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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
p53-mediated Regulation of Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is crucial for the Apoptotic Response Upon Serine Starvation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Although p53 is frequently mutated in human cancers, about 80% of human melanomas retain wild-type p53. Here, we report that PHGDH, the key metabolic enzyme that cata-lyzes the rate-limiting step of serine biosynthesis pathway, is a target of p53 in human melanoma cells. p53 suppresses its expression and inhibits de novo serine biosynthesis. Notably, upon serine starvation, p53-mediated cell death is dramatically enhanced in response to Nutlin-3 treatment. Moreover, PHGDH is recently found to be frequently amplified in human melanomas. We found that PHGDH overexpression significantly suppresses the apoptotic response, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down of endogenous PHGDH promotes apoptosis under the same treatment. These results demonstrate an important role of p53 in regulating serine biosynthesis pathway through suppressing PHGDH expression and reveal serine deprivation as a novel approach to sensitize p53-mediated apoptotic responses in human melanoma cells.
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Effectiveness and Feasibility of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy on Patients at High Anesthetic Risk.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Abstract Background: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is the most acceptable procedure in laparoscopic pancreatic surgery. Nevertheless, knowledge regarding patients at a high anesthetic risk during lengthy and technically demanding LDP is controversial. This study aims to assess the feasibility and safety of LDP in patients with high anesthetic risk. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective collection retrospective review of patients underwent LDP and open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) from January 2011 until December 2013. By the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, patients were divided into low- and high-risk patients. We compared the clinical, perioperative, and postoperative results in these patients. Results: The cohort included 77 patients: 20 underwent LDP, and 57 underwent ODP. There were 30 patients in the low-risk group and 47 patients in the high-risk group. In high-risk patients, LDP, compared with ODP, presented a shorter operating time (mean, 220.8±101.1 minutes versus 299.4±124.3 minutes; P=.038), less blood loss (409.3±569.9?mL versus 1083.1±1583.0 mL; P=.039), higher rate of spleen preservation (73.3% versus 43.8%, P=.037), and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay (LOS) (9.5±3.0 days versus 15.7±9.4 days; P=.044). Conclusions: In conclusion, LDP provides early recovery and better cosmetic appearance. In high anesthetic risk patients, LDP shows less operative time, less perioperative blood loss, a higher rate of spleen preservation, slighter complication, and shorter LOS, which might explain why LDP is a feasible and effective procedure.
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Clinical significance of pathological complete response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors after imatinib mesylate treatment - lessons learned.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Imatinib mesylate (IM) has substantial efficacy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and pathological complete response (pCR) following IM treatment has been sporadically reported; however, its clinical significance for GIST needs to be clarified.
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The effect of clopidogrel on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its metabolite in rats.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clopidogrel (CLO) on pharmacokinetics of ivabradine (IVA) and its metabolite in rats and develop a reliable method to determine IVA and its metabolite N-demethyl ivabradine in serum. Healthy male SD rats were randomized to be given 0.8?mg/kg IVA or IVA combined with 8?mg/kg CLO. Blood samples were collected at 0.083, 0.16, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24?h after administration. The serum concentrations of IVA and N-demethyl ivabradine were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using DASver3.0 software. The parameters of AUC(0?-?t), AUC(0?-??), and Cmax for IVA in the group of IVA?+?CLO were significantly higher than those in the group of IVA (p?
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[Influence of different disturbance intensity on the phosphorus adsorption and immobilization by the sediments from an inner city heavily polluted canal].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The mechanism of phosphorus (P) adsorption and immobilization under different disturbance intensities was investigated in laboratory. The sediments and water used were taken from an inner-city heavily polluted canal. Addition of KH2PO4 into the experimental units were made similar to the external P input into the canal and carried out periodically. The results show that sediment disturbance could increase the P adsorption amount by suspended solids. The higher disturbance intensity is, the greater P adsorption amount is obtained. Dissolved inorganic P (DIP) is the main form of additional KH2PO4, but sediment disturbance enhances the transformation of P from DIP to PP (particulate P), indicating that sediment disturbance decreases the bioavailable P in the overlying water. Sequential fractionation indicated that the NH4Cl-P decreased, but the Fe/Al-P, HCl-P and Res-P increased. More than 80% (the average value under three disturbance intensities) of the incorporated P accounts for Fe/Al-P in the sediments. The incorporated Fe/Al-P accounts for 37.49% (100 r x min(-1)), 42.32% (200 r x min(-1)) and 54.24% (300 r x min(-1)) of non-occluded Fe/Al-P in the sediments respectively, indicating that the percentage of incorporated P to occluded Fe/Al-P decreases with the increase of disturbance intensity. The variation of HCl-P under the same disturbance intensity is the same as the occluded Fe/Al-P. It suggests that the continuous addition of external P is mainly incorporated into the mobile P forms under short-term and high-intensity disturbance, which means the adsorption of P by sediments is the short-term immobility.
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Shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT) for ocular tissue biomechanics.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We report on a noncontact low-coherence optical phase-based imaging method, termed shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT), which enables 2D depth-resolved visualization of the low-amplitude elastic wave propagation in tissue with ultrahigh frame rate. SWI-OCT is based on 1D transverse scanning of the M-mode OCT imaging that is precisely synchronized with a low-pressure short-duration air-puff loading system. This approach of scanning and data recording allows visualization of the induced tissue deformation at high frame rate. The applied phase-resolved interferometric technique, with sensitivity on the nanometer scale, makes the low-amplitude tissue displacement detectable. For the demonstration of this method, and to study its application for tissue biomechanics, we performed pilot experiments on agar phantoms and ex vivo rabbit corneas. Samples with different elastic properties can be differentiated based on the velocity of the elastic wave propagation that is directly visualized with a 25 kHz frame rate. Our results indicate that SWI-OCT has the potential to be further developed as a major technique for depth-resolved high-resolution tissue elastography in vivo.
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Computed tomography angiography provides limited benefit in the evaluation of patients with pelvic fractures.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been applied in imaging studies for the assessment of most abdominal and pelvic injuries in some trauma centers. However, in most institutions, CTA is not routinely performed as part of the computed tomography scan protocol. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficiency of CTA in the evaluation of patients with pelvic fractures.
