In clinic, some urinary protein makers can dynamically and noninvasively reflect the degree of renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). These urinary biomarkers of tubular damage are broadly divided into two categories. One is newfound, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), neutrophil getatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and cystatin C (CysC); the other one is classical, including beta2 microglobulin (beta2-MG), retinal binding protein (RBP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). It is reported that, the increases in urinary protein markers are not only closely related to the damage of tubular epithelial cells in DN patients, but also can be ameliorated by the treatment with Chinese herbal compound preparations or Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, although urinary proteomics are used in the protein separation and identification, the traditional associated detection of urinary protein markers is more practical in clinic. At present, it is possible that the associated detection of urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular damages may be a feasible measure to reveal the clinical significance of urinary protein markers in DN patients and the interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine.
Nestin exhibits stemness characteristics and is overexpressed in several types of cancers. Downstream signaling of nestin [cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)] functions in cancer to modulate cellular behaviors. We studied the function of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and cDNA microarray of nestin in ampullary adenocarcinoma was compared with normal duodenum. CDK5 and Rac1 were assessed by western blotting. We hypothesized that nestin/CDK5/Rac1 signaling behaves different in early and advanced cancer. We found that the presence of nestin mRNA was increased in the early stages of cancer (T2N0 or T3N0) and advanced cancer with lymph node metastasis (T4N1). A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the IHC staining. Weak nestin expression was correlated with favorable characteristics of cancer, decreased incidence of local recurrence and lower risk of recurrence within 12 months after surgery. Patients with weak nestin expression had the most favorable recurrence?free survival rates. Patients with mild to strong nestin expression exhibited an advanced behavior of cancer and increased possibility of cancer recurrence. The reciprocal expression of nestin and RAC1 were explored using a cDNA microarray analysis in the early stages of ampullary adenocarcinoma. Increased level of CDK5 with simultaneously decreased expression of Rac1 was detected by western blotting of ampullary adenocarcinoma in patients without cancer recurrence. The activation of multiple oncogenic pathways, combined with the stemness characteristics of nestin, formed a complex network in advanced ampullary adenocarcinoma. Our study demonstrated that nestin performs a dual role in ampullary adenocarcinoma. Appropriate amount of nestin enhances CDK5 function to suppress Rac1 and excessive nestin/CDK5 participates in multiple oncogenic pathways to promote cancer invasiveness. Inhibiting nestin in patients who exhibit nestin?overexpressed ampullary adenocarcinoma may be a method of preventing cancer recurrence.
Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin?embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/?-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer.
Mucin 2 (MUC2) is the major secreted mucin of the large intestine and is expressed by adenomas and mucinous carcinomas. Since colon cancer is associated with a proinflammatory microenvironment and dysregulated MUC2 expression, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of MUC2 gene expression in colon tumor progression using colonic cancer cells. CT26 colon cancer cells were stably transfected with MUC2 siRNA (MUC2 RNAi) or a control construct containing a nonspecific sequence (scrambled RNAi). Expression of MUC2 was significantly decreased in the MUC2 RNAi cell clones. Although MUC2 suppression did not affect the cell growth of colon cancer cells in vitro, MUC2 knockdown promoted tumor growth in an orthotopic colon cancer model in vivo. MUC2 silencing also increased interleukin (IL)-6 secretion by colon cancer cells. IL-6 neutralization attenuated tumor formation by MUC2 RNAi cells; it also increased CD8 T cell infiltration into the peritoneum. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that the immune response to cancer cells plays an important role in tumor growth regulated by MUC2. Furthermore, given the effects of MUC2 on IL-6 secretion, its targeting may represent a potentially useful strategy to treat colonic carcinomas.
Thermal ablation by using electromagnetic thermotherapy (EMT) has been a promising cancer modality in recent years. It has relatively few side effects and has therefore been extensively investigated for a variety of medical applications in internal medicine and surgery. The EMT system applies a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field to heat up the needles which are inserted into the target tumor to cause tumor ablation. In this study, a new synchronized-coil EMT system was demonstrated, which was equipped with two synchronized coils and magnetic field generators to provide a long-range, penetrated electromagnetic field to effectively heat up the needles. The heating effect of the needles at the center of the two coils was first explored. The newly designed two-section needle array combined with the synchronized-coil EMT system was thus demonstrated in the in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. Experimental data showed that the developed system is promising for minimally invasive surgery since it might provide superior performance for thermotherapy in cancer treatment.
