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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway regulates apoptosis through Smo protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of smoothened protein (Smo), a sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling component, in synovium of RA and its role in the survival and apoptosis of endothelial cells.
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Correlation Between Hyperhomocysteinemia and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Overwhelming clinical and epidemiological studies have identified elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) as new important risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. But the relationship between outcome and hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and short-term outcomes of patients with AMI. Eight hundred five patients were divided into high Hcy level group (group H: N = 457) and low Hcy level group (group L: N = 348) according to the plasma Hcy levels of 15 mmol/L. The comparisons were made between 2 groups in the following aspects: sex, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, the time for symptom from onset to percutaneous coronary intervention, homoccyteine, creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (creatine kinase myocardial band), and the incidence of 30-day adverse events. The incidences of heart failure, cardiac rupture, death, and the total adverse cardiovascular events were statistically significantly higher in group H than in group L. But the incidence of postoperative angina pectoris and reinfarction was similar between groups. The results of logistic regression showed that the incidence of 30-day adverse events was closely related to the age and the level of Hcy. An elevated plasma total Hcy level in patients with AMI experienced pemutaneous coronary intervention may be related to the short-term outcomes. An elevated high plasma Hcy level also seems to be an independent predictor of 30-day cardiovascular events in patients with AMI.
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p53-mediated Regulation of Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is crucial for the Apoptotic Response Upon Serine Starvation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Although p53 is frequently mutated in human cancers, about 80% of human melanomas retain wild-type p53. Here, we report that PHGDH, the key metabolic enzyme that cata-lyzes the rate-limiting step of serine biosynthesis pathway, is a target of p53 in human melanoma cells. p53 suppresses its expression and inhibits de novo serine biosynthesis. Notably, upon serine starvation, p53-mediated cell death is dramatically enhanced in response to Nutlin-3 treatment. Moreover, PHGDH is recently found to be frequently amplified in human melanomas. We found that PHGDH overexpression significantly suppresses the apoptotic response, whereas RNAi-mediated knock-down of endogenous PHGDH promotes apoptosis under the same treatment. These results demonstrate an important role of p53 in regulating serine biosynthesis pathway through suppressing PHGDH expression and reveal serine deprivation as a novel approach to sensitize p53-mediated apoptotic responses in human melanoma cells.
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HSC capture and directional differentiation into vascular endothelial cells for metal stent coated chitosan/hyaluronic acid loading CD133 antibody.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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A series of metal stents coated with chitosan/hyaluronic acid (CS/HA) loading antibodies by electrostatic self-assembled method were prepared, and the types of cells captured by antibodies and their differentiation in vascular endothelial cells evaluated by molecular biology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that CD133-stent can selectively capture hemopoietic stem cells (HSC)which directionally differentiate into vascular endothelial cells in peripheral blood by (CS/HA) induction, and simultaneously inhibit migration and proliferation of immune cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. CD34-stent can capture HSC, hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) that differentiate into vascular endothelial cells and immune cells, promoting smooth muscle cells growth, leading to thrombosis, inflammation and rejection. CD133-stent by implanting into miniature pig heart coronary can repair vascular by capturing own HSC, thus contributing to the rapid natural vascular repair, avoiding inflammation and rejection, thrombotic and restenosis. These studies demonstrated that CD133-stent of HSC capture will be an ideal coated metal stent providing a new therapeutic approach for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
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A study of free portal pressure in cynomolgus monkeys with different degrees of liver fibrosis.
J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of changes in free portal pressure (FPP) in cynomolgus monkeys with different levels of liver fibrosis and to lay a theoretical foundation for the study of FPP in patients with liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis models were successfully established in 15 of 20 cynomolgus monkeys using carbon tetrachloride, among which 10 monkeys developed severe liver fibrosis (S4; i.e., early cirrhosis). A randomized block design was used to study FPP in the 10 cynomolgus monkeys that developed complete liver fibrosis. The FPP values and the rates of change at different stages of liver fibrosis were analyzed. The normal FPP value of cynomolgus monkeys was 25.56 ± 2.33 mmHg; the FPP value at S1 was 36.05 ± 2.91 mmHg, with an increase of 41.04 ± 3.02%; the value at S2 was 42.79 ± 2.91 mmHg, with an increase of 67.41 ± 2.98%; the value at S3 was 50.27 ± 3.44 mmHg, with an increase of 96.67 ± 5.24%; and the value at S4 was 62.47 ± 3.75 mmHg, with an increase of 144.41 ± 6.34%. FPP and its increase at S4 were significantly higher than the normal value and those at S1, S2, and S3 (P < 0.01). These results showed that FPP increases along with the severity of liver fibrosis. FPP at S4 of severe liver fibrosis were >2-fold higher compared with the normal value.
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All-optical self-referencing measurement of vectorial optical arbitrary waveform.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose the Vectorial E-field Characterization Through all-Optical and self-Referenced (VECTOR) method to characterize vectorial optical arbitrary waveform with up to 100% duty cycle, which is free of ambiguity, iteration, radio-frequency or external optical reference, restriction on repetition rate, and requirement of external interferometric stabilization. The feasibility of VECTOR is experimentally verified by different waveforms created by a phase-modulated CW comb source and a built-in polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
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Enhanced second-harmonic generation from nonlinear optical metamagnetics.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We present a numerical simulation of second-harmonic generation (SHG) from a nonlinear magnetic metamaterial. By inserting a second-order nonlinear material in the high local field area of magnetic metamaterial, which consists of periodic arrays of paired thin silver strips, the convertion efficiency of SHG has been significantly enhanced by almost four orders of magnitude. The corresponding field patterns and further studies on dependance between SHG and symmetry of nonlinear crystal show that the increase of the conversion efficiency is attributed to the local field enhancement caused by the magnetic resonnance of the structure. Our researches provide an additional way to further improve the optical nonlinearity in nanostructures.
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Polarization-insensitive liquid crystal microlens array with dual focal modes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) microlens array (MLA) fabricated by LCs possessing negative dielectric anisotropy, in conjunction with a cell with a three-electrode structure. The presented LC MLA is polarization-insensitive and can be operated in both concave and convex modes. The shortest focal length of the LC MLA is -2.54 and 2.22 mm in concave and convex mode, respectively. Disclination lines that are usually observed in conventional hole-patterned LC lens can also be avoided because of the vertical alignment treatment of LCs.