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Association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma risk among Chinese population.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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The pathogenesis of glioma remains largely unknown now. It has been suggested that the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene may influence the capacity to repair DNA damage leading to an increased gliomas susceptibility. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma risk. Genotypes were assessed in 368 Chinese glioma patients and 346 healthy controls. XRCC1 Arg194Trp (rs1799782), Arg280His (rs25489) and Arg399Gln (rs25487) and three additional polymorphisms were directly sequenced. The frequency of Arg280His A allele was significant lower in glioma group than in healthy controls [9.6 vs 16%, OR=0.60 (0.46-0.80), P<0.001]; the frequencies of GA or AA genotypes were different in two groups (16.6 vs 22.8%, 1.3 vs 4.7%). The frequency of Arg399Gln A allele was significant higher in glioma group than in healthy controls [38.7 vs 30.1%, OR=1.29 (1.11-1.49), P=0.001]; the frequencies of GA or AA genotypes were different in two groups (45.4 vs 38.2%, 16 vs 10.9%). This study demonstrates that the rs25489 (Arg280His) and Arg399Gln (rs25487) polymorphisms in XRCC1 gene might influence the risk of developing glioma in Chinese population.
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To be, or not to be: functional dilemma of p53 metabolic regulation.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In recent years, the emerging role of p53 in metabolic regulation has been a topic of great interest. Although apoptotic and growth arrest functions of p53 remain as important mechanisms for preserving genomic stability, metabolic functions of p53 show increasing potential in contributing to p53-mediated tumor suppression. Numerous recent studies provided further insights into the metabolic functions of p53 and their implications in tumorigenesis.
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The comparison of methods to identify the presence of fibrocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival cardiac tissue with coronary heart disease.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The purpose of this study was to find the optimal technical approach to identify the presence of fibrocytes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival cardiac tissue with CHD (coronary heart disease). Using the coexpression markers CD45 and ?SMA, the presence of fibrocytes was examined by three different methods, including double immunohistochemistry staining, combination labeling of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and double immunofluorescence labeling. Double immunohistochemistry staining was very difficult to identify the CD45(+)/?SMA(+) fibrocytes. Although combination staining of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence has made it possible to evaluate the co-localization of CD45 and ?SMA in the fibrocytes, this method was prone to produce many false positive cells. In contrast, CD45(+)/?SMA(+) fibrocytes could be clearly recognized by double immunofluorescence labeling. In conclusion, double immunofluorescence labeling is the optimal technical approach to identify the presence of fibrocytes in routinely processed cardiac tissue with CHD.
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Effects of Panax Quinquefolium Saponin on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine threonine kinase pathway of neonatal rat myocardial cells subjected to hypoxia.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To explore the effects of Panax Quinquefolium Saponin (PQS) on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway of neonatal rat myocardial cells subjected to hypoxia.
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Latitudinal distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in the agricultural soils of eastern China.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The response of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) communities to individual environmental variables (e.g., pH, temperature, and carbon- and nitrogen-related soil nutrients) has been extensively studied, but how these environmental conditions collectively shape AOB and AOA distributions in unmanaged agricultural soils across a large latitudinal gradient remains poorly known. In this study, the AOB and AOA community structure and diversity in 26 agricultural soils collected from eastern China were investigated by using quantitative PCR and bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the amoA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. The sampling locations span over a 17° latitude gradient and cover a range of climatic conditions. The Nitrosospira and Nitrososphaera were the dominant clusters of AOB and AOA, respectively; but the subcluster-level composition of Nitrosospira-related AOB and Nitrososphaera-related AOA varied across the latitudinal gradient. Variance partitioning analysis showed that geography and climatic conditions (e.g., mean annual temperature and precipitation), as well as carbon-/nitrogen-related soil nutrients, contributed more to the AOB and AOA community variations (?50% in total) than soil pH (?10% in total). These results are important in furthering our understanding of environmental conditions influencing AOB and AOA community structure across a range of environmental gradients.
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Noncontact quantitative biomechanical characterization of cardiac muscle using shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We report on a quantitative optical elastographic method based on shear wave imaging optical coherence tomography (SWI-OCT) for biomechanical characterization of cardiac muscle through noncontact elasticity measurement. The SWI-OCT system employs a focused air-puff device for localized loading of the cardiac muscle and utilizes phase-sensitive OCT to monitor the induced tissue deformation. Phase information from the optical interferometry is used to reconstruct 2-D depth-resolved shear wave propagation inside the muscle tissue. Cross-correlation of the displacement profiles at various spatial locations in the propagation direction is applied to measure the group velocity of the shear waves, based on which the Young's modulus of tissue is quantified. The quantitative feature and measurement accuracy of this method is demonstrated from the experiments on tissue-mimicking phantoms with the verification using uniaxial compression test. The experiments are performed on ex vivo cardiac muscle tissue from mice with normal and genetically altered myocardium. Our results indicate this optical elastographic technique is useful as a noncontact tool to assist the cardiac muscle studies.
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Tanshinol protects hippocampus and attenuates vascular dementia development.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Tanshinol (3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-(2R)-lactic acid, TSL) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we assessed whether TSL protected hippocampus and attenuated vascular dementia (VD) development in rats. The behavioral analysis showed that TSL could decrease the distance and latency time, and increase the swim speed in water maze in rats subjected to VD. TSL remarkably increased acetylcholine level and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in rats subjected to VD. Likewise, TSL remarkably decreased malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase levels in rats subjected to VD. Furthermore, treatment with TSL reduced the level of dead neurons in dentate gyrus. In addition, TSL upregulated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and downregulated phosphorylated Akt (p-AKt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase (p-GSK3?) expression in hippocampus in rats subjected to VD. These results suggest that TSL may be a potential compound in VD model.
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Pain relief from combined wound and intraperitoneal local anesthesia for patients who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become the treatment of choice for gallbladder lesions, but it is not a pain-free procedure. This study explored the pain relief provided by combined wound and intraperitoneal local anesthetic use for patients who are undergoing LC.
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Hypotension does not always make computed tomography scans unfeasible in the management of blunt abdominal trauma patients.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Computed tomography (CT) scans have been used worldwide to evaluate patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). However, CT scans have traditionally been considered to be a part of a secondary survey that can only be performed after the patient's haemodynamics have stabilised. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the role of the CT scan in managing BAT patients with hypotension.
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The role of mitochondrial aconitate (ACO2) in human sperm motility.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Deficiencies in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes have been shown to cause a wide spectrum of human diseases, including malignancies and neurological and cardiac diseases. In mammalian spermatozoa mitochondria, the TCA cycle is known to be a crucial metabolic pathway that contributes to produce ATP. There is little known about the role and mechanism of mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2), which is an important regulatory enzyme of the TCA cycle, in asthenozoospermia. In the current study, immunofluorescence staining localized ACO2 to the human sperm mid-piece. By immunoblotting, we demonstrated that the level of ACO2 protein in asthenozoospermic samples was significantly decreased compared with that in normal fertile men. Importantly, we first observed that co-incubation of isocitrate with low motile sperm suspensions significantly improved sperm motility, which might be due to elevated intracellular ATP. The improvement of the sperm motility by isocitrate may have important clinical implications in the treatment of asthenozoospermia and certainly warrants further investigation.