This paper presents a copyright identification scheme for color images that takes advantage of the complementary nature of watermarking and fingerprinting. It utilizes an authentication logo and the extracted features of the host image to generate a fingerprint, which is then stored in a database and also embedded in the host image to produce a watermarked image. When a dispute over the copyright of a suspect image occurs, the image is first processed by watermarking. If the watermark can be retrieved from the suspect image, the copyright can then be confirmed; otherwise, the watermark then serves as the fingerprint and is processed by fingerprinting. If a match in the fingerprint database is found, then the suspect image will be considered a duplicated one. Because the proposed scheme utilizes both watermarking and fingerprinting, it is more robust than those that only adopt watermarking, and it can also obtain the preliminary result more quickly than those that only utilize fingerprinting. The experimental results show that when the watermarked image suffers slight attacks, watermarking alone is enough to identify the copyright. The results also show that when the watermarked image suffers heavy attacks that render watermarking incompetent, fingerprinting can successfully identify the copyright, hence demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.
IL-1? is readily detectable in numerous joint inflammations. It can change the transcriptomic signature of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of arthritis toward promoting migration and invasion that are relevant to arthritis progression. We hypothesize that IL-1? partially contributes to the onset of osteoarthritis (OA). We compared the tissue samples from OA and fracture subjects and found that IL-1? expression was significantly higher in the OA synovium, while TNF-? expression showed no significance. We demonstrated that IL-1? significantly increases the IL-6 and IL-8 secretions of human normal FLS; however, IL-1? does not induce TNF secretion. With metabolic labeling based proteomics and pathway analysis, we found that IL-1? significantly increases the TNF downstream protein expression in FLS even with complete absence of TNF and/or blocking of the NF-?B pathway. Among these proteins, we verified that p62 can differentiate the OA from fracture synovitis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that IL-1? can amplify the TNF downstream protein signals in human synoviocytes in a TNF-independent manner; in addition, p62 is a potential FLS biomarker for synovitis.
BackgroundIncreased activity or expression of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which regulates cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, leads to oncogenesis. We identified the molecular basis for the regulation of ILK and its alternative role in conferring ERK1/2/NF-¿B-mediated growth advantages to gastric cancer cells.ResultsInhibiting ILK with short hairpin RNA or T315, a putative ILK inhibitor, abolished NF-¿B-mediated the growth in the human gastric cancer cells AGS, SNU-1, MKN45, and GES-1. ILK stimulated Ras activity to activate the c-Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/ribosomal S6 kinase/inhibitor of ¿B¿/NF-¿B signaling by facilitating the formation of the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1)¿Ras complex. Forced enzymatic ILK expression promoted cell growth by facilitating ERK1/2/NF-¿B signaling. PI3K activation or decreased PTEN expression prolonged ERK1/2 activation by protecting ILK from proteasome-mediated degradation. C-terminus of heat shock cognate 70 interacting protein, an HSP90-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediated ILK ubiquitination to control PI3K- and HSP90-regulated ILK stabilization and signaling. In addition to cell growth, the identified pathway promoted cell migration and reduced the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to the anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Additionally, exogenous administration of EGF as well as overexpression of EGFR triggered ILK- and IQGAP1-regulated ERK1/2/NF-¿B activation, cell growth, and migration.ConclusionAn increase in ILK non-canonically promotes ERK1/2/NF-¿B activation and leads to the growth of gastric cancer cells.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes brain injury via glutamate excitotoxicity, which leads to an excessive Ca(2+) influx and this starts an apoptotic cascade. Memantine has been proven to reduce brain injury in several types of brain insults. This study investigated the neuro-protective potential of memantine after SAH and explored the underlying mechanisms. An endovascular perforation rat model of SAH was used and Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into sham surgery, SAH?+?vehicle, and SAH?+?memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the neuro-behavioral functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neuronal cell preservation. The mechanisms of action of memantine, with its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonistic characteristics on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and peroxynitrite formation, were also investigated. The apoptotic cascade after SAH was suppressed by memantine. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression, peroxynitrite formation, and subsequent oxidative/nitrosative stress were also reduced. Memantine effectively preserved BBB integrity, rescued neuronal injury, and improved neurological outcome in experimental SAH. Memantine has neuro-protective potential in experimental SAH and may help combat SAH-induced brain damage in the future.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoprotein expressed by neoplastic cells involved in the malignant potential and aggressive phenotypes of human malignancies, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Our previous study showed that OPN can promote tumor cell proliferation in GISTs. In this series, we further aim to investigate the effect of OPN on apoptosis in GISTs.
The interactions between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can promote tumor progression, maintain the CSCs population, and reduce therapeutic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the coexpression of CSCs and TAMs and its clinical significance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Synthetic genetic circuits are programmed in living cells to perform predetermined cellular functions. However, designing higher-order genetic circuits for sophisticated cellular activities remains a substantial challenge. Here we program a genetic circuit that executes Pavlovian-like conditioning, an archetypical sequential-logic function, in Escherichia coli. The circuit design is first specified by the subfunctions that are necessary for the single simultaneous conditioning, and is further genetically implemented using four function modules. During this process, quantitative analysis is applied to the optimization of the modules and fine-tuning of the interconnections. Analogous to classical Pavlovian conditioning, the resultant circuit enables the cells to respond to a certain stimulus only after a conditioning process. We show that, although the conditioning is digital in single cells, a dynamically progressive conditioning process emerges at the population level. This circuit, together with its rational design strategy, is a key step towards the implementation of more sophisticated cellular computing.