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miR-142 regulates the tumorigenicity of human breast cancer stem cells through the canonical WNT signaling pathway.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of stem and progenitor cell functions. We previously reported that miR-142 and miR-150 are upregulated in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) as compared to the non-tumorigenic breast cancer cells. In this study, we report that miR-142 efficiently recruits the APC mRNA to an RNA-induced silencing complex, activates the canonical WNT signaling pathway in an APC-suppression dependent manner, and activates the expression of miR-150. Enforced expression of miR-142 or miR-150 in normal mouse mammary stem cells resulted in the regeneration of hyperproliferative mammary glands in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous miR-142 effectively suppressed organoid formation by BCSCs and slowed tumor growth initiated by human BCSCs in vivo. These results suggest that in some tumors, miR-142 regulates the properties of BCSCs at least in part by activating the WNT signaling pathway and miR-150 expression.
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Chaotic Extension Neural Network Theory-Based XXY Stage Collision Fault Detection Using a Single Accelerometer Sensor.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The collision fault detection of a XXY stage is proposed for the first time in this paper. The stage characteristic signals are extracted and imported into the master and slave chaos error systems by signal filtering from the vibratory magnitude of the stage. The trajectory diagram is made from the chaos synchronization dynamic error signals E1 and E2. The distance between characteristic positive and negative centers of gravity, as well as the maximum and minimum distances of trajectory diagram, are captured as the characteristics of fault recognition by observing the variation in various signal trajectory diagrams. The matter-element model of normal status and collision status is built by an extension neural network. The correlation grade of various fault statuses of the XXY stage was calculated for diagnosis. The dSPACE is used for real-time analysis of stage fault status with an accelerometer sensor. Three stage fault statuses are detected in this study, including normal status, Y collision fault and X collision fault. It is shown that the scheme can have at least 75% diagnosis rate for collision faults of the XXY stage. As a result, the fault diagnosis system can be implemented using just one sensor, and consequently the hardware cost is significantly reduced.
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[Effect of estradiol on cholesterol metabolism in J774a.1 mouse mononuclear/macrophage cells].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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To explore the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of estrogen and especially observe the effect of estradiol on the content of cholesterol in J774a.1 mouse mononuclear/macrophage-derived foam cells which were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL). J774a.1 mouse mononuclear/macrophages were incubated with ox-LDL or with both ox-LDL and estradiol (1, 0.1 or 0.01 micromol x L(-1)). Oil red O staining was used to observe the formation of foam cells, and cholesterol oxidase fluorometric was used to determine the content of cellular cholesterol content. Western blotting and RTFQ-PCR were used to observe the expressions of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B I ) in J774a.1 foam cells. Compared with the control cells, J774a.1 mouse mononuclear/macrophage-derived foam cells showed significantly increased contents of total cholesterol and cholesterol ester (P < 0.001) and decreased SR-B I mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Estradiol treatment significantly lowered the contents of total cholesterol and cholesterol ester (P < 0.05), and increased SR-B I protein and mRNA expression (P < 0.01) in the foam cells in a dose-dependent manner. Estradiol can inhibit the formation of mononuclear/macrophage-derived foam cells by decreasing the contents of total cholesterol and cholesterol ester and up-regulating the expression of SR-B I in the foam cells.
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Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Abstract Background: Tubulointerstitial damage is a final common pathway of most renal diseases. Whether urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), a biomarker for renal tubular damage, is of prognostic value for clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been well investigated. Methods: The uNGAL and proteinuria levels were measured among a cohort of 473 advanced CKD patients of various etiologies recruited during 2002-2009. Results: The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 32.3±22.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) 680 (255-1248) mg/g and 132 (27.9%) participants had diabetes. The baseline uNGAL level was significantly associated with male gender, eGFR, UPCR, and hemoglobin. The hazard ratio (HR) of the highest uNGAL tertile for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 3.44 (95% CI 1.47-8.06, p=0.004). With the adjustment of urine creatinine and urine protein, HR of the highest urine NGAL-to-creatinine ratio (UNCR) tertile and the highest urine NGAL-to-protein ratio (UNPR) tertile was 3.06 (95% CI 1.19-7.90, p=0.02) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.13-3.89, p=0.02), respectively. UNPR increased the prediction of survival model for ESRD. HR of the highest UNCR tertile and UNPR tertile for cardiovascular (CV) events was 2.21 (95% CI 0.81-5.98, p=0.08) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.25-6.26, p=0.01), respectively. None of these were associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Elevated uNGAL in CKD patients is associated with risks for ESRD and probably CV events. UNPR could improve the prediction for ESRD.
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Nanoparticle counting: towards accurate determination of the molar concentration.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size range of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials are being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use and are compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions.
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A cell-intrinsic role for TLR2-MYD88 in intestinal and breast epithelia and oncogenesis.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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It has been postulated that there is a link between inflammation and cancer. Here we describe a role for cell-intrinsic toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2; which is involved in inflammatory response) signalling in normal intestinal and mammary epithelial cells and oncogenesis. The downstream effectors of TLR2 are expressed by normal intestinal and mammary epithelia, including the stem/progenitor cells. Deletion of MYD88 or TLR2 in the intestinal epithelium markedly reduces DSS-induced colitis regeneration and spontaneous tumour development in mice. Limiting dilution transplantations of breast epithelial cells devoid of TLR2 or MYD88 revealed a significant decrease in mammary repopulating unit frequency compared with the control. Inhibition of TLR2, its co-receptor CD14, or its downstream targets MYD88 and IRAK1 inhibits growth of human breast cancers in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that inhibitors of the TLR2 pathway merit investigation as possible therapeutic and chemoprevention agents.
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To be, or not to be: functional dilemma of p53 metabolic regulation.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In recent years, the emerging role of p53 in metabolic regulation has been a topic of great interest. Although apoptotic and growth arrest functions of p53 remain as important mechanisms for preserving genomic stability, metabolic functions of p53 show increasing potential in contributing to p53-mediated tumor suppression. Numerous recent studies provided further insights into the metabolic functions of p53 and their implications in tumorigenesis.
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Variability in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Area under the Curve Predicts Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Greater variability in renal function is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have demonstrated the predictive value of renal function variability in relation to renal outcomes. This study investigates the predictive ability of different methods of determining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variability for progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. This was a prospective observational study, which enrolled 1,862 CKD patients. The renal end point was defined as commencement of RRT. The variability in eGFR was measured by the area under the eGFR curve (AUC)%. A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the -2 log likelihood ratio statistic. During a median 28.7-month follow-up, there were 564 (30.3%) patients receiving RRT. In an adjusted Cox model, a smaller initial eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), a smaller peak eGFR AUC%_12M (P < 0.001), and a larger negative eGFR slope_12M (P < 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of renal end point. Two calculated formulas: initial eGFR AUC%_12M and eGFR slope_12M were the best predictors. Our results demonstrate that the greater eGFR variability by AUC% is associated with the higher risk of progression to RRT.