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An outcome prediction model for exsanguinating patients with blunt abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy: a retrospective study.
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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We present a series of patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL) and introduce a nomogram that we created to predict survival among these patients.
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The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and tumor risk: evidence from 134 case-control studies.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme involved in folate metabolism, which is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation. Genetic variations in the MTHFR gene seem to contribute to a decreased activity of MTHFR, ultimately confer increased susceptibility to cancer. As the most extensively studied polymorphism, MTHFR C677T polymorphism was shown to contribute to cancer susceptibility but the results were inconsistent. The authors performed a meta-analysis including 134 studies (46,207 cases and 69,160 controls) to address the issue. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. Overall, a significant elevated risk of cancer was associated with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in T-allele versus C-allele comparison (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001), homozygote model (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10, P(heterogeneity) < 0.001). In the stratified analyses, significantly increased cancer risks were indicated among Asians in all genetic models except for heterozygote model. Further analysis revealed that C677T was significantly associated with an increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer. This meta-analysis supports an association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and increased risk of esophageal and stomach cancer, especially among Asians. Additionally, more high-quality studies and that the covariates responsible for heterogeneity should be controlled to obtain a more conclusive response about the function of MTHFR C677T in cancer.
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Three-dimensional computational analysis of optical coherence tomography images for the detection of soft tissue sarcomas.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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We present a three-dimensional (3-D) computational method to detect soft tissue sarcomas with the goal of automatic surgical margin assessment based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Three parameters are investigated and quantified from OCT images as the indicators for the tissue diagnosis including the signal attenuation (A-line slope), the standard deviation of the signal fluctuations (speckles), and the exponential decay coefficient of its spatial frequency spectrum. The detection of soft tissue sarcomas relies on the combination of these three parameters, which are related to the optical attenuation characteristics and the structural features of the tissue. Pilot experiments were performed on ex vivo human tissue samples with homogeneous pieces (both normal and abnormal) and tumor margins. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of this computational method in the differentiation of soft tissue sarcomas from normal tissues. The features of A-line-based detection and 3-D quantitative analysis yield promise for a computer-aided technique capable of accurately and automatically identifying resection margins of soft tissue sarcomas during surgical treatment.
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Identification of Photosynthetic Plankton Communities Using Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Their Response to late-Holocene Climate Change on the Tibetan Plateau.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Sediments from Tibetan lakes in NW China are potentially sensitive recorders of climate change and its impact on ecosystem function. However, the important plankton members in many Tibetan Lakes do not make and leave microscopically diagnostic features in the sedimentary record. Here we established a taxon-specific molecular approach to specifically identify and quantify sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) of non-fossilized planktonic organisms preserved in a 5-m sediment core from Kusai Lake spanning the last 3100 years. The reliability of the approach was validated with multiple independent genetic markers. Parallel analyses of the geochemistry of the core and paleo-climate proxies revealed that Monsoon strength-driven changes in nutrient availability, temperature, and salinity as well as orbitally-driven changes in light intensity were all responsible for the observed temporal changes in the abundance of two dominant phytoplankton groups in the lake, Synechococcus (cyanobacteria) and Isochrysis (haptophyte algae). Collectively our data show that global and regional climatic events exhibited a strong influence on the paleoecology of phototrophic plankton in Kusai Lake.
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Numerosol A-D, new cembranoid diterpenes from the soft coral Sinularia numerosa.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Four new cembrane-type diterpenes; numerosol A-D (1-4); along with a known steroid; gibberoketosterol (5); were isolated from the Taiwanese soft coral Sinularia numerosa. The structures of these metabolites were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Gibberoketosterol (5) exhibited cytotoxicity against P-388 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia) cell line with an ED50 of 6.9 ?M.
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[Water-soluble vitamin E protects post-thawing sperm against oxidative stress injury].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To investigate the potential protective effect of water-soluble vitamin E (Trolox) against oxidative stress injury in post-thawing human sperm and its mechanism.
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Improvement of a gene targeting system for genetic manipulation in Penicillium digitatum.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Penicillium digitatum is the most important pathogen of postharvest citrus. Gene targeting can be done in P. digitatum using homologous recombination via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT), but the frequencies are often very low. In the present study, we replaced the Ku80 homolog (a gene of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway) with the hygromycin resistance cassette (hph) by ATMT. No significant change in vegetative growth, conidiation, or pathogenicity was observed in Ku80-deficient strain (?PdKu80) of P. digitatum. However, using ?PdKu80 as a targeting strain, the gene-targeting frequencies for both genes PdbrlA and PdmpkA were significantly increased. These results suggest that Ku80 plays an important role in homologous integration and the created ?PdKu80 strain would be a good candidate for rapid gene function analysis in P. digitatum.
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Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 is critical for invariant natural killer T-cell development and effector function.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The mechanisms that control invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell development and function are still poorly understood. The mechanistic or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates various environmental signals/cues to regulate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and survival. We report here that ablation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by conditionally deleting Raptor causes severe defects in iNKT-cell development at early stages, leading to drastic reductions in iNKT-cell numbers in the thymus and periphery. In addition, loss of Raptor impairs iNKT-cell proliferation and production of cytokines upon ?-galactosylceramide stimulation in vitro and in vivo, and inhibits liver inflammation in an iNKT cell-mediated hepatitis model. Furthermore, Raptor deficiency and rapamycin treatment lead to aberrant intracellular localization and functional impairment of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger, a transcription factor critical for iNKT-cell development and effector programs. Our findings define an essential role of mTORC1 to direct iNKT-cell lineage development and effector function.
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Intra-abdominal injury is easily overlooked in the patients with concomitant unstable hemodynamics and pelvic fractures.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is usually necessary in the management of hemodynamically unstable patients with concomitant pelvic fractures. Given the critical conditions of such patients, TAE is at times performed only according to the results of a primary evaluation without computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Therefore, the evaluation of associated intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs) might be insufficient. Clinically, some patients have required post-TAE laparotomy due to further deterioration. In this study, we attempted to determine a feasible protocol for post-TAE observation.