Tongue squamous cells carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common type in oral cancers. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that miR-219 was significantly downregulated in TSCC tissues and cell lines. miR-219 overexpression remarkably suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells. In addition, protein kinase CI (PRKCI) was identified as a target of miR-219, and overexpression of PRKCI could significantly attenuated the tumor suppressive effects of miR-219. Furthermore, PRKCI inversely correlates with miR-219 in TSCC tissues. Taken together, miR-219 inhibited growth and metastasis by targeting PRKCI and might be used as a potential target for the treatment of TSCC.
. Initial evidence suggests that the integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is strongly related to motor function in the chronic state but not the treatment gain induced by motor rehabilitation.
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally, and is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. About three-quarters of newly diagnosed cases in 2008 were from Asian countries. With a high mortality-to-incidence ratio, management of gastric cancer is challenging. We discuss evidence for optimum management of gastric cancer in aspects of screening and early detection, diagnosis, and staging; endoscopic and surgical intervention; and the concepts of perioperative, postoperative, and palliative chemotherapy and use of molecularly targeted therapy. Recommendations are formulated on the basis of the framework provided by the Breast Health Global Initiative, using the categories of basic, limited, enhanced, and maximum level. We aim to provide a stepwise strategy for management of gastric cancer applicable to different levels of health-care resources in Asian countries.
The ideal antimicrobial treatment for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in the setting of fast-paced emergency departments (EDs) should be effective, convenient, and of limited resource utilization. Antibiotic monotherapy is a feasible option for this. We conducted a study in which we compared two regimens for antibiotic monotherapy recommended by published guidelines in ED patients with community-acquired, complicated IAIs (cIAIs).
Many patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) develop recurrent or metastatic diseases after surgery, so it is important to identify those most likely to benefit from aggressive therapy. Disruption of tissue microarchitecture is an early step in pancreatic tumorigenesis and a parameter used in pathology grading of glandular tumors. We investigated whether changes in gene expression during pancreatic epithelial morphogenesis were associated with outcomes of patients with PDAC after surgery.
Loss of RUNX3 expression is frequently observed in gastric cancer and is highly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of gastric cancer remain unknown. In this study, we found that the protein levels of RUNX3 and osteopontin (OPN) are inversely correlated in gastric cancer clinical specimens and cell lines. Furthermore, similar inverse trends between RUNX3 and OPN messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were demonstrated in six out of seven normal-tumor-paired gastric cancer clinical specimens. In addition, low RUNX3 and high OPN expression were associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-RUNX3 reduced OPN protein and mRNA expression in the AGS and SCM-1 gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of RUNX3 in GES-1, a normal gastric epithelial cell line, increased OPN expression. Although three RUNX3-binding sequences have been identified in the OPN promoter region, direct binding of RUNX3 to the specific binding site, -142 to -137bp, was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The binding of RUNX3 to the OPN promoter significantly decreased OPN promoter activity. The knockdown of OPN or overexpression of RUNX3 inhibited cell migration in AGS and SCM-1 cells; however, the coexpression of RUNX3 and OPN reversed the RUNX3-reduced migration ability in AGS and SCM-1 cells. In contrast, the knockdown of both RUNX3 and OPN inhibited RUNX3-knockdown-induced migration of GES-1 cells. Together, our data demonstrated that RUNX3 is a transcriptional repressor of OPN and that loss of RUNX3 upregulates OPN, which promotes migration in gastric cancer cells.
Thermal ablation has been a promising method to remove the cancerous tissues. Electromagnetic-based thermotherapy has been extensively investigated for a variety of medical applications recently. In this study, a prototype electromagnetic thermotherapy system has been developed with a new coil design and a two-section needle. The coil can generate an alternating electromagnetic field (EMF) with a deep penetration depth to remotely heat the needle which is located up to 15 cm away, enabling percutaneous thermal ablation. Several important parameters, including the heating effects of the needle at different positions, the intensity of the EMF and the induced temperature distribution on the surrounding tissue, are first explored. An in vitro animal experiment has also been performed which shows EMF-induced ablation in a porcine liver by the needle. Furthermore, an in vivo experiment on an animal model (a New Zealand white rabbit) is also conducted in the study. Thus, the two-section needle combined with the coil-generated EMF has been demonstrated to be a promising thermotherapy system for percutaneous thermal ablation.