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The combination of high Q factor and chirality in twin cavities and microcavity chain.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Chirality in microcavities has recently shown its bright future in optical sensing and microsized coherent light sources. The key parameters for such applications are the high quality (Q) factor and large chirality. However, the previous reported chiral resonances are either low Q modes or require very special cavity designs. Here we demonstrate a novel, robust, and general mechanism to obtain the chirality in circular cavity. By placing a circular cavity and a spiral cavity in proximity, we show that ultra-high Q factor, large chirality, and unidirectional output can be obtained simultaneously. The highest Q factors of the non-orthogonal mode pairs are almost the same as the ones in circular cavity. And the co-propagating directions of the non-orthogonal mode pairs can be reversed by tuning the mode coupling. This new mechanism for the combination of high Q factor and large chirality is found to be very robust to cavity size, refractive index, and the shape deformation, showing very nice fabrication tolerance. And it can be further extended to microcavity chain and microcavity plane. We believe that our research will shed light on the practical applications of chirality and microcavities.
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[Immunosuppressive action of dendritic cells sensitized by oligodeoxynucleotides and CA125 on human OVCAR3 ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To explore the immunosuppressive action of dendritic cells (DC) sensitized by oligodeoxynucleotides containing "un-methylated cytimidine-phosphodiester bond-guanylic acid" motif (CpG ODN) and CA125 on human ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.
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Reduced oxidative stress contributes to the lipid lowering effects of isoquercitrin in free Fatty acids induced hepatocytes.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Oxidative stress interferes with hepatic lipid metabolism at various levels ranging from benign lipid storage to so-called second hit of inflammation activation. Isoquercitrin (IQ) is widely present flavonoid but its effects on hepatic lipid metabolism remain unknown. We used free fatty acids (FFA) induced lipid overload and oxidative stress model in two types of liver cells and measured cell viability, intracellular lipids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within hepatocytes. In addition, Intracellular triglycerides (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined. A novel in vitro model was used to evaluate correlation between lipid lowering and antioxidative activities. Furthermore, 34 major cytokines and corresponding ROS levels were analyzed in FFA/LPS induced coculture model between hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. At molecular level AMPK pathway was elucidated. We showed that IQ attenuated FFA induced lipid overload and ROS within hepatocytes. Further, IQ reversed FFA induced increase in intracellular TG SOD and MDA. It was shown that antioxidative activity of IQ correlates with its lipid lowering potentials. IQ reversed major proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in FFA/LPS induced coculture model. Finally, AMPK pathway was found responsible for metabolic benefits at molecular level. IQ strikingly manifests antioxidative and related lipid lowering activities in hepatocytes.
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Platycladus orientalis leaves: a systemic review on botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Platycladus orientalis leaves (Cebaiye) have been used for thousands of years as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the theory of TCM, they are categorized as a blood-cooling and hematostatic herb. In clinical practice, they were usually prescribed with heat-clearing herbs to reinforce the efficacy of hemostasis. The review provides the up-to-date information from 1980 to present that is available on the botany, processing research, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the leaves. The information is collected from scientific journals, books, theses and reports via library and electronic search (Google Scholar, Pubmed and CNKI). Through literature reports, we can find that the leaves show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, disinsection, anticancer, diuretic, hair growth-promoting, neuroprotective and antifibrotic activities. Diterpene and flavonoids would be active constituents in P. orientalis leaves. Many studies have provided evidence for various traditional uses. However, there is a great need for additional studies to elucidate the mechanism of blood-cooling and hematostatic activity of the leaves. Therefore, the present review on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and toxicity has provided preliminary information for further studies of this herb.
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Maslinic acid modulates glycogen metabolism by enhancing the insulin signaling pathway and inhibiting glycogen phosphorylase.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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To investigate the molecular signaling mechanism by which the plant-derived, pentacyclic triterpene maslinic acid (MA) exerts anti-diabetic effects.
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Screening on human hepatoma cell line HepG-2 nucleus and cytoplasm protein after CDK2 silencing by RNAi.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The activation of phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinases is associated with ordered cell cycle transitions. Among the mammalian Cdks, Cdk2 is essential for liver cancer cell proliferation. The related cycling protein CDK2 was analyzed by 2D-gel and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS mass assay in liver cancer cells, which CDK2 was silenced. The results showed four significantly different spots in cell ribonucleoprotein (similar to ribosomal protein S12, chaperonin 10-related protein, beta-actin and zinc finger protein 276) and four in plasmosin (aldolase A protein, hCG, anonymous protein and tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 2). In the plasmosin, aldolase A catalyzes the production of tublin and actin. Together they regulate the cell cycle and arrest the cell in the S phage. In the cell ribonucleoprotein, proteins with homology to ribosomal protein S12 and chaperonin 10 play a similar role in cell cycle regulation.
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Design, synthesis and antioxidant activity evaluation of novel ?-elemene derivatives.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Forty ?-elemene derivatives were prepared and their antioxidant activity in H2O2-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was first investigated. Among which, the dimer compounds 5r and 5s exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species production. Meanwhile, 5r and 5s led to a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide levels and decrease in malonyldialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase contents. Furthermore, MTT assay showed that 5r and 5s did not produce obvious cytotoxicity and had significantly cytoprotective effects against oxidative damage on HUVECs.
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Effects of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin on Monocyte-Secreted Chemokines.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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BackgroundMammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as sirolimus and its derivative, everolimus, are potent immunosuppressive and antiproliferative drugs. Inflammatory diseases are characterized by immunological dysfunction, and monocyte recruitment underlies the mechanism of cell damage. Chemokines attract inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8); the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2); the regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed, presumably secreted protein (RANTES/CCL5); the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1¿ (CCL3); and MIP-1ß (CCL4) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation. However, whether mTOR inhibitors moderate the production of chemokines in monocytes remains unclear.MethodsA human monocyte cell line, THP-1, and primary monocytes obtained from human volunteers, were stimulated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then treated with sirolimus. The expression of the MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, MIP-1ß, and TNF-¿ proteins was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and intracellular signalling was examined using western blotting.ResultsSirolimus significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß in the THP-1 cells and human primary monocytes. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors that were examined suppressed the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß. In addition, sirolimus suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p65 in the THP-1 and human primary monocytes.ConclusionSirolimus downregulates the expression of chemokines in monocytes, including MCP-1, RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1¿, and MIP-1ß, by inhibiting the NF-¿B-p65 and MAPK-p38 signalling pathways.