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Sinugyrosanolide A, an unprecedented C-4 norcembranoid, from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia gyrosa.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Chemical investigations on the acetone extract of the Formosan soft coral Sinularia gyrosa have obtained a novel C-4 norcembranoid possessing an unprecedented tricyclo[9.3.0.0(3,8)]tetradecane skeleton, namely sinugyrosanolide A. The NMR spectroscopic data of the novel norcembranoid were completely assigned by using a combination of 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY. The cytotoxicities, anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) endonuclease activities and antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro. It showed moderate cytotoxicity against P-388 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia) cancer cell line with an EC50 of 11.8?M.
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Impact of deferred surgical intervention on the outcome of external laryngeal trauma.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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External laryngeal trauma (ELT) can be a fatal injury. Proper management of ELT significantly affects patient survival and quality of life. The optimal timing of surgical intervention is controversial. In this study, we review the incidence, management, and outcome of ELT and attempt to analyze the risk factors and prognosis of this injury.
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Risk factors for late death of patients with abdominal trauma after damage control laparotomy for hemostasis.
World J Emerg Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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In this study, we explored the possible causes of death and risk factors in patients who overcame the initial critical circumstance when undergoing a damage control laparotomy for abdominal trauma and succumbed later to their clinical course.
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Heat stress impairs the nutritional metabolism and reduces the productivity of egg-laying ducks.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat stress on the nutritional metabolism and productivity of egg-laying shelducks. Healthy shelducks (n=120) in the early laying stage (uniform body weights and normal feed intakes) were randomly assigned to two identical climate chambers and exposed to constant high temperature (34°C) or control temperature (23°C) for 28d. The heat-exposed ducks had reduced feed intakes and laying rates (P<0.05), increased frequency of panting and spreading wings and dull featheration; egg weight, eggshell thickness and strength, and Haugh unit also decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of egg yolk increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control ducks, the plasma concentrations of HCO3(-), phosphorus, glucose, thyroxine and activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were decreased, while there were increased concentrations of corticosterone (P<0.05). The content of MDA and lactate in plasma and liver was greater in heat-exposed than in control ducks, but superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant enzymes (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) contents were less. The expression of HSP70 gene expression in the liver was increased in heat-stressed ducks. The relative weight of oviduct, number of large ovarian follicles, length of the oviduct all decreased (P<0.05) in heat-treated ducks, as did expression of carbonic anhydrase and calcium binding protein genes in the shell gland as a result of heat stress. In summary, heat stress decreased the productivity of ducks, which related to reduced feed intake, protein synthesis, endocrine dysfunction, less antioxidant capacity, and derangement of calcium and phosphorous balance.
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Single-incision laparoscopic-assisted jejunostomy tube placement.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Abstract Background: Feeding jejunostomy is an alternative enteral nutritional supplementation method for patients with functional gastrointestinal tracts. In this study, we introduced the novel, safe technique of single-incision laparoscopic-assisted jejunostomy (SIL-AJ) tube placement. Subjects and Methods: We conducted a prospective record search and a retrospective review of all patients who received surgical jejunostomy tube placement in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan, from October 2011 to December 2012. SIL-AJ, multiple-incision laparoscopic jejunostomy (MIL-J), and open jejunostomy (O-J) were performed concurrently. We compared the demographic data, operative time, postoperative pain control, and postoperative complications among these groups. Results: Forty patients who received surgical jejunostomy in this period were enrolled in the study. There were 14 patients with SIL-AJ, 10 with MIL-J, and 16 with O-J. There were no differences in age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, body mass index, or malignancy distribution among the SIL-AJ, MIL-J, and O-J groups. The total operative times for the SIL-AJ, MIL-J, and O-J procedures were 53.3±11.5, 117.3±45.8, and 52.9±16.1 minutes, respectively; SIL-AJ and O-J had similar operative times, which were significantly shorter than the operative times in the MIL-J group (P<.001). The proportions of patients who began feeding within 24 hours in the SIL-AJ, MIL-J, and O-J groups were 100%, 70%, and 37%, respectively; the SIL-AJ group had a higher feeding rate at 24 hours than the two other groups (P=.001). The SIL-AJ and MIL-J groups had fewer postoperative complications than the O-J group (P=.011). Conclusions: SIL-AJ is a feasible and safe procedure that can be performed in patients who require alternative enteral feeding. Reduced postoperative pain, acceptable incisions, and quick feeding were observed in patients with SIL-AJ. Transumbilical SIL-AJ uses cost-effective appliances, and it is a relatively simple technique to learn and in which togain proficiency.
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Right massive haemothorax as the presentation of blunt cardiac rupture: the pitfall of coexisting pericardial laceration.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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A 74-year old female was transferred to our institution because of blunt chest trauma. Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) revealed right haemothorax and little pericardial effusion. She was taken to the operating theatre for emergent operation because of hypotension and massive bleeding from the right-sided chest tube. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was started during surgical exploration. There were three 1-cm lacerations actively bleeding from the right atrium and inferior vena cava junction, which were repaired successfully. Furthermore, we identified a 10 cm laceration in the right-side pleuropericardium and a communication existing between the pericardial space and the right pleural space.
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Kelsoenethiol and dikelsoenyl ether, two unique kelsoane-type sesquiterpenes, from the Formosan soft coral Nephthea erecta.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Two new kelsoane-type sesquiterpenes, namely kelsoenethiol (1) and dikelsoenyl ether (2), were obtained from the Formosan soft coral Nephthea erecta. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses, ESI orbitrap mass and quantum chemical calculations (QCC). The cytotoxicity against A-459 (human lung carcinoma), P-388 (mouse lymphocytic leukemia), and HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) cancer cell lines of 1 and 2 was evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 showed cytotoxicity against P-388 and HT-29 cells with ED50s of 1.3 and 1.8?g/mL, respectively.
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[Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.
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New diterpenoids from soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Continuing chemical investigation on the acetone extracts of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi collected off the coast of San-hsian-tai, Taitong County, Taiwan led to the isolation of two new diterpenoids, ehrenbergol C and acetyl ehrenberoxide B (1 and 2). The structures of these isolated metabolites were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analyses. Moreover, in vitro tests show that compounds 1 and 2 displayed antiviral activity towards human cytomegalovirus, with EC50 of 20 and 8.0 µg/mL, respectively.
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[Association of traumatic severity with change in lymphocyte subsets in the early stage after trauma].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the association of traumatic severity with changes in lymphocyte subsets in the early stage after trauma.