T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which produce interleukin 17 (IL-17), are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Th17 cells have been detected in many Fas ligand-positive tumors. This study investigates the expression of Th17-related genes in PHA/IL-2-activated human T cells upon Fas ligation. Activated T cells transiently express ROR?t, IL-17A, and IL-17F. A subsequent Fas receptor stimulation or contact with FasL-expressing glioma cells significantly prolongs the induction of ROR?t and Th17-related cytokines. Treatments with inhibitors of caspase-1 and Stat3 reduce the Fas-signal-associated induction of ROR?t, IL-17A, and IL-17F, as well as the phosphorylation of Stat3. Although the ligation of Fas results in caspase-8 cleavage and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, inhibitors for caspase-8 and MEK have no effect on the expressions of ROR?t, IL-17A, and IL-17F. The results suggest that the Fas signal favors the Th17-phenotypic features of human T cells through the caspase-1/Stat3 signaling pathway.
We assess the corticomuscular coherence (CMC) of the contralateral primary motor cortex and the hand muscles during a finger force-tracking task and explore whether the pattern of finger coordination has an impact on the CMC level. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women) were recruited to conduct the force-tracking tasks comprising two finger patterns, i.e., natural combination of index and middle fingers and unnatural combination of index and middle fingers (i.e., simultaneously producing equal force strength in index and middle finger). During the conducting of the tasks with right index and middle finger, MEG and sEMG signals were recorded from left primary motor cortex (M1) and right flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), respectively; the contralateral CMC was calculated to assess the neuromuscular interaction. Finger force-tracking tasks of Common-IM only induce beta-band CMC, whereas Uncommon-IM tasks produce CMC in both beta and low-gamma band. Compared to the force-tracking tasks of Common-IM, the Uncommon-IM task is associated with the most intensive contralateral CMC. Our study demonstrated that the pattern of finger coordination had significant impact on the CMC between the contralateral M1 and hand muscles, and more corticomuscular interaction was necessary for unnaturally coordinated finger activities to regulate the fixed neural drive of hand muscles.
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibits FSH-stimulated follicle growth and aromatase activity. The three fold higher serum AMH in PCOS patients may account for the increased number of small follicles and androgen level. We attempted to determine whether polymorphisms in AMH gene were associated with PCOS in Chinese han population.
Recent evidence suggests that immobilization of the upper limb for 2-3 weeks induces changes in cortical thickness as well as motor performance. In constraint induced (CI) therapy, one of the most effective interventions for hemiplegia, the non-paretic arm is constrained to enforce the use of the paretic arm in the home setting. With the present study we aimed to explore whether non-paretic arm immobilization in CI therapy induces structural changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere, and how these changes are related to treatment benefit. 31 patients with chronic hemiparesis participated in CI therapy with (N = 14) and without (N = 17) constraint. Motor ability scores were acquired before and after treatment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was obtained prior to treatment. Cortical thickness was measured with the Freesurfer software. In both groups cortical thickness in the contralesional primary somatosensory cortex increased and motor function improved with the intervention. However the cortical thickness change was not associated with the magnitude of motor function improvement. Moreover, the treatment effect and the cortical thickness change were not significantly different between the constraint and the non-constraint groups. There was no correlation between fractional anisotropy changes in the non-lesioned hemisphere and treatment outcome. CI therapy induced cortical thickness changes in contralesional sensorimotor regions, but this effect does not appear to be driven by the immobilization of the non-paretic arm, as indicated by the absence of differences between the constraint and the non-constraint groups. Our data does not suggest that the arm immobilization used in CI therapy is associated with noticeable cortical thinning.
Advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a KIT oncogene-driven tumor, on imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment may develop secondary KIT mutations to confer IM-resistant phenotype. Second-line sunitinib malate (SU) therapy is largely ineffective for IM-resistant GISTs with secondary exon 17 (activation-loop domain) mutations. We established an in vitro cell-based platform consisting of a series of COS-1 cells expressing KIT cDNA constructs encoding common primary±secondary mutations observed in GISTs, to compare the activity of several commercially available tyrosine kinase inhibitors on inhibiting the phosphorylation of mutant KIT proteins at their clinically achievable plasma steady-state concentration (Css). The inhibitory efficacies on KIT exon 11/17 mutants were further validated by growth inhibition assay on GIST48 cells, and underlying molecular-structure mechanisms were investigated by molecular modeling. Our results showed that SU more effectively inhibited mutant KIT with secondary exon 13 or 14 mutations than those with secondary exon 17 mutations, as clinically indicated. On contrary, at individual Css, nilotinib and sorafenib more profoundly inhibited the phosphorylation of KIT with secondary exon 17 mutations and the growth of GIST48 cells than IM, SU, and dasatinib. Molecular modeling analysis showed fragment deletion of exon 11 and point mutation on exon 17 would lead to a shift of KIT conformational equilibrium toward active form, for which nilotinib and sorafenib bound more stably than IM and SU. In current preclinical study, nilotinib and sorafenib are more active in IM-resistant GISTs with secondary exon 17 mutation than SU that deserve further clinical investigation.
Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection.
Supramolecular aggregation and disaggregation induced by external stimuli can impact the optical or electrical signals of the aggregates/constituting units (receptors). Therefore, manipulating supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation has recently been employed to construct novel and promising photoluminescence (PL)-based sensing and recognition systems. The sensing systems were capable of substantially enhancing the sensitivity, relying on cooperative interactions occurring in the assembly/disassembly processes (mostly operating in emission turned-on or emission-enhanced mode). This review focuses mainly on recent advances in the new emerging PL-based sensing platforms, based on manipulating the behaviours of supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation, including aggregation-induced emission (AIE), metallophilic interactions-related sensing (metallophilic interactions-induced aggregation/disaggregation), metal coordination polymers-related sensing, and other sensing systems involving supramolecular aggregation/disaggregation. In particular, those sensing systems developed by scientists in China are summarized and highlighted.
A ratiometric luminescent sensing of Ag(+) ion is developed via the Ag(I)-NCys coordination polymeric luminophore in situ formed in aqueous solution upon mixing Ag(+) ion with the designed fluorescent thiol ligand NCys.
The HECT-type ubiquitin ligase (E3) Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) targets various substrates, including Smad1/5, RhoA, Prickle 1, MEKK2, and JunB for degradation and thereby regulates adult bone formation and embryonic development. Here, we identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Wolfram syndrome protein (WFS1) as a specific degradation substrate of Smurf1. Mutations in the WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. WFS1 negatively regulates the ER stress response, and WFS1 deficiency in mice increases ER stress and triggers apoptosis. We show that Smurf1 interacts with WFS1 at the ER and promotes the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of WFS1. A C-terminal luminal region in WFS1, including residues 667-700, is involved in this degradation. Wild-type WFS1 as well as a subset of WFS1 mutants that include this degron region are susceptible to Smurf1-mediated degradation. By contrast, pathophysiological deletion mutants of WFS1 lacking the degron, such as W648X, Y660X, and Q667X, are resistant to degradation by Smurf1. Depletion of Smurf1 by RNA interference results in increased WFS1 and decreased ATF6? levels. Furthermore, we show that ER stress induces Smurf1 degradation and WFS1 up-regulation. These findings reveal for the first time that Smurf1 targets an ER-localized protein for degradation and that Smurf1 is regulated by ER stress.
Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) has been demonstrated to be essential for normal lung development, erythroid differentiation, T-cell differentiation, migration and homing. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of KLF2, in particular its responsible E3 ligase is still unclear. Here we show that the homologous to E6AP carboxyl terminus (HECT)-type ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1) interacts with and targets KLF2 for poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation specifically in lung cancer H1299 cells. The catalytic ligase activity of Smurf1 is required for it to regulate KLF2. Consequently, Smurf1 represses the transcriptional factor activity of KLF2 and regulates the expression its downstream genes such as CD62L and Wee1. This study provided the first evidence that Smurf1 functions as an E3 ligase to promote the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of KLF2.
Using chitosan (CS)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 for the reconstruction of rabbits mandible defect, to prove the feasibility of CS/beta-TCP as an injectable bone tissue engineering scaffold material.
We found that Ag(I) could serve as a "bridging agent" for triggering sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) solution to form a hydrogel which enabled Ag nanocrystals to be in situ produced and encapsulated into the stable gel matrix by means of photoreduction; the conceptual system could act as a novel signaling platform for thiol-containing amino acids or small peptides, operating in a "self-assembly and disassembly" model.
A detailed investigation of the absorption and CD signals of Ag(I)-cysteine (Cys) aqueous solutions at buffered or varying pH has allowed us to suggest that coordination polymers are formed upon mixing Ag(I) and Cys bearing a Ag(I)-Cys repeat unit. The formation of the coordination polymers are shown to be facilitated by both the Ag(I)···Ag(I) interaction and the interaction between the side chains in the polymeric backbone. The former allows for an immediate spectral sensing of Cys with enantiomeric discrimination capacity with both high sensitivity and selectivity, and the contribution of the side-chain/side-chain interaction serves to guide extended sensing applications by means of modulating this interaction. With our preliminary data on the corresponding Cu(I)-Cys and Au(I)-Cys systems that exhibited similar spectral signals, we conclude that the M(I)-SR coordination polymers (M = Cu, Ag, or Au) could in general function as spectral sensing ensembles for extended applications. This sensing ensemble involves the formation of coordination polymers with practically no spectral background, thus affording high sensing sensitivity and selectivity.
To evaluate the feasibility of routine inclusion of levels II and III in neck dissection to treat the occult neck metastasis as elective treatment for supraglottic cancer with clinically node negative (cN0).