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Systolic blood pressure and outcomes in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease patients: evidence from a taiwanese cohort.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is ?140mm Hg. However, the SBP target provides no suggested lower limit, and some studies indicate that a lower SBP target may be harmful. We aimed to investigate the J-shaped relationship between SBP and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and the factors that modify this relationship.
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Self-referenced frequency comb measurement by using a polarization line-by-line pulse shaper.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A polarization line-by-line pulse shaper is used for generation and noniterative spectral phase retrieval of optical arbitrary waveforms (OAWs) spanning over the entire repetition period. The method is completely reference-free, making it particularly attractive in measuring high repetition-rate OAW.
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Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) polymorphisms correlate with the progression of nephropathy in Taiwanese male patients with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Polymorphisms of the ADIPOQ gene were associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in case-control studies predominantly among European populations. Gender may modify the ADIPOQ associated risk for DN. We investigated the association of 18 ADIPOQ polymorphisms with DN in a prospective Taiwanese cohort of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explored whether gender plays a role in this genetic association.
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The impact of emission mechanisms on the long-lived states around avoided resonance crossings in chaotic microcavity.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Here we demonstrate the impacts of emission mechanisms on the light confinements in open systems. Taking the oval-shaped cavities as examples, we show that the enhancements in quality (Q) factors are usually associated with the universal emissions. When the coupled resonances have similar far field patterns, the Q factor of the long-lived resonance has the possibility to be enhanced by the coherent destruction at the decay channels. Otherwise, the Q factors of long-lived resonances are usually reduced around the level crossings.
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Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum by Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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An octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum is generated by non-collinear Raman-assisted four-wave mixing in single-crystal diamond using 7.7 fs laser pulses that have been chirped to about 420 fs in duration. The use of ultrabroad bandwidth pulses as input results in substantial overlap of the generated spectrum of the anti-Stokes sidebands, creating a phase-locked supercontinuum when all the sidebands are combined to overlap in time and space. The overall bandwidth of the generated supercontinuum is sufficient to support its compression to isolated few-to-single cycle attosecond transients. The significant spectral overlap of adjacent anti-Stokes sidebands allows the utilization of straight-forward spectral interferometry to test the relative phase coherence of the anti-Stokes outputs and is demonstrated here for two adjacent pairs of sidebands. The method can subsequently be employed to set the relative phase of the sidebands for pulse compression and for the synthesis of arbitrary field transients.
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Analysis of the bacterial community in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease sputum samples by denaturing gradient Gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The Global Initiative defines COPD for chronic obstructive lung disease as an entirely preventable and treatable disease characterized by sputum production, bacterial colonisation, neutrophilic bronchial airway inflammation and poor health status. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that COPD will become the fourth-most common cause of death worldwide, just behind ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and HIV/AIDS, by 2030. The aim of this study was to determine the main structure feature of sputum potentially pathogenic microorganisms in subjects with COPD during the clinical stable state.
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Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Ticks can transmit a number of pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Tick borne diseases (TBDs), which may lead to organ failure and death have been recently reported in China. 98.75% of the total cases (>1000) in Henan provinces have been reported in Xinyang city. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the fauna of ticks and detect the potential pathogens in ticks in Xinyang, the region of central China.
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Establishment of a liver fibrosis model in cynomolgus monkeys.
Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Hepatic fibrosis, resulted from hepatoxicity and other diseases such as diabetes, is an important pathological characteristic of chronic liver diseases. Establishment of hepatic fibrosis animal models is of great importance and a prerequisite for human clinical studies. The common models for liver fibrosis are often established in lower small animals such as rats, but non-human primates are a much better model for human diseases because of the physiological similarity with humans. In this study, we investigated the method to induce liver fibrosis in cynomolgus monkeys using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and to establish a model that more closely mimics human liver fibrosis. We successfully established the liver fibrosis model in 15 of the 20 cynomolgus monkeys (success rate 75%), by CCl4 administration at a dose of 1.0 mL/kg (400 mL/L) twice a week. Liver biopsy showed that liver fibrosis progressed with time and gradually advanced into early-stage cirrhosis in 10 of the 15 established models at 16 weeks. Our study provides a better research platform for the prevention and treatment of chronic liver diseases.
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Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory indicators with renal function decline in type 2 diabetes.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the inflammatory indicator, interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been implied in the development of renal dysfunction. This longitudinal study examined the effect of n-3 PUFAs and IL-6 on the risk of renal function decline and explored whether n-3 PUFAs modify the effect of inflammatory indicators on renal dysfunction risk in type 2 diabetes.
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Targets and candidate agents for type 2 diabetes treatment with computational bioinformatics approach.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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We sought to explore the molecular mechanism of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and identify potential drug targets and candidate agents for T2D treatment. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assessed between human pancreatic islets with T2D and normal islets. The dysfunctional pathways, the potential transcription factor, and microRNA targets were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Moreover, a group of bioactive small molecules were identified based on the connectivity map database. The pathways of Eicosanoid Synthesis, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, and Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway were found to be significantly dysregulated in the progression of T2D. The genes of ZADH2 (zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase domain containing 2), BTBD3 (BTB (POZ) domain containing 3), Cul3-based ligases,??LTBP1 (latent-transforming growth factor beta binding protein 1), PDGFRA (alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor), and FST (follistatin) were determined to be significant nodes regulated by potential transcription factors and microRNAs. Besides, two small molecules (sanguinarine and DL-thiorphan) were identified to be capable of reverse T2D. In the present study, a systematic understanding for the mechanism underlying T2D development was provided with biological informatics methods. The significant nodes and bioactive small molecules may be drug targets and candidate agents for T2D treatment.
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The use of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to oxidize SO? and NOx for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A simple and efficient method for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and with no additional chemicals is presented. The simultaneous removal of 90% SO2 and 96% NOx (NO+NO2) was achieved from the simulated flue gas under the irradiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp with main wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm, respectively. The composition, flow rate, and temperature of the simulated flue gas, as well as the VUV light intensity, were evaluated as the factors impacting on the efficiency of SO2 and NOx removal. The OH, HO2, O, and O3 produced from the photolysis of H2O and O2 were concluded as the major reactive oxygen species that oxidized SO2 and NOx. The additional OH and HO2 generated through the reactions of NO+HO2 and SO2+OH/HO2 improved treatment efficiency, while the oxidation products of NOx, e.g., NO2, HNO2, HNO3, and HNO4, consumed massive reactive oxygen species (such as O, OH, and HO2) and thereby reducing the removal efficiencies. The main reaction products were characterized as H2SO4 and HNO3 by ion chromatography, which could be used as chemical or fertilizer raw materials.