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Human cytomegalovirus UL76 elicits novel aggresome formation via interaction with S5a of the ubiquitin proteasome system.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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HCMV UL76 is a member of a conserved Herpesviridae protein family (Herpes_UL24) that is involved in viral production, latency, and reactivation. UL76 presents as globular aggresomes in the nuclei of transiently transfected cells. Bioinformatic analyses predict that UL76 has a propensity for aggregation and targets cellular proteins implicated in protein folding and ubiquitin-proteasome systems (UPS). Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggests that UL76 reduces protein mobility in the aggresome, which indicates that UL76 elicits the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Moreover, in the absence of other viral proteins, UL76 interacts with S5a, which is a major receptor of polyubiquitinated proteins for UPS proteolysis via its conserved region and the von Willebrand factor type A (VWA) domain of S5a. We demonstrate that UL76 sequesters polyubiquitinated proteins and S5a to nuclear aggresomes in biological proximity. After knockdown of endogenous S5a by RNA interference techniques, the UL76 level was only minimally affected in transiently expressing cells. However, a significant reduction in the number of cells containing UL76 nuclear aggresomes was observed, which suggests that S5a may play a key role in aggresome formation. Moreover, we show that UL76 interacts with S5a in the late phase of viral infection and that knockdown of S5a hinders the development of both the replication compartment and the aggresome. In this study, we demonstrate that UL76 induces a novel nuclear aggresome, likely by subverting S5a of the UPS. Given that UL76 belongs to a conserved family, this underlying mechanism may be shared by all members of the Herpesviridae.
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A two-step strategy to design high bioavailable controlled-release nimodipine tablets: The push-pull osmotic pump in combination with the micronization/solid dispersion techniques.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2013
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In order to decrease the fluctuation of blood concentration and to increase the oral bioavailability of nimodipine (NMD), a two-step strategy including the push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) method in combination with micronization and solid dispersion techniques, was used to prepare the controlled-release high-bioavailability solid dosages. The optimization of formulation and process was conducted by comparing effects of different solubilization methods on release behavior of NMD. The in vitro dissolution studies indicated that both the two strategies were able to deliver NMD in the predetermined zero-order manner from 2 to 12h, regardless of effects of release media and agitation rates. Although the Cmax values of two PPOP tablets were lower than that of the reference formulation, both the Tmax values were prolonged, demonstrating the prominent controlled release performance. In comparison with the commercial reference tables, the relative bioavailability of the two formulations was 67.0% and 121.1%, respectively, indicating the solid dispersion technique was more efficient than the micronization technique in terms of solubilization capability and absorption enhancement. In summary, the two-step strategy, combining the push-pull osmotic pump method with the solid dispersion technique, is a very effective method to prepare high bioavailable controlled-release formulations of the poorly soluble drugs, i.e. NMD, taking into account the therapeutical efficiency and safety.
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Gasless laparoscopic assisted surgery for abdominal trauma.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Numerous studies have described the effectiveness of laparoscopy for trauma patients. In gas-filling laparoscopic surgery, most of the disadvantages are related to a positive pressure pneumoperitoneum that compromises the cardiopulmonary function. The main advantage of gasless laparoscopic assisted surgery (GLA) is that it does not affect the haemodynamic status, which is particularly critical for trauma patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of GLA for abdominal trauma.
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[Molluscicidal effect of buried niclosamide sustained-release method in plateau mountainous areas].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the buried niclosamide sustained-release method in Oncomelania snail-infested terraced environments of mountainous areas in Yunnan Province.
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The diminishing role of pelvic x-rays in the management of patients with major torso injuries.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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A pelvic x-ray (PXR) can be used as an effective screening tool to evaluate pelvic fractures and stability. However, associated intra-abdominal/retroperitoneal organ injuries and hemorrhage should also be considered and evaluated in patients with major torso injuries. An abdominal/pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scan may provide higher resolution and more information than a PXR. The role of conventional PXRs was delineated in the current study in the context of the development of the CT scan.
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Secosteroids and norcembranoids from the soft coral Sinularia nanolobata.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Two new 9,11-secosteroids, 22?-acetoxy-24-methylene-3?,6?,11-trihydroxy-9, 11-seco-cholest-7-en-9-one (1) and 11-acetoxy-24-methylene-1?,3?,6?-trihydroxy-9, 11-seco-cholest-7-en-9-one (2), as well as two known norcembranoids, 5-epi-sinuleptolide (3) and sinuleptolide (4), were isolated from the soft coral Sinularia nanolobata. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) activity of 1-4 and its cytotoxicity against selected cell lines were evaluated.
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Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy ameliorates myocardial fibrosis by decreasing the amount of fibrocytes after acute myocardial infarction in pigs.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Extracorporeal shock wave (SW) therapy ameliorates cardiac remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it remains to be examined whether and how SW therapy ameliorates myocardial fibrosis after AMI. Fibrocytes are associated with myocardial fibrosis. Thus, we examined whether SW therapy ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and whether fibrocytes are associated after AMI in pigs.
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Dual-incision laparoscopic surgery for peritoneal dialysis catheter implantation and fixation: a novel, simple, and safe procedure.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an alternative modality to hemodialysis and is usually used to treat patients with end-stage renal disease. Dual-incision laparoscopic surgery (DILS) had been reported in several surgical fields; however, no report was proposed about DILS in PD catheter implantation (DILS-PD). In this study, we present DILS with a novel, simple, and safe procedure for PD catheter implantation with fixation and describe the long-term outcome.
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Pelvic circumferential compression devices benefit patients with pelvic fractures who need transfers.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Patients with pelvic fracture usually require transfers to trauma centers for additional advanced treatment. Patient safety during the transfer should always be a priority. The noninvasive pelvic circumferential compression device (PCCD) can reportedly provide a tamponade effect, which reduces hemorrhage. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of PCCD in patients with pelvic fracture who required transfer to trauma centers.
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[Human sperm cryopreservation and protection: an update].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Human sperm cryopreservation has been widely applied in human assisted reproduction technologies, but ultra-low temperature may damage the structure and function of sperm, which in turn may affect the success rate of human reproductive technology. However, this view is not yet universally accepted. Researchers around the world are endeavoring for the mechanisms of cyrodamage and discoveries of cryo-protection. This article gives an overview on the types of human sperm cryodamage, mechanisms of sperm functional changes, and latest discoveries of cryo-protection.
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Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept-source optical coherence tomography to assess the propagation of low-amplitude (micron-level) waves induced by a focused air-pulse system in tissue-mimicking phantoms, a contact lens, a silicone eye model, and the mouse cornea in vivo. The results show that the wave velocity can be quantified from the analysis of wave propagation, thereby enabling the estimation of the sample elasticity using the model of surface wave propagation for the tissue-mimicking phantoms. This noninvasive, noncontact measurement technique involves low-force methods of tissue excitation that can be potentially used to assess the biomechanical properties of ocular and other delicate tissues in vivo.
