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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ozone-induced airway epithelial cell death, the neurokinin-1 receptor pathway, and the postnatal developing lung.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Children are uniquely susceptible to ozone because airway and lung growth continue for an extensive period after birth. Early-life exposure of the rhesus monkey to repeated ozone cycles results in region-specific disrupted airway/lung growth, but the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. Substance P (SP), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R); and nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) are signaling pathway components involved in ozone-induced cell death. We hypothesize that acute ozone (AO) exposure during postnatal airway development disrupts SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression and that these changes correlate with increased ozone-induced cell death. Our objectives were to 1) spatially define the normal development of the SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway in conducting airways; 2) compare how postnatal age modulates responses to AO exposure; and 3) determine how concomitant, episodic ozone exposure modifies age-specific acute responses. Male infant rhesus monkeys were assigned at age 1 mo to two age groups, 2 or 6 mo, and then to one of three exposure subgroups: filtered air (FA), FA+AO (AO: 8 h/day × 2 days), or episodic biweekly ozone exposure cycles (EAO: 8 h/day × 5 days/14-day cycle+AO). O3 = 0.5 ppm. We found that 1) ozone increases SP/NK-1R/Nur77 pathway expression in conducting airways, 2) an ozone exposure cycle (5 days/cycle) delivered early at age 2 mo resulted in an airway that was hypersensitive to AO exposure at the end of 2 mo, and 3) continued episodic exposure (11 cycles) resulted in an airway that was hyposensitive to AO exposure at 6 mo. These observations collectively associate with greater overall inflammation and epithelial cell death, particularly in early postnatal (2 mo), distal airways.
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Cervical spine computed tomography utilization in pediatric trauma patients.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Guidelines for evaluating the cervical spine in pediatric trauma patients recommend cervical spine CT (CSCT) when plain radiographs suggest an injury. Our objective was to compare usage of CSCT between a pediatric trauma center (PTC) and referral general emergency departments (GEDs).
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Facilitative effects of group feeding on performance of the saddleback caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Gregarious feeding by insect herbivores is a widely observed, yet poorly understood, behavioral adaptation. Previous research has tested the importance of group feeding for predator deterrence, noting the ubiquity of aposematism among group-feeding insects, but few studies have examined the role of feeding facilitation for aggregates of insect herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that group feeding has facilitative effects on performance of the saddleback caterpillar, Acharia stimulea Clemens, a generalist herbivore of deciduous trees. In an understory forest setting, we reared caterpillars alone or in groups on two different host plants, white oak (Quercus alba L.) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrlich), and recorded multiple measures of insect performance during regular field censuses. As predicted, A. stimulea caterpillars feeding in groups on white oak had increased relative growth rates compared with caterpillars feeding alone, and the magnitude of this facilitative effect varied among censuses, conferring benefits both early and late in development. By contrast, no facilitative effects of group feeding were detected on beech, suggesting that the benefits of facilitative feeding may be host specific. On both hosts, caterpillar development time was slightly faster for group-feeding cohorts compared with their solitary counterparts. Because early instar caterpillars are particularly vulnerable to predation and parasitism, even modest increases in growth rates and reductions in development time may decrease exposure time to enemies during these vulnerable stages. On both hosts, group feeding also reduced the trade-off between individual development time and cocoon mass, suggesting that feeding efficiency is improved in group feeders relative to solitary caterpillars.
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Fetal exposure of rhesus macaques to bisphenol a alters cellular development of the conducting airway by changing epithelial secretory product expression.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure early in life results in organizational changes in reproductive organs, but the effect of BPA on conducting airway cellular maturation has not been studied. Late gestation is characterized by active differentiation of secretory cells in the lung epithelium. BJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis that BPA exposure disrupts epithelial secretory cell development in the fetal conducting airway of the rhesus macaque.
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Ozone exposure alters serotonin and serotonin receptor expression in the developing lung.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Ozone, a pervasive environmental pollutant, adversely affects functional lung growth in children. Animal studies demonstrate that altered lung development is associated with modified signaling within the airway epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit, including mediators that can change nerve growth. We hypothesized that ozone exposure alters the normal pattern of serotonin, its transporter (5-HTT), and two key receptors (5-HT2A and 5-HT4), a pathway involved in postnatal airway neural, epithelial, and immune processes. We exposed monkeys to acute or episodic ozone during the first 2 or 6 months of life. There were three exposure groups/age: (1) filtered air, (2) acute ozone challenge, and (3) episodic ozone + acute ozone challenge. Lungs were prepared for compartment-specific qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and stereology. Airway epithelial serotonin immunopositive staining increased in all exposure groups with the most prominent in 2-month midlevel and 6-month distal airways. Gene expression of 5-HTT, 5-HT2AR, and 5-HT4R increased in an age-dependent manner. Overall expression was greater in distal compared with midlevel airways. Ozone exposure disrupted both 5-HT2AR and 5-HT4R protein expression in airways and enhanced immunopositive staining for 5-HT2AR (2 months) and 5-HT4R (6 months) on smooth muscle. Ozone exposure increases serotonin in airway epithelium regardless of airway level, age, and exposure history and changes the spatial pattern of serotonin receptor protein (5-HT2A and 5-HT4) and 5-HTT gene expression depending on compartment, age, and exposure history. Understanding how serotonin modulates components of reversible airway obstruction exacerbated by ozone exposure sets the foundation for developing clinically relevant therapies for airway disease.