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Targeting unique metabolic properties of breast tumor initiating cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Normal stem cells from a variety of tissues display unique metabolic properties compared to their more differentiated progeny. However, relatively little is known about metabolic properties of cancer stem cells, also called tumor initiating cells (TICs). In this study we show that, analogous to some normal stem cells, breast TICs have distinct metabolic properties compared to nontumorigenic cancer cells (NTCs). Transcriptome profiling using RNA-Seq revealed TICs underexpress genes involved in mitochondrial biology and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolic analyses revealed TICs preferentially perform glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation compared to NTCs. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that decreased expression and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh), a key regulator of oxidative phosphorylation, plays a critical role in promoting the proglycolytic phenotype of TICs. Metabolic reprogramming via forced activation of Pdh preferentially eliminated TICs both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings reveal unique metabolic properties of TICs and demonstrate that metabolic reprogramming represents a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting these cells.
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Evaluation and comparison of multiple aligners for next-generation sequencing data analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has rapidly advanced and generated the massive data volumes. To align and map the NGS data, biologists often randomly select a number of aligners without concerning their suitable feature, high performance, and high accuracy as well as sequence variations and polymorphisms existing on reference genome. This study aims to systematically evaluate and compare the capability of multiple aligners for NGS data analysis. To explore this capability, we firstly performed alignment algorithms comparison and classification. We further used long-read and short-read datasets from both real-life and in silico NGS data for comparative analysis and evaluation of these aligners focusing on three criteria, namely, application-specific alignment feature, computational performance, and alignment accuracy. Our study demonstrated the overall evaluation and comparison of multiple aligners for NGS data analysis. This serves as an important guiding resource for biologists to gain further insight into suitable selection of aligners for specific and broad applications.
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Human babesiosis, an emerging tick-borne disease in the People¿s Republic of China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Babesiosis is a typical zoonotic, emerging disease caused by a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of Babesia spp. that also can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Babesiosis imposes an increasing public-health threat. We reviewed and mapped epidemiological studies on Babesia in vectors and/or rodents in the People¿s Republic of China (P.R. China) and found that B. microti was the predominant species detected in the investigated regions such as Heilongjiang, Zhejiang, Fujian provinces and Taiwan island. We reviewed a series of sporadic human babesiosis cases collected from 1940¿s to 2013, in Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan and Zhejiang and other regions including a main endemic area of malaria on the China-Myanmar border areas in P.R. China. Clinical manifestations of human babesiosis were also reviewed. Human babesiosis may have previously been overlooked in P.R. China due to a lack of medical awareness and the limitation of clinical diagnostic methods.
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Interleukin-6 signal transduction and its role in hepatic lipid metabolic disorders.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Hepatic lipid dysregulation can lead to spectrum of metabolic disease conditions including metabolic syndrome (MS), fatty liver and diabetes. Liver lipids are regulated by a complex set of extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic factors including cellular cross-talk with variety of cells, inducing various cytokines. Interleukin 6(IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that exerts both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects on hepatic system through either JNK/STAT or ERK/MAPK signaling. Although, IL-6 has shown to protect the liver from fat storage in both rodent and human models and various IL-6(-/-) studies have supported this notion yet a question remains over its deleterious pro-inflammatory effects on hepatocytes. IL-6 ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently disturb the hepatic lipid balance has created a conundrum. Furthermore, IL-6 has shown to behave differently under different disease states within hepatocytes and hence, modulating the hepatic lipids accordingly. This review deals with the role of IL-6 on hepatic lipid metabolism and analyzes various data presented on this topic.
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Lipid modulatory activities of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet are mediated by multiple components within hepatocytes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate a possible methodology of exploiting herbal medicine and design polytherapy for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we have made use of Cichorium glandulosum Boiss et Huet (CG), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been proven to be effective in treating hepatic diseases. Here, we report that the extract of CG effectively reduced lipid accumulation under conditions of lipid overloading in vivo and in vitro (in a rat high-fat diet model and a hepG2 cell model of free fatty acid treatment). CG extract also protected hepatocytes from injury and inflammation to aid its lipid-lowering properties (in a rat high-fat diet model and a L02 cell model of acetaminophen treatment). Serum chemistry analysis accompanied by in vitro drug screening confirmed that CG-4, CG-10 and CG-14 are the lipo-effective components of CG. Western blotting analysis revealed that these components can regulate key lipid targets at the molecular level, including CD36, FATP5 and PPAR-?, thus the lipid oxidation and lipid absorption pathways. Finally, we adopted the experimental design and statistical method to calculate the best combination proportion (CG-4: CG-10: CG-14 = 2.065: 1.782: 2.153) to optimize its therapeutic effect.
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UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based plasma metabolic profiling analysis of the bleeding mechanism in a rat model of yeast and ethanol-induced blood heat and hemorrhage syndrome.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Blood heat and hemorrhage (BHH) syndrome is the most common bleeding disease in clinic. In this study, a rat model with BHH syndrome was built for the first time. Biochemical study showed the intrinsic coagulation pathways and the platelet aggregation rate in the rat model were inhibited, while extrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade was activated. An UHPLC/Q-TOF MS combined with orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was employed to construct plasma metabolic profiling of the rat model with BHH syndrome. Twenty-four unique metabolites were identified, which were involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and cholic acid metabolism. In the end, we concluded that bleeding mechanism of the rat with BHH syndrome may be associated with augmenting blood viscosity, inhibiting platelet aggregation and intrinsic coagulation pathways.
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Drug-Induced Acute Liver Injury Within 12 Hours After Fluvastatin Therapy.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Although statins are generally well-tolerated drugs, recent cases of drug-induced liver injury associated with their use have been reported. A 52-year-old Chinese man reported with liver damage, which appeared 12 hours after beginning treatment with fluvastatin. Patient presented with complaints of increasing nausea, anorexia, and upper abdominal pain. His laboratory values showed elevated creatine kinase and transaminases. Testing for autoantibodies was also negative. The liver biochemistries eventually normalized within 3 weeks of stopping the fluvastatin. Therefore, when prescribing statins, the possibility of hepatic damage should be taken into account.