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[Molluscicidal effect of WPN and MNSC on Lymnaea].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of wettable powder of 50% niclosamide ethanolamide salt (WPN) and suspension concentrate of 26% metaldehyde and niclosamide (MNSC) on Lymnaea.
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Adenosquamous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater - a rare disease at unusual location.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Adenosquamous carcinoma is defined as a tumor in which both glandular and squamous elements are histologically malignant. Although some published studies have analyzed and discussed adenosquamous carcinomas, hybrid malignancy of the ampulla of Vater has rarely been discussed thus far in the literature. In this study, we report the case of a 64-year-old man who presented with jaundice and intermittent abdominal dull pain that persisted for several weeks. The patient was diagnosed with adenosquamous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. The final diagnosis was adenosquamous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater, T3N1M0, stage IIB. Although R0 resection was performed, he had multiple liver metastases 2 months after the operation; he died 4 months later. Upon reviewing the medical records of our institute, we identified 4 patients who were diagnosed with adenosquamous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater in the past 2 decades. We also identified only five reported cases of this lesion in the English literature. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare disease with a dismal prognosis. Surgical intervention does not appear to prolong patient survival. Early recurrence and distal metastasis may be encountered after surgery.
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Parathyrsoidins A-D, four new sesquiterpenoids from the soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Four new nardosinane-type sesquiterpenoids, parathyrsoidins A-D (1-4) were isolated from the soft coral Paralemnalia thyrsoides. The structures of parathyrsoidins A-D (1-4) were determined by extensive spectral analysis and their cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines as well as antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were evaluated in vitro.
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Networks of MicroRNAs and Genes in Retinoblastomas.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Through years of effort, researchers have made notable progress in gene and microRNA fields about retinoblastoma morbidity. However, experimentally validated data for genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) can only be found in a scattered form, which makes it difficult to conclude the relationship between genes and retinoblastoma systematically. In this study, we regarded genes, miRNAs and TFs as elements in the regulatory network and focused on the relationship between pairs of examples. In this way, we paid attention to all the elements macroscopically, instead of only researching one or several. To show regulatory relationships over genes, miRNAs and TFs clearly, we constructed 3 regulatory networks hierarchically, including a differentially expressed network, a related network and a global network, for analysis of similarities and comparison of differences. After construction of the three networks, important pathways were highlighted. We constructed an upstream and downstream element table of differentially expressed genes and miRNAs, in which we found self-adaption relations and circle-regulation. Our study systematically assessed factors in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma and provided theoretical foundations for gene therapy researchers. In future studies, especial attention should be paid to the highlighted genes and miRNAs.
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MicroRNA and gene networks in human Hodgkins lymphoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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There has been significant progress in gene and microRNA (miRNA) research with regard to the morbidity of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL). However, the regulatory mechanisms of genes and miRNAs have yet to be determined. In the current study, the regulatory association between genes, miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) was investigated to gain an understanding of the mechanisms and key pathways of HL. The association between TFs and miRNAs, miRNAs and target genes and miRNA and its host gene was examined. To show the regulatory correlation clearly, three regulatory networks were hierarchically constructed: Differentially expressed, associated and global networks. Following comparison and analysis of the similarities and differences among the three networks, a number of key pathways, which showed self-adaptation associations were identified. This included NF?B1 and hsa-miR-9, hsa-miR-196a-1 and its host gene HOXB7, which separately forms a self-adaptation association. The differentially expressed network illuminated the pathogenesis of HL. In addition, the associated network further described the regulatory mechanism associated with HL, including prevention, diagnosis, development and therapy. The current study systematically explains the regulatory mechanisms of HL and supplies comprehensive data associated with HL for further studies. With increasing knowledge of the occurrence, mechanism, improvement, metastasis and treatment, an increased understanding of HL may be achieved.
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Factors affecting outcomes in penetrating diaphragmatic trauma.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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BACKGROUDS: Diagnosing penetrating diaphragmatic rupture (PDR) is a challenging aspect of managing thoracoabdominal injuries due to the lack of a typical clinical presentation. The mortality from PDR is variable and center-specific. In this study, we identified the incidence and clinical presentation of PDR at our institution and analyzed the factors that affected the length of hospital stay and mortality.
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Protection of glycyrrhizic acid against AGEs-induced endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting RAGE/NF-?B pathway activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots) is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA, also known as Glycyrrhizin), a triterpenoid saponin glycoside, is considered to be a bioactive component in Licorice and is beneficial to diabetic vascular complications.
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The Expression of CD14(+)CD16(+) Monocyte Subpopulation in Coronary Heart Disease Patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Blood stasis syndrome (BSS), a comprehensive pathological state, is one of the traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of coronary heart disease (CHD). In our previous study, we investigated that Fc ? RIIIA (also called CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation) is one of the differentially expressed genes related to CHD patients and its possible role in the atherosclerotic formation and plaque rupture. However, whether or not the deregulation of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation expression is implicated in the pathogenesis of CHD patients with BSS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that there was no significant difference between CHD patients with BSS and non-BSS in CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation at gene level. Moreover, the protein level of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation in CHD patients with BSS was increased significantly when compared to the CHD patients with non-BSS. Additionally, the level of inflammatory cytokines downstream of CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation such as TNF- ? and IL-1 in sera was much higher in CHD patients with BSS than that in CHD patients with non-BSS. Taken together, these results indicated that CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subpopulation was implicated in the pathogenesis of CHD patients with BSS, which may be one of the bases of the essence of BSS investigation.
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Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology.