Influenza is a major threat to millions of people worldwide. Vaccines and antiviral agents are two main options available to reduce the impact of the influenza virus, while anti-influenza agents are the most effective means to prevent the transmission of the highly contagious virus and to treat the epidemics of disease. At present, four anti-influenza agents have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of influenza, including two M2 protein ion channel inhibitors-amantadine and rimantadine and two neuraminidase inhibitors-zanamivir and oseltamivir. Arbidol hydrochloride, launched in Russia, is a potent inhibitor of influenza virus, too. Neuraminidase inhibitors could be classified generally by structure into six different kinds: sialic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, cyclohexene derivatives, cyclopentane derivatives, pyrrolidine derivatives and natural products. In this paper, recent progress in the research of the action mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of these anti-influenza virus agents were reviewed.
We found that melamine in its protonated form could be triggered by oxoanions such as NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), ATP, and SO(4)(2-) to form superstructures and to gelate a large amount of water molecules, presumably resulting from the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions operating in a synergistic manner; the gelation can be reversibly switched off/on by increasing/decreasing pH or temperature.
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote cancer cell proliferation and distant metastases. Osteopontin (OPN) is overexpressed in several human cancer cells and in TAMs. Therefore, we set out to determine the role of OPN-expressing macrophages in cancer.
We report a novel example of ligand-chirality finely controlled in situ supramolecular hydrogel formation based on the coordination of phenylalanine (Phe) to Cu(II) with higher selectivity over other metal ions. As decreasing both enantiomeric excesses (ee%) of ligand Phe towards its D- and L-forms, the gelation ability of Phe-Cu(II) supramolecular metallogelator was found to be weakened and eventually disappeared, which likely resulted from the stereoselectivity of the ligand Phe. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and/or pi-pi stacking interactions were also found to be essential for forming the metallogel. We believe that the present work can open up a new entry for developing novel and promising chiral sensing and recognition platforms, i.e. visually sensing chiral molecules by naked eyes due to the feature of a sol-to-gel transition induced smartly by varying the ligand chirality.
Hg(2+) was found to specifically induce the aggregation of perylene bisimide in a "thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine" binding motif and the resultant aggregates showed a highly selective and sensitive turn-on fluorescence response for cysteine, with a detection limit down to 9.6 nM.
With diffusion-tensor imaging (DTi) it is possible to estimate the structural characteristics of fiber bundles in vivo. This study used DTi to infer damage to the corticospinal tract (CST) and relates this parameter to (a) the level of residual motor ability at least 1 year poststroke and (b) the outcome of intensive motor rehabilitation with constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT).
Substantially enhanced monosaccharide fluorescent sensing in aqueous solutions using a simple phenylboronic acid receptor is achieved by coupling the classic strategy based on saccharide-boronic acid interaction with catalytic Suzuki homocoupling reaction.
Nucleoside diphosphate phosphate transferase A (NDPK-A) has been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, growth and apoptosis of cells. Our previous study suggested that the disulphide cross-linkage between cysteine 4 (C4) and cysteine 145 (C145) of NDPK-A might be a possible regulator of its activity. To confirm this hypothesis, the C145 residue of NDPK-A was mutated to serine, and the isomerization and biological activities of the mutant were investigated and compared with those of its wild-type counterpart. It was found the C145S mutation eliminated the intramolecular disulphide bond (DB) and prevented the formation of intermolecular DB, which was known to dissociate the hexameric NDPK-A into dimeric one. We also demonstrated that the C145S mutation didnt affect the autologous hexamerization of this protein, and the mutant had increased bioactivities including phosphate transferase and DNase. These findings support the hypothesis that the formation of DBs in NDPK-A is involved in the regulation of the oligomerization and bioactivity of this multiple function protein, and that C145 is a key residue in the regulation of NDPK-A. In addition, the C145S mutant that we have constructed might be an attractive candidate for use in applications that require NDPK-A.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional secreted glycophosphoprotein involved in miscellaneous physiologic and pathologic processes and is functionally related to the transmembrane receptor CD44. Although OPN expression has been identified to be associated with poor prognosis in several gastrointestinal malignancies, its expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has not been thoroughly investigated. This study was designed to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance of OPN expression in patients with resectable GIST.
Tumor cell growth is influenced by the cellular microenvironment including the presence of immune cells and blood vessels. Currently, no transplantable gastric cancer syngeneic animal models exist; therefore, we set out to establish a mouse gastric carcinoma cell line, which was named mouse gastric carcinoma cell line 3I (MGCC3I), from forestomach carcinoma developed in benzo[a]pyrene-treated ICR mice. MGCC3I cells showed epithelial-like morphology, multinuclear giant cell formation, and retained an intestinal phenotype, which are similar to human gastric cancer carcinoma cells. The expression of gastric cancer markers MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC, and oncogenes c-myc, c-met, cyclin E1, and cancer stem cell marker CD44 was determined in MGCC3I cells. MGCC3I cells formed poorly differentiated stomach tumors following orthotopic implantation into the stomachs of syngeneic ICR mice. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are recognized as a new class of anticancer drugs. The immunological therapeutic effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors sodium butyrate and valproic acid were evaluated in this new animal tumor model. Sodium butyrate inhibited MGCC3I stomach tumor formation in animal models. Increased tumor infiltration by CD8 T cells and neutrophils was observed in mice treated with sodium butyrate or valproic acid. Depletion of CD8 T cells significantly attenuated tumor regression mediated by histone deacetylase inhibitors, which is correlated with enhancement of the MHC class I pathway in MGCC3I cells. Taken together, we have successfully established an orthotopic transplantable gastric tumor animal model and demonstrated its usefulness in revealing the role of CD8 T cells in the therapeutic effects of sodium butyrate.
The current study aims to assess the applicability of direct or indirect normalization for the analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the context of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) contaminated by ghosting artifacts. We found that FA maps acquired by direct normalization showed generally higher anisotropy than indirect normalization, and the disparities were aggravated by the presence of ghosting artifacts in DWIs. The voxel-wise statistical comparisons demonstrated that indirect normalization reduced the influence of artifacts and enhanced the sensitivity of detecting anisotropy differences between groups. This suggested that images contaminated with ghosting artifacts can be sensibly analyzed using indirect normalization.
CD44 and osteopontin (OPN) are functionally related molecules that, alone or in combination, play miscellaneous biological and pathophysiologic roles. CD44 cleavage, one unique feature of CD44, occurs in human cancers, but its function remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the clinicopathologic significance and mechanism of CD44 cleavage in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with respect to OPN and OPN/CD44 interaction.
Cognitive experiments involving motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) have been intensively studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the functional networks of a multitask paradigm which include ME and MI were not widely explored. In this article, we aimed to investigate the functional networks involved in MI and ME using a method combining the hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and the independent component analysis (ICA). Ten right-handed subjects were recruited to participate a multitask experiment with conditions such as visual cue, MI, ME and rest. The results showed that four activation clusters were found including parts of the visual network, ME network, the MI network and parts of the resting state network. Furthermore, the integration among these functional networks was also revealed. The findings further demonstrated that the combined HCA with ICA approach was an effective method to analyze the fMRI data of multitasks.
Distant metastasis resulting from carcinoma cell detachment from the primary tumor involves modification of adhesion molecules. This study was conducted to examine the correlation of E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression with survival and recurrence in ampullary neoplasms.
It has been known that estrogen-17beta stimulates proliferation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. To explore the function of another steroid hormone progesterone, we used MTT method and BrdU incorporation assay to obtain growth curves, clone forming assay to detect the propagation and viability of individual mES cells, Western blot to test the expression of ES cell marker gene Oct-4, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) to test cell cycle, and real-time PCR to detect the expressions of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and proto-oncogenes. The results showed that progesterone promoted proliferation of mES cells. The number of clones was more in progesterone-treated group than that in the control group. The expression of pluripotency-associated transcriptional factor Oct-4 changed little after progesterone treatment as shown by Western blot, indicating that most of mES cells were in undifferentiated state. The results of FACS proved that progesterone promoted DNA synthesis in mES cells. The proportion of mES cells in S+G(2)/M phase was higher in progesterone-treated group than that in the control group. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, as well as proto-oncogenes (c-myc, c-fos) were up-regulated when cells were treated with progesterone. The results obtained indicate that progesterone promotes propagation and viability of mES cells. The up-regulation of cell cycle-related factors might contribute to the function of progesterone.
The clinical presentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection varies in patients with AIDS. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS patient. The initial manifestation was masked by fluoroquinolone monotherapy, and subsequently complicated by acalculous cholecystitis and immune restoration syndrome after antiretroviral therapy.
A photoluminescent II-VI group semiconductor nanocrystal (NC)-based signaling platform composed of thioglycolic acid capped CdS NCs and acetylcholinesterase-acetylthiocholine enzyme catalytic reaction system was developed that was shown to be highly sensitive to nerve agents and toxic organophosphate pesticides with detection limits down to sub-nM levels. This new sensing protocol does not require troublesome conjugation of biomacromolecules onto the surface of NCs.
An important aspect in functional imaging research employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is how participants perceive the MRI scanning itself. For instance, the knowledge of how (un)comfortable MRI scanning is perceived may help institutional review boards (IRBs) or ethics committees to decide on the approval of a study, or researchers to design their experiments.
A 20-40 nm anatase-titania film on a titanium electrode was fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The film was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CVD deposition time and number of deposition coatings were evaluated to establish the appropriate film fabrication parameters. Results indicate that two coatings at a deposition time of 6h each produced the best nano-TiO(2) electrode films (NTEFs) with an even distribution of ca. 20 nm diameter nanoparticles in the anatase lattice. The NTEF was tested as an electrocatalytic anode to investigate the degradation efficiency in treating methyl orange dye wastewater. A high removal efficiency of methyl orange dye and total organic carbon (TOC) of 97 and 56%, respectively; was achieved using a current density of 20 mA cm(-2) for 160 min. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the electrochemical degradation reaction rate at the NTEF surface was predominately driven by molecular diffusion. The electrocatalytic decomposition rate of organic pollutants at the NTEF is controlled by mass transport, which was associated with the nanostructure of the electrocatalytic electrode.
Previous research showed that force control in a visually guided continuous tracking task is influenced by feedback accuracy and force-varying rate. More specifically it was found that higher feedback accuracy and greater force-varying rate led to decreased task performance. Here we studied the neural signature of these effects using functional MRI. We hypothesised that performance costs were due to increased task demand and reflected by increased activations in the visuomotor network. Using the fMRI-BOLD response as an indirect measure of enhanced brain activity we found that the task induced activations in the visuomotor network. The different task conditions thereby modulated the BOLD response such that those conditions with poorest performance showed highest activation levels and vice versa. This indicates a parametric modulation of the BOLD response according to task difficulty and force production. The effects point towards the interdependent and parallel control of visual feedback information and force output rate, which is probably achieved through a joint neural network.
A nanohybrid consisting of water-soluble thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) and methylene blue (MB) was designed as a label-free luminescent signaling platform for DNA. This sensing system was identified to operate under the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism in which MB is the electron acceptor and the binding site for the designated target molecule DNA. We showed that MB bound with TGA-capped CdTe NCs via strong electrostatic interactions resulted in an efficient quenching of the photoluminescence (PL) of NCs. Steady-state and time-resolved PL, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments established the quenching pathway of PET from the conduction band (CB) of NCs to the ground state of MB. In the presence of the target molecule DNA, the MB-quenched PL of NCs could be reversibly restored by double-stranded DNA as the PET pathway is blocked when MB is taken away from the NCs surface due to its intercalation into, and electrostatic interaction with, DNA. The platform was successfully applied for sensing DNA and signaling DNA hybridization by switching the PET process. Such a nanohybrid represents a robust PET luminescent nanosensor that is, in principle, applicable for other species by employing suitable electron acceptors as binding sites.
The application of automatic segmentation methods in lesion detection is desirable. However, such methods are restricted by intensity similarities between lesioned and healthy brain tissue. Using multi-spectral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities may overcome this problem but it is not always practicable. In this article, a lesion detection approach requiring a single MRI modality is presented, which is an improved method based on a recent publication. This new method assumes that a low similarity should be found in the regions of lesions when the likeness between an intensity based fuzzy segmentation and a location based tissue probabilities is measured. The usage of a normalized similarity measurement enables the current method to fine-tune the threshold for lesion detection, thus maximizing the possibility of reaching high detection accuracy. Importantly, an extra cleaning step is included in the current approach which removes enlarged ventricles from detected lesions. The performance investigation using simulated lesions demonstrated that not only the majority of lesions were well detected but also normal tissues were identified effectively. Tests on images acquired in stroke patients further confirmed the strength of the method in lesion detection. When compared with the previous version, the current approach showed a higher sensitivity in detecting small lesions and had less false positives around the ventricle and the edge of the brain.
Brain activation during motor imagery has been studied extensively for years, but only a few of these studies focused on investigating the effective connectivity in the brain. The existence of interactions or closed loop circuits between the SMA and other brain regions during motor imagery still remains unclear. In the present study, selecting the SMA as the region of interest, we used the Granger causality mapping (GCM) method to explore the effective connectivity in the brain during motor imagery. Our results demonstrated that more brain regions showed effective connections to the SMA during the right-hand motor imagery than during the left-hand motor imagery, but the strength of the casual influence during the left-hand motor imagery was stronger than that of the right-hand motor imagery. We further found forward and backward effective connectivity between the SMA and three regions, including the bilateral dorsal premotor area (PMd), the contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1), and the primary motor cortex (M1). these results might indicate how the brain regions were inter-activated during motor imagery.
To quantify to what extent the new registration method, DARTEL (Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra), may reduce the smoothing kernel width required and investigate the minimum group size necessary for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies.
Soft rot on banana fruit caused by Rhizopus oryzae was identified for the first time in Korea. Colonies were white to light brown and formed numerous sporangiospores. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30?. Sporangia were globose and 30~200 µm. Sporangiophores were usually straight, 8~20 µm, and rhizoids usually in groups of 3~5. Columella were globose to sub-globose and 90~110 µm. Sporangiospores were sub-globose or oval and 4~10 µm. Based on its mycological characteristics, molecular analysis, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Rhizopus oryzae Went & Prisen Geerligs. This is the first report of soft rot on banana caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of voriconazole in treating Chinese patients with hematological malignancies and invasive aspergillosis.
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