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Interleukin-18 directly protects cortical neurons by activating PI3K/AKT/NF-?B/CREB pathways.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, was initially identified as an interferon (IFN)-?-inducing factor. IL-18 is expressed in both immune and non-immune cells and participates in the adjustment of multitude cellular functions. Nonetheless, the effects of IL-18 on cortical neurons have not been explored. The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of IL-18 on rat primary cortical neurons and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. We proved that rrIL-18 increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with rrIL-18 (50 ng/ml) deactivated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) by facilitating its phosphorylation, enhanced the expression of Phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI3K) and p-Akt, standing for the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. As its pivotal downstream pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)/Bcl-2 and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were examined in further steps. Our data revealed that rrIL-18 stimulated NF-?B activation, improved p-CREB and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression levels. But rrIL-18 had little or no effect on GSK-3? pathway. Besides, rrIL-18 increased levels of BDNF and Bcl-2/Bax ratio and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression to protect cortical neurons from damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). These results in vitro showed the protection of IL-18 on cortical neurons. And this direct neuroprotective effect of IL-18 is crippled by PI3K inhibitor wortmannin.
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Counter-anion role in the formation of two supramolecular complexes: [Ag2(DPP)2](ClO4)2·CH3CN and [Ag2(DPP)2(NO3)2] {DPP is N-[(diphenylphosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine}.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The title compounds, bis{?-N-[(diphenylphosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine-?(2)N(1):P}disilver bis(perchlorate) acetonitrile monosolvate, [Ag2(C18H17N2P)2](ClO4)2·CH3CN, (1), and bis{?-N-[(diphenylphosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine-?(2)N(1):P}bis[(nitrato-?(2)O,O)silver], [Ag2(C18H17N2P)2(NO3)2], (2), each contain disilver macrocyclic [Ag2(C18H17N2P)2](2+) cations lying about inversion centres. The cations are constructed by two N-[(diphenylphosphanyl)methyl]pyridin-4-amine (DPP) ligands linking two Ag(+) cations in a head-to-tail fashion. In (1), the unique Ag(+) cation has a near-linear coordination geometry consisting of one pyridine N atom and one P atom from two different DPP ligands. Two ClO4(-) anions doubly bridge two metallomacrocycles through Ag···O and N-H···O weak interactions to form a chain extending in the c direction. The half-occupancy acetonitrile molecule lies with its methyl C atom on a twofold axis and makes a weak N···Ag contact. In (2), there are two independent [Ag(C18H17N2P)](+) cations. The nitrate anions weakly chelate to each Ag(+) cation, leading to each Ag(+) cation having a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry consisting of one pyridine N atom and one P atom from two different DPP ligands, and two chelating nitrate O atoms. Each dinuclear [Ag2(C18H17N2P)2(NO3)2] molecule acts as a four-node to bridge four adjacent equivalent molecules through N-H···O interactions, forming a two-dimensional sheet parallel to the bc plane. Each sheet contains dinuclear molecules involving just Ag1 or Ag2 and these two types of sheet are stacked in an alternating fashion. The sheets containing Ag1 all lie near x = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2 etc, while those containing Ag2 all lie near x = 0, 1, 2 etc. Thus, the two independent sheets are arranged in an alternating sequence at x = 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2 etc. These two different supramolecular structures result from the different geometric conformations of the templating anions which direct the self-assembly of the cations and anions.
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Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could benefit from policies and intervention strategies that are tailored to the local geographic areas' profiles.
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Fluid overload, pulse wave velocity, and ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fluid overload is one of the characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes in extracellular fluid volume are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Not only diabetes but also fluid overload is associated with cardiovascular risk factors The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between fluid overload, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in 480 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as a good parameter of arterial stiffness, and brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP)/brachial ejection time (bET), correlated with impaired left ventricular function were measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. Of all patients, 207 (43.9%) were diabetic and 240 (50%) had fluid overload. For non-diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with being female (??=?-2.87, P?=?0.003), heart disease (??=?2.69, P?=?0.04), high baPWV (??=?0.27, P?=?0.04), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.10, P<0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-5.21, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. For diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with diuretics use (??=?3.69, P?=?0.003), high mean arterial pressure (??=?0.14, P?=?0.01), low bPEP/ET (??=?-0.19, P?=?0.03), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.55, P?=?0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-9.46, P<0.001). In conclusion, baPWV is associated with fluid overload in non-diabetic CKD and bPEP/bET is associated with fluid overload in diabetic CKD. Early and accurate assessment of these associated cardiovascular risk factors may improve the effects of entire care in late CKD.
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Association of angiopoietin-2 with renal outcome in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pathophysiological mechanisms of renal function progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have still not been completely explored. In addition to well-known traditional risk factors, non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, have gradually attracted physicians' attention. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) impairs endothelial function through preventing angiopoietin-1 from binding to Tie2 receptor. Whether Ang-2 is associated with renal function progression in CKD is unknown.
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A living light bulb, ultrasensitive biodetection made easy.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A team of scientists led by Professor DW Pang at Wuhan University have developed a new class of fluorescence probes based on bacterial cells. These microbial factories manufacture semiconductor nanocrystals inside and display protein A molecules on cell surface, transforming Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cells into highly fluorescent cellular beacons that can be easily adapted for detection of diverse biological targets.
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P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as a noninvasive tool to evaluate left atrial enlargement. This study was designed to assess whether P wave parameters were associated with renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This longitudinal study enrolled 439 patients with CKD stages 3-5. Renal end points were defined as the commencement of dialysis or death. Change in renal function was measured using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected for heart rate, i.e., corrected P wave dispersion and corrected maximum P wave duration. The values of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were 88.8±21.7 ms and 153.3±21.7 ms, respectively. During the follow-up period (mean, 25.2 months), 95 patients (21.6%) started hemodialysis and 30 deaths (6.8%) were recorded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that increased P wave dispersion [hazard ratio (HR), 1.020; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.009-1.032; P<0.001] and maximum P wave duration (HR, 1.013; 95% CI, 1.003-1.024; P?=?0.012) were associated with progression to renal end points. Furthermore, increased P wave dispersion (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.016; P?=?0.037) and maximum P wave duration (unstandardized coefficient ??=?-0.014; P?=?0.040) were negatively associated with the eGFR slope. We demonstrated that increased P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration were associated with progression to the renal end points of dialysis or death and faster renal function decline in CKD patients. Screening CKD patients on the basis of P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration may help identify patients at high risk for worse renal outcomes.
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Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been analyzed with competing risk model.
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Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study and CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations for Taiwanese adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations may not be accurate for Asians; thus, we developed modified eGFR equations for Taiwanese adults.
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Chronic stress suppresses the expression of cutaneous hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis elements and melanogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic stress can affect skin function, and some skin diseases might be triggered or aggravated by stress. Stress can activate the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which causes glucocorticoid levels to increase. The skin has HPA axis elements that react to environmental stressors to regulate skin functions, such as melanogenesis. This study explores the mechanism whereby chronic stress affects skin pigmentation, focusing on the HPA axis, and investigates the role of glucocorticoids in this pathway. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to two types of chronic stress, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Mice subjected to either stress condition showed reduced melanogenesis. Interestingly, CRS and CUMS triggered reductions in the mRNA expression levels of key factors involved in the HPA axis in the skin. In mice administered corticosterone, decreased melanin synthesis and reduced expression of HPA axis elements were observed. The reduced expression of HPA axis elements and melanogenesis in the skin of stressed mice were reversed by RU486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) treatment. Glucocorticoids had no significant inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in vitro. These results suggest that, high levels of serum corticosterone induced by chronic stress can reduce the expression of elements of the skin HPA axis by glucocorticoid-dependent negative feedback. These activities can eventually result in decreased skin pigmentation. Our findings raise the possibility that chronic stress could be a risk factor for depigmentation by disrupting the cutaneous HPA axis and should prompt dermatologists to exercise more caution when using glucocorticoids for treatment.
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Alterations in low-level perceptual networks related to clinical severity in PTSD after an earthquake: a resting-state fMRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several task-based functional MRI (fMRI) studies have highlighted abnormal activation in specific regions involving the low-level perceptual (auditory, visual, and somato-motor) network in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. However, little is known about whether the functional connectivity of the low-level perceptual and higher-order cognitive (attention, central-execution, and default-mode) networks change in medication-naïve PTSD patients during the resting state.
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Association of relatives of hemodialysis patients with metabolic syndrome, albuminuria and Framingham Risk Score.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS), albuminuria, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) are significant predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship and clinical significance of these CVD predictors in individuals with a family history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are unclear. We investigated the association of relatives of hemodialysis (HD) patients with MetS, albuminuria, and the FRS.
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Physical activity and excess weight in pregnancy have independent and unique effects on delivery and perinatal outcomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study examines the effect of low daily physical activity levels and overweight/obesity in pregnancy on delivery and perinatal outcomes.
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Discrepancy between serological and virological analysis of viral hepatitis in hemodialysis patients.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Viral hepatitis is a health threat for hemodialysis (HD) patients and it may be transmitted during treatment. Some patients categorized to have viral hepatitis were found to be non-viremic. To clarify the discrepancy between the serological tests in HD patients, we conducted the study.
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The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology.
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A belief-based model for characterizing the spread of awareness and its impacts on individuals' vaccination decisions.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During an epidemic, individuals' decisions on whether or not to take vaccine may affect the dynamics of disease spread and, therefore, the effectiveness of disease control. Empirical studies have shown that such decisions can be subjected to individuals' awareness about disease and vaccine, such as their perceived disease severity and vaccine safety. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of individuals' vaccination behaviour by modelling the spread of awareness in a group of socially connected individuals and examining the associated impacts on their vaccination decision-making. In our model, we examine whether or not individuals will get vaccinated as well as when they would. In doing so, we consider three possible decisions from an individual, i.e., to accept, to reject, and yet to decide, and further associate them with a set of belief values. Next, we extend the Dempster-Shafer theory to characterize individuals' belief value updates and their decision-making, having incorporated the awareness obtained from their connected neighbours. Furthermore, we examine two factors that will affect individuals' vaccination decisions: (i) reporting rates of disease- and vaccine-related events, and (ii) fading coefficient of awareness spread. By doing so, we can assess the impacts of awareness spread by evaluating the vaccination dynamics in terms of the number of vaccinated individuals. The results have demonstrated that the former influences the ratio of vaccinated individuals, whereas the latter affects the time when individuals decide to take vaccine.
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5-HT1A/1B receptors as targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in C57BL/6 mouse skin to stress.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stress has been reported to induce alterations of skin pigmentary response. Acute stress is associated with increased turnover of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) whereas chronic stress causes a decrease. 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells, indicating their role in skin pigmentation. To ascertain the precise role of 5-HT in stress-induced pigmentary responses, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to chronic restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CRS and CUMS, two models of chronic stress) for 21 days, finally resulting in abnormal pigmentary responses. Subsequently, stressed mice were characterized by the absence of a black pigment in dorsal coat. The down-regulation of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2) expression in stressed skin was accompanied by reduced levels of 5-HT and decreased expression of 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) system. In both murine B16F10 melanoma cells and normal human melanocytes (NHMCs), 5-HT had a stimulatory effect on melanin production, dendricity and migration. When treated with 5-HT in cultured hair follicles (HFs), the increased expression of melanogenesis-related genes and the activation of 5-HT1A, 1B and 7 receptors also occurred. The serum obtained from stressed mice showed significantly decreased tyrosinase activity in NHMCs compared to that from nonstressed mice. The decrease in tyrosinase activity was further augmented in the presence of 5-HTR1A, 1B and 7 antagonists, WAY100635, SB216641 and SB269970. In vivo, stressed mice received 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a member of the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine; FX) and 5-HTR1A/1B agonists (8-OH-DPAT/CP94253), finally contributing to the normalization of pigmentary responses. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the serotoninergic system plays an important role in the regulation of stress-induced depigmentation, which can be mediated by 5-HT1A/1B receptors. 5-HT and 5-HTR1A/1B may constitute novel targets for therapy of skin hypopigmentation disorders, especially those worsened with stress.
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[Temperature characteristics of huang-Ryes factor of all-trans-beta-carotene].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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A visible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-beta-beta-carotene was measured in cyclohexanol solution in the temperature range from 68 degrees C to 26 degrees C. The results indicated that the visible absorption spectra are red-shifted, Raman scattering cross section increases, Huang-Ryes factor and electron-phonon coupling constants of CC bond vibration modes decreases with the temperature decreasing. The changes are interpreted using the theory of "coherent weakly damped electronic-lattice vibration model" and "effective conjugation length model". The red shift of the absorption spectra and intensity of the Raman active are attributed to the thermal conformational change-induced increase in the effective conjugation length in all-trans-beta-carotene chains. All-trans-beta-carotene has strong coherent weakly damped CC bonds vibrational properties, which lead to large Raman scattering cross section in the solvent of low temperature. The electron-phonon coupling constants with dimension are used, which can easily establish relation with the Huang-Rhys factor and calculate the electron-phonon coupling constants of CC bond vibration modes. Effective conjugation length, the pi-electron delocalization range and the Raman scattering cross section are described by the electron-phonon coupling constants.