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Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent Km, Vmax, and catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar Km and Vmax appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of Vmax (rat olfactory epithelium>mouse olfactory epithelium>murine airways>rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The Vmax in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies.
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Dont it make my brown eyes green? An analysis of Facebook use and romantic jealousy.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Social networking Web sites, such as Facebook, have changed the way in which people communicate online. The present study examined the relationship between jealousy and Facebook use experimentally by asking participants to imagine viewing their romantic partners Facebook page. We varied the hypothetical privacy settings and number of photos of the couple publicly available on Facebook. Results indicated that imagined privacy settings and the presence of couple photos affected negative emotions (jealousy, anger, disgust, and hurt). Furthermore, we found sex differences indicating that women felt more intense negative emotions after thinking about the fictitious scenario than did men, particularly when evidence of infidelity was public to others. These results have implications for sex differences in jealousy and suggest that the manner in which people employ Facebook privacy settings can be negative for romantic relationships.
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Do edge responses cascade up or down a multi-trophic food web?
Ecol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Despite nearly 100?years of edge studies, there has been little effort to document how edge responses cascade to impact multi-trophic food webs. We examined changes within two, four-tiered food webs located on opposite sides of a habitat edge. Based on a bottom-up resource-based model, we predicted plant resources would decline near edges, causing similar declines in specialist herbivores and their associated predators, while a generalist predator was predicted to increase due to complementary resource use. As predicted, we found declines in both specialist herbivores and predators near edges, but, contrary to expectations, this was not driven by gradients in plant resources. Instead, the increase in generalist predators near edges offers one alternative explanation for the observed declines. Furthermore, our results suggest how recent advances in food web theory could improve resource-based edge models, and vice versa.
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Predictive modeling in practice: improving the participant identification process for care management programs using condition-specific cut points.
Popul Health Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The objective of this study was to optimize predictive modeling in the participant selection process for care management (CM) programs by determining the ideal cut point selection method. Comparisons included: (a) an evidence-based "optimal" cut point versus an "arbitrary" threshold, and (b) condition-specific cut points versus a uniform screening method. Participants comprised adult Medicaid health plan members enrolled during the entire study period (January 2007-December 2008) who had at least 1 of the chronic conditions targeted by the CM programs (n?=?6459). Adjusted Clinical Groups Predictive Modeling (ACG-PM) system risk scores in 2007 were used to predict those with the top 5% highest health care expenditures in 2008. Comparisons of model performance (ie, c statistic, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value) and identified population size were used to assess differences among 3 cut point selection approaches: (a) single arbitrary cut point, (b) single optimal cut point, and (c) condition-specific optimal cut points. The "optimal" cut points (ie, single and condition-specific) both outperformed the "arbitrary" selection process, yielding higher probabilities of correct prediction and sensitivities. The condition-specific optimal cut point approach also exhibited better performance than applying a single optimal cut point uniformly across the entire population regardless of condition (ie, a higher c statistic, specificity, and positive predictive value, although sensitivity was lower), while identifying a more manageable number of members for CM program outreach. CM programs can optimize targeting algorithms by utilizing evidence-based cut points that incorporate condition-specific variations in risk. By efficiently targeting and intervening with future high-cost members, health care costs can be reduced.
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Increased primary production shifts the structure and composition of a terrestrial arthropod community.
Ecology
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Numerous studies have examined relationships between primary production and biodiversity at higher trophic levels. However, altered production in plant communities is often tightly linked with concomitant shifts in diversity and composition, and most studies have not disentangled the direct effects of production on consumers. Furthermore, when studies do examine the effects of plant production on animals in terrestrial systems, they are primarily confined to a subset of taxonomic or functional groups instead of investigating the responses of the entire community. Using natural monocultures of the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina alterniflora, we were able to examine the impacts of increased plant production, independent of changes in plant composition and/or diversity, on the trophic structure, composition, and diversity of the entire arthropod community. If arthropod species richness increased with greater plant production, we predicted that it would be driven by: (1) an increase in the number of rare species, and/or (2) an increase in arthropod abundance. Our results largely supported our predictions: species richness of herbivores, detritivores, predators, and parasitoids increased monotonically with increasing levels of plