimoxazole and referral are recommended for WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Difficulties with referral compliance are reported in many low-resource settings, resulting in low access to appropriate treatment. The objective in this study was to assess whether community case management by lady health workers (LHWs) with oral amoxicillin in children with severe pneumonia was equivalent to current standard of care.
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Systematic review on the etiology and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children.
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5 versus 10 days of treatment with ceftriaxone for bacterial meningitis in children: a double-blind randomised equivalence study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but the duration of treatment is not well established. We aimed to compare the efficacy of 5 and 10 days of parenteral ceftriaxone for the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children.
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Outpatient treatment of children with severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in four countries: the MASS study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated home-based treatment of WHO-defined severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin was equivalent to hospital-based therapy and parenteral antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether this finding is generalizable across four countries.
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Analyzing media coverage of the global fund diseases compared with lower funded diseases (childhood pneumonia, diarrhea and measles).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Pneumonia, diarrhea and measles are the leading causes of death in children worldwide, but have a disproportionately low share of international funding and media attention. In comparison, AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria--diseases that also significantly affect children--receive considerably more funding and have relatively high media coverage. This study investigates the potential relationship between media agenda setting and funding levels in the context of the actual burden of disease.
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Why is continuum of care from home to health facilities essential to improve perinatal survival?
Semin. Perinatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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The period around the time of delivery is extremely hazardous for infants in developing countries. After the first week the risk drops sharply, and survival improves markedly. To reduce perinatal mortality, a continuum of care between the home and the various facilities is essential during pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period. This paper reviews strategies to promote the establishment of this continuum: providing health care within or close to home by frontline workers and increasing the use of services in health facilities through community mobilization and financing strategies. As perinatal care and care for seriously sick children face common challenges and lessons could be learned from successful strategies for management of other illnesses, this paper also reviews intervention models involving community health workers (CHWs) to improve case management of sick children at the household and community levels. Available evidence suggests that the community strategy with the greatest impact on neonatal mortality is home visits by CHWs combined with community mobilization. The same strategy appears to be effective in increasing health facility utilization. An equally effective strategy for increasing health facility utilization seems to be financing health care to remove financial access barriers, particularly using conditional cash transfers or vouchers. Although the availability of information on the effect of community interventions to improve newborn health has increased in the recent past, significant gaps remain. Information on the effectiveness of strategies in different settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, cost-effectiveness and sustainability are particularly needed and should be gathered in future studies.
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Disease profile of children under 5 years attending primary health care clinics in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2010
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To describe the presenting complaints and disease profile of children attending primary health care (PHC) clinics in two provinces of South Africa.
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The utility of rapid antigen detection testing for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in low-resource settings.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
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To evaluate the utility of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) for the diagnosis of group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in pediatric outpatient clinics in four countries with varied socio-economic and geographic profiles.
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The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden.
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Routine checks for HIV in children attending primary health care facilities in South Africa: attitudes of nurses and child caregivers.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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Management of HIV-infected and exposed children is challenging for health workers in primary care settings. Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is a WHO/UNICEF strategy for improving morbidity and mortality in under 5 children attending first level facilities in developing countries. In high HIV-prevalence settings, IMCI includes an HIV component for identification and management of HIV-infected and exposed children, which requires health workers to ask all mothers about their HIV status and check all children for signs of HIV. Effective implementation of the HIV component depends on the ability and willingness of health workers to take every opportunity to identify HIV-infected children during routine care, and implementation in South Africa is poor. In 2006, we conducted 10 focus groups in two provinces in South Africa with IMCI-trained nurses, and with mothers attending first level facilities, to determine their attitudes towards, and experiences of, routine checks for HIV during consultations with sick children. Nurses were frequently unwilling to check for HIV in all children, believing it was unnecessary, unacceptable to mothers, and that they lack skills to implement HIV care. Nurses feared mothers would become upset or make a complaint. Mothers consistently recognised the importance of checking children for HIV and supported implementation of routine checks, although the attitude of the nurse was important in determining the acceptability of HIV-related questions. Mothers expressed fears about lack of confidentiality from nurses, and that receiving HIV-related services could lead to unintentional disclosure of their HIV status. Nurses lack the skills in HIV management and communication skills to implement the HIV component of IMCI. We identify issues relate to improved training, clear policies on record keeping, and organization of health services to respect privacy and confidentiality, to improve the willingness of health workers to provide HIV care and mothers to accept it.
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A clinical tool to predict failed response to therapy in children with severe pneumonia.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Severe pneumonia in children under 5 years of age continues to be an important clinical entity with treatment failure rates as high as 20%. Where severe pneumonias are common, predictive tools for treatment failure like chest radiography and pulse oximetry are not available or affordable. Thus, there is a need for development of simple, accurate and inexpensive clinical tools for prediction of treatment failure. Using clinical, chest radiographic and pulse oximetry data from 1702 children recruited in the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (APPIS) trial we developed and validated a simple clinical tool. For development, a randomly derived development sample (n = 889) was used. The tool which was based on the results of multivariate logistic regression models was validated on a separate sample of 813 children. The derived clinical tool in its final form contained three clinical predictors: age of child, excess age-specific respiratory rate at baseline and at 24 hr of hospitalization. This tool had a 70% and 66% predictive accuracy in the development and validation samples, respectively. The tool is presented as an easy-to-use nomogram. It is possible to predict the likelihood of treatment failure in children with severe pneumonia based on clinical features that are simple and inexpensive to measure.