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Combating infectious diseases of poverty: a year on.
Infect Dis Poverty
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The Infectious Diseases of Poverty journal, launched a year ago, is a platform to engage outside the traditional disciplinary boundaries, and disseminate high quality science towards the improvement of health. This paper reviews the milestone achievements during its first year of operation. The journal has filled an important niche, addressing some of the main priorities in the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty. Highlights include the publication of three thematic issues on health systems, surveillance and response systems, as well as co-infection and syndemics. The thematic issues have foregrounded the importance and innovation that can be achieved through transdisciplinary research. The journal has been indexed by PubMed since April 2013, with the publication of a total of 38 articles. Finally, the journal is delivering to wider range readers both in developing and developed countries with sustained efforts with a focus on relevant and strategic information towards elimination of infectious diseases of poverty.
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Dialysis initiation: whats the rush?
Semin Dial
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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The recent trend to early initiation of dialysis (at eGFR >10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) appears to have been based on conventional wisdoms that are not supported by evidence. Observational studies using administrative databases report worse comorbidity-adjusted dialysis survival with early dialysis initiation. Although some have concluded that the IDEAL randomized controlled trial of dialysis start provided evidence that patients become symptomatic with late dialysis start, there is no definitive support for this view. The potential harms of early start of dialysis, including the loss of residual renal function (RRF), have been well documented. The rate of RRF loss (renal function trajectory) is an important consideration for the timing of the dialysis initiation decision. Patients with low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may have sufficient RRF to be maintained off dialysis for years. Delay of dialysis start until a working arterio-venous access is in place seems prudent in light of the lack of harm and possible benefit of late dialysis initiation. Prescribing frequent hemodialysis is not recommended when dialysis is initiated early. The benefits of early initiation of chronic dialysis after episodes of congestive heart failure or acute kidney injury require further study. There are no data to show that early start benefits diabetics or other patient groups. Preemptive start of dialysis in noncompliant patients may be necessary to avoid complications. The decision to initiate dialysis requires informed patient consent and a joint decision by the patient and dialysis provider. Possible talking points for obtaining informed consent are provided.
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Identifying human milk glycans that inhibit norovirus binding using surface plasmon resonance.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Human milk glycans inhibit binding between norovirus and its host glycan receptor; such competitive inhibition by human milk glycans is associated with a reduced risk of infection. The relationship between the presence of specific structural motifs in the human milk glycan and its ability to inhibit binding by specific norovirus strains requires facile, accurate and miniaturized-binding assays. Toward this end, a high-throughput biosensor platform was developed based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) of glycan microarrays. The SPRi was validated, and its utility was tested, by measuring binding specificities between defined human milk glycan epitopes and the capsids of two common norovirus strains, VA387 and Norwalk. Human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS)-based neoglycoconjugates, including chemically derived neoglycoproteins and oligosaccharide-glycine derivatives, were used to represent polyvalent glycoconjugates and monovalent oligosaccharides, respectively, in human milk. SPRi binding results established that the glycan motifs that bind norovirus capsids depend upon strain; VA387 capsid interacts with two neoglycoproteins, whereas Norwalk capsid binds to a different set of HMOS motifs in the form of both polyvalent neoglycoproteins and monovalent oligosaccharides. SPRi competitive binding assays further demonstrated that specific norovirus-binding glycans are able to inhibit norovirus capsid binding to their host receptors. A polyvalent neoglycoconjugate with clustered carbohydrate moieties is required for the inhibition of VA387 capsid binding to host receptor glycans, whereas both monovalent oligosaccharides and polyvalent neoglycoconjugates are able to inhibit Norwalk capsid binding to its host receptor. Binding of HMOS and HMOS-based neoglycoconjugates to norovirus capsids depends upon the specific strain characteristics, implying that HMOS and their polyvalent derivatives are potential anti-adhesive agents for norovirus prophylaxis.
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Noniterative data inversion of phase retrieval by omega oscillating filtering for optical arbitrary waveform measurement.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We propose a noniterative data inversion process for the phase retrieval by omega oscillating filtering method that could measure both isolated attosecond pulses and periodic optical arbitrary waveform (OAW). The built-in phase modulation depth recovery not only prevents the need of independent calibration (a critical advantage in the extreme ultraviolet regime) but provides a self-consistency check for the data integrity. Our experiments successfully retrieved OAW with ~100% duty cycle in the near infrared regime.
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Dyslipoproteinemia and impairment of renal function in diabetic kidney disease: an analysis of animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials.
Rev Diabet Stud
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.
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Association of cholesterol levels with mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with CKD and different amounts of proteinuria.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Malnutrition and/or inflammation may modify the risk relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. However, it is unclear whether the relationship of total cholesterol with cardiovascular events and mortality varies by proteinuria.
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Methylation of a Novel CpG Island of Intron 1 Is Associated With Steroidogenic Factor 1 Expression in Endometriotic Stromal Cells.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), a transcriptional factor essential for estrogen biosynthesis, is undetectable in endometrial stromal cells and aberrantly expressed in endometriotic stromal cells.Objective:We tried to gain further insight into the mechanism for differential SF-1 expression in endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells.Design:We had previously identified a novel CpG island in SF-1, which is located in the downstream intron 1 region. Here, we evaluated the methylation status of this CpG island.Patients:We obtained the eutopic endometrium from disease-free participants (n = 8) and the walls of cystic endometriosis lesions of the ovaries from another group of participants (n = 8). None of the patients had received any preoperative hormonal therapy.Interventions:Stromal cells were isolated from these 2 types of tissues and subjected to DNA bisulfite treatment and sequence analysis.Results:The SF-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in endometriotic stromal cells were significantly higher than those in endometrial stromal cells. Bisulfite sequencing showed strikingly increased methylation of a 1-kbp region around the previously identified CpG island in endometriotic cells compared with endometrial cells (P < .001). A strong correlation between SF-1 mRNA levels and percentage methylation of the intron 1 region of the SF-1 gene was observed in endometriotic cells (Spearman correlation coefficient, .96; P < .001).Conclusions:Methylation of the intron 1 region of the SF-1 gene is associated with its expression in endometriotic cells. This CpG island therefore plays an important role in regulating SF-1 expression.
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Association of metabolic syndrome and albuminuria with cardiovascular risk in occupational drivers.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and albuminuria increase cardiovascular risk. However, in occupational drivers, the clinical significance of albuminuria and its association with MetS remain unclear. We investigated the prevalence of MetS, albuminuria and cardiovascular risk, and its associated risk factors in occupational drivers;
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Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu.
Infect Dis Poverty
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.