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Pre-column incubation followed by fast liquid chromatography analysis for rapid screening of natural methylglyoxal scavengers directly from herbal medicines: case study of Polygonum cuspidatum.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Methylglyoxal (MGO), a very reactive metabolite of glucose, plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases associated with diabetes, and it has been validated as an attractive target for them. In the present study, a simple and effective method, namely pre-column incubation followed by fast high performance liquid chromatography based on superficially porous particles (shell), coupled with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS(n)), was proposed for rapid and high-throughput screening of natural MGO scavengers directly from the crude extract of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which was used for treatment of diabetic complications. The hypothesis is that upon reaction with MGO, the peak areas of components with MGO scavenging potency in the chromatogram will be significantly reduced or disappear, and the structural characterization could be achieved by UHPLC-DAD-MS(n) hyphenated technique. First of all, 12 compounds in P. cuspidatum were well separated within shorter time (~12 min) than previous methods and identified, and two of them, i.e. 3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene-3-O-(6?-galloyl)-glucoside (3) and emodin-8-O-(6-malonyl)-glucoside (8) were firstly reported ingredients. After incubation with MGO, four stilbene derivatives were demonstrated to possess potential MGO trapping activities. Furthermore, it was proved that both polydatin (piceid) and resveratrol exhibited effective MGO-trapping capacity by UHPLC analysis, and they could significantly inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the human serum albumin (HSA)-MGO assay, indicating that they were potential candidate agents for delaying and preventing diabetic complications. Additionally, MGO trapping mechanism exploration by UHPLC-MS(n) showed that the positions 2 and 4 of the A ring of stilbene were major active sites for trapping MGO to form both mono- and di-MGO adducts, however, the glucosylation of the hydroxyl group would significantly decrease the trapping efficiency. Collectively, the current work provides a very promising method for rapid discovery of natural MGO scavengers directly from complex matrices such as herbal medicines with huge resources.
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Rapid bedside identification of high-risk population in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction by acoustic cardiography.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the presence of restrictive LV filling pattern are poor prognosticators in heart failure patients with reduced EF (HFREF). We sought to investigate whether acoustic cardiography can identify these high-risk HFREF subgroups.
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p53-Dependent regulation of metabolic function through transcriptional activation of pantothenate kinase-1 gene.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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It is well established that the p53 tumor suppressor plays a crucial role in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis upon various types of stress. There is increasing evidence showing that p53 is also critically involved in various metabolic pathways, both in tumor and normal cells. Here, we have identified a novel p53 metabolic target pantothenate kinase-1 (PANK1) via ChIP-on-chip. PanK1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step for CoA synthesis and, therefore, controls intracellular CoA content; Pank1-knockout mice exhibit defect in ?-oxidation and gluconeogenesis in the liver after starvation due to insufficient CoA levels. We demonstrated that PANK1 gene is a direct transcriptional target of p53. Although DNA damage-induced p53 upregulates PanK1 expression, depletion of PanK1 expression does not affect p53-dependent growth arrest or apoptosis. Interestingly, upon glucose starvation, PanK1 expression is significantly reduced in HCT116 p53 (-/-) but not in HCT116 p53 (+/+) cells, suggesting that p53 is required to maintain PanK1 expression under metabolic stress conditions. Moreover, by using p53-mutant mice, we observed that, similar to the case in Pank1-knockout mice, gluconeogenesis is partially impaired in p53-null mice. Together, our findings show that p53 plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis through transcriptional control of PANK1, independent of its canonical functions in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
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New steroids from the soft coral Nephthea chabrolii.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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A new cytotoxic 19-oxygenated steroid, nebrosteroid Q(1) and two new cytotoxic 19-norergosterols, nebrosteroids R and S (2 and 3) were isolated from the soft coral Nephthea chabrolii collected at San-Hsian-Tai. The structures of nebrosteroids Q-S (1-3) were elucidated by spectral analysis, and their cytotoxicity against selected cancer cells as well as antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) were measured in vitro.
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H1152 promotes the degradation of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 or ataxin-7 independently of its ROCK-inhibiting effect and ameliorates mutant ataxin-3-induced neurodegeneration in the SCA3 transgenic mouse.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) caused by polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 is the most prevalent subtype of spinocerebellar ataxias. A compound, which decreases protein level of mutant ataxin-3 in SCA3 affected CNS regions, should be a promising therapeutic agent for SCA3. SCA3 and Huntingtons disease (HD) belong to a family of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 reduced brain level of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in HD transgenic mouse. Therefore, we tested the possibility that ROCK inhibitors, Y27632, H1152 and GSK429286, downregulate protein expression of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3-Q79. Y27632 or H1152 reduced protein level of HA-tagged ataxin-3-Q79 (ATX-3-Q79HA) expressed in HEK 293 cells. Compared to Y27632, H1152 decreased ATX-3-Q79HA protein level with a significantly more potency and efficacy. H1152 also reduced protein level of HA-tagged polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-7-Q52 (ATX-7-Q52HA), which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). H1152 decreased ATX-3-Q79HA or ATX-7-Q52HA protein level in vitro by augmenting proteasome activity and promoting ATX-3-Q79HA or ATX-7-Q52HA degradation. GSK429286, which is structurally different from H1152 but equally inhibits ROCK, failed to affect protein level of ATX-3-Q79HA or ATX-7-Q52HA. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated suppression of ROCK1 or ROCK2 expression in 293 cells did not affect protein level of ATX-3-Q79HA or ATX-7-Q52HA and H1152 reduction of ATX-3-Q79HA. Daily intraperitoneal administration of H1152 significantly decreased protein level of ATX-3-Q79HA in the cerebellum, pontine nuclei and spinal cord of SCA3 transgenic mice. H1152 also ameliorated pontine neuronal death and neurological phenotype of SCA3 transgenic mice. Our results suggest that H1152 might be an effective therapeutic agent for SCA3 or SCA7.
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A comprehensive census of microbial diversity in hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province China using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The Rehai and Ruidian geothermal fields, located in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, host a variety of geochemically distinct hot springs. In this study, we report a comprehensive, cultivation-independent census of microbial communities in 37 samples collected from these geothermal fields, encompassing sites ranging in temperature from 55.1 to 93.6°C, in pH from 2.5 to 9.4, and in mineralogy from silicates in Rehai to carbonates in Ruidian. Richness was low in all samples, with 21-123 species-level OTUs detected. The bacterial phylum Aquificae or archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota were dominant in Rehai samples, yet the dominant taxa within those phyla depended on temperature, pH, and geochemistry. Rehai springs with low pH (2.5-2.6), high temperature (85.1-89.1°C), and high sulfur contents favored the crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales, whereas those with low pH (2.6-4.8) and cooler temperature (55.1-64.5°C) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobaculum. Rehai springs with neutral-alkaline pH (7.2-9.4) and high temperature (>80°C) with high concentrations of silica and salt ions (Na, K, and Cl) favored the Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter and crenarchaeal orders Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales. Desulfurococcales and Thermoproteales became predominant in springs with pH much higher than the optimum and even the maximum pH known for these orders. Ruidian water samples harbored a single Aquificae genus Hydrogenobacter, whereas microbial communities in Ruidian sediment samples were more diverse at the phylum level and distinctly different from those in Rehai and Ruidian water samples, with a higher abundance of uncultivated lineages, close relatives of the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii", and candidate division O1aA90 and OP1. These differences between Ruidian sediments and Rehai samples were likely caused by temperature, pH, and sediment mineralogy. The results of this study significantly expand the current understanding of the microbiology in Tengchong hot springs and provide a basis for comparison with other geothermal systems around the world.
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Archaeal and bacterial diversity in acidic to circumneutral hot springs in the Philippines.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The microbial diversity was investigated in sediments of six acidic to circumneutral hot springs (Temperature: 60-92 °C, pH 3.72-6.58) in the Philippines using an integrated approach that included geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Both bacterial and archaeal abundances were lower in high-temperature springs than in moderate-temperature ones. Overall, the archaeal community consisted of sequence reads that exhibited a high similarity (nucleotide identity > 92%) to phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and unclassified Archaea. The bacterial community was composed of sequence reads moderately related (nucleotide identity > 90%) to 17 phyla, with Aquificae and Firmicutes being dominant. These phylogenetic groups were correlated with environmental conditions such as temperature, dissolved sulfate and calcium concentrations in spring water, and sediment properties including total nitrogen, pyrite, and elemental sulfur. Based on the phylogenetic inference, sulfur metabolisms appear to be key physiological functions in these hot springs. Sulfobacillus (within phylum Firmicutes) along with members within Sulfolobales were abundant in two high-temperature springs (> 76 °C), and they were hypothesized to play an important role in regulating the sulfur cycling under high-temperature conditions. The results of this study improve our understanding of microbial diversity and community composition in acidic to circumneutral terrestrial hot springs and their relationships with geochemical conditions.
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Control of temperature on microbial community structure in hot springs of the Tibetan Plateau.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China hosts a number of hot springs that represent a biodiversity hotspot for thermophiles, yet their diversity and relationship to environmental conditions are poorly explored in these habitats. In this study we investigated microbial diversity and community composition in 13 Tibetan hot springs with a wide range of temperatures (22.1-75°C) and other geochemical conditions by using the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach. Bacteria (10(8)-10(11) copy/g; 42 bacterial phyla) in Tibetan hot springs were more abundant and far more diverse than Archaea (10(7)-10(10) copy/g; 5 archaeal phyla). The dominant bacterial phyla systematically varied with temperature. Moderate temperatures (75-66°C) favored Aquificae, GAL35, and novel Bacteria, whereas low temperatures (60-22.1°C) selected for Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The relative abundance of Aquificae was correlated positively with temperature, but the abundances of Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Chloroflexi were negatively correlated with temperature. Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were abundant in Tibetan hot springs and their abundances were positively correlated at low temperatures (55-43°C) but negatively correlated at moderate temperatures (75-55°C). These correlation patterns suggest a complex physiological relationship between these two phyla. Most archaeal sequences were related to Crenarchaeota with only a few related to Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Despite the fact that microbial composition in Tibetan hot springs was strongly shaped by temperature, microbial diversity (richness, evenness and Shannon diversity) was not significantly correlated with temperature change. The results of this study expand our current understanding of microbial ecology in Tibetan hot springs and provide a basis for a global comparison.
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Macrophage biospecific extraction and HPLC-ESI-MSn analysis for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell insert Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays, has been developed as a tool for screening immunological active components in Smilacis Glabrae Rhizoma (SGR). In this research, components in the water extract of SGR (ESGR) might conjugate with the receptors or other targets on macrophages which invaded Transwell inserts, and then the eluate which contained components biospecific binding to macrophages was identified by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Six compounds, which could interact with macrophages, were detected and identified. Among these compounds, taxifolin (2) and astilbin (4) were identified by comparing with the chromatography of standards, while the four others including 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (1), neoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (5) and isoastilbin (6), were elucidated by their structure clearage characterizations of tandem mass spectrometry. Then compound 1 was isolated and purified from SGR, along with 2 and 4, was applied to the macrophage migration and adhesion assay in HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) -macrophages co-incultured Transwell system for immunological activity assessment. The results showed that compounds 1, 2 and 4 with concentration of 5?M (H), 500nM (M) and 50nM (L) could remarkably inhibit the macrophage migration and adhesion (Vs AGEs (Advanced Glycation End Produces) group, 1-L, 2-H and 4-L groups: p<0.05; other groups: p<0.01). Moreover, 1 and 4 showed satisfactory dose-effect relationship. In conclusion, the application of macrophage biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method for screening immunological active components from Traditional Chinese Medicine.
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Cembranoids from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Lobophytum crassum.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Chemical investigation of the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Lobophytum crassum has afforded four new cembranoids, crassumols A-C (1-3) and 13-acetoxysarcophytoxide (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR and HRESIMS experiments. The cytotoxicity and anti-HCMV (Human cytomegalovirus) activities of 1-4 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against A-549 (human lung carcinoma) cell line with an ED(50) of 3.6 ?g/mL.
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Prospective study of computed tomography in patients with suspected acute appendicitis and low Alvarado score.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Computed tomography (CT) has been used in diagnosing acute appendicitis since late 1990s. Appropriate use of CT has not been studied prospectively in patients with suspected acute appendicitis and relative low Alvarado score.
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Experimental demonstration of microring-based optical pulse train generator.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Recently, we proposed the concept of a microring-based optical pulse train generator, which uses a series of microrings coupled to a waveguide and time-interleaves a trigger pulse propagating on this waveguide to generate an optical pulse train. When each ring is electrically modulated, this electronic-photonic integrated circuit (EPIC) can be used for optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) and ultrafast electro-optic (EO) modulation. This paper presents the proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of this technique with two four-stage chip prototypes fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. Device fabrication and testing of the chip prototypes are presented. The measurement results show that from a 20-ps-wide input trigger pulse, two circuits generate four sequential pulses at the output with a constant stage delay of 55 ps and 30 ps respectively, which translate into pulse repetition rates of 18 GHz and 33 GHz.
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Polyhydroxylated steroids from the bamboo coral Isis hippuris.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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In previous studies on the secondary metabolites of the Taiwanese octocoral Isis hippuris, specimens have always been collected at Green Island. In the course of our studies on bioactive compounds from marine organisms, the acetone-solubles of the Taiwanese octocoral I. hippuris collected at Orchid Island have led to the isolation of five new polyoxygenated steroids: hipposterone M-O (1-3), hipposterol G (4) and hippuristeroketal A (5). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic and physical data. The anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) activity of 1-5 and their cytotoxicity against selected cell lines were evaluated. Compound 2 exhibited inhibitory activity against HCMV, with an EC(50) value of 6.0 ?g/mL.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.