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Efficacy of short course (<4 days) of antibiotics for treatment of acute otitis media in children: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Indian Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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To determine the efficacy of a short course of antibiotics (<4 days) in comparison to a longer course (>4 days) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children.
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Recommendations for treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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WHO recommendations for early antimicrobial treatment of childhood pneumonia have been effective in reducing childhood mortality, but the last major revision was over 10 years ago. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new pneumonia pathogens, and new drugs have prompted WHO to assemble an international panel to review the literature on childhood pneumonia and to develop evidence-based recommendations for the empirical treatment of non-severe pneumonia among children managed by first-level health providers. Treatment should target the bacterial causes most likely to lead to severe disease, including Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. The best first-line agent is amoxicillin, given twice daily for 3-5 days, although co-trimoxazole may be an alternative in some settings. Treatment failure should be defined in a child who develops signs warranting immediate referral or who does not have a decrease in respiratory rate after 48-72 h of therapy. If failure occurs, and no indication for immediate referral exists, possible explanations for failure should be systematically determined, including non-adherence to therapy and alternative diagnoses. If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age.
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Experiences of training and implementation of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the IMCI case management training course.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity in children under-5 years by improving management of common illnesses at primary level. IMCI has been shown to improve health worker performance, but constraints have been identified in achieving sufficient coverage to improve child survival, and implementation remains sub-optimal. At the core of the IMCI strategy is a clinical guideline whereby health workers use a series of algorithms to assess and manage a sick child, and give counselling to carers. IMCI is taught using a structured 11-day training course that combines classroom work with clinical practise; a variety of training techniques are used, supported by comprehensive training materials and detailed instructions for facilitators.
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Paediatric HIV management at primary care level: an evaluation of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines for HIV.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a WHO/UNICEF strategy to improve child survival in resource poor settings. South Africa adopted IMCI in 1997, and IMCI guidelines were adapted to include identification and management of HIV infected and exposed children. This study describes the validity of the IMCI/HIV algorithm when used by IMCI experts, the use of IMCI/HIV guidelines by IMCI trained health workers in routine clinical practice, and the burden of HIV among children under 5 years attending first level health facilities.
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Neurodevelopmental sequelae in pneumococcal meningitis cases in Bangladesh: a comprehensive follow-up study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Evaluation of the long-term impact of pneumococcal meningitis on surviving children and their families is critical to fully comprehending the burden of pneumococcal disease and to facilitating an evidence-based decision for the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine. This study was an investigation of the short- and long-term impacts of pneumococcal meningitis among Bangladeshi children.
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An evaluation of the quality of IMCI assessments among IMCI trained health workers in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is a strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity in children under 5 years by improving case management of common and serious illnesses at primary health care level, and was adopted in South Africa in 1997. We report an evaluation of IMCI implementation in two provinces of South Africa.
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Low rates of treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months treated for severe pneumonia: a multisite pooled analysis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2-59 months with World Health Organization-defined severe pneumonia.
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Household costs for treatment of severe pneumonia in Pakistan.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for severe pneumonia treatment of under-5 children recommend hospital referral. However, high treatment cost is a major barrier for communities. We compared household costs for referred cases with management by lady health workers (LHWs) using oral antibiotics. This study was nested within a cluster randomized trial in Haripur, Pakistan. Data on direct and indirect costs were collected through interviews and record reviews in the 14 intervention and 14 control clusters. The average household cost/case for a LHW managed case was $1.46 compared with $7.60 for referred cases. When the cost of antibiotics provided by the LHW program was excluded from the estimates, the cost/case came to $0.25 and $7.51 for the community managed and referred cases, respectively, a 30-fold difference. Expanding severe pneumonia treatment with oral amoxicillin to community level could significantly reduce household costs and improve access to the underprivileged population, preventing many child deaths.
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Frequency and trajectory of abnormalities in respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation in severe pneumonia in children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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The frequency or trajectory of vital sign abnormalities in children with pneumonia has not been described. In a cohort of 2714 patients with severe pneumonia identified and treated as per the World Health Organization definition and recommendations, tachypnea, fever and hypoxia were found in 68.9%, 23.6% and 15.5% of children, respectively. Median oxygen saturation returned to a normal range by 10 hours following initiation of treatment, followed by temperature at 12 hours and respiratory rate at 22 hours for subjects <12 months and at 48 hours for those ? 12 months of age.
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Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-2 childhood meningitis in Bangladesh: a newly recognized pneumococcal infection threat.
PLoS ONE
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Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis in countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeting commonly occurring serotypes are not routinely used. However, effectiveness of PCV would be jeopardized by emergence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by serotypes which are not included in PCV. Systematic hospital based surveillance in Bangladesh was established and progressively improved to determine the pathogens causing childhood sepsis and meningitis. This also provided the foundation for determining the spectrum of serotypes causing IPD. This article reports an unprecedented upsurge of serotype 2, an uncommon pneumococcal serotype, without any known intervention.
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Antibiotic and systemic therapies for pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children.
J Infect Dev Ctries
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children. Administration of appropriate empirical antimicrobial and/or adjunctive systemic therapies may improve clinical outcomes.
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Effectiveness of community case management of severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in children aged 2-59 months in Matiari district, rural Pakistan: a cluster-randomised controlled trial.
Lancet
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Pneumonia is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. In Pakistan, the proportion of deaths due to pneumonia is higher in rural areas than it is in urban areas, with a substantial proportion of individuals dying at home because referral for care is problematic in such areas. We aimed to establish whether community case identification and management of severe pneumonia by oral antibiotics delivered through community health workers has the potential to reduce the number of infants dying at home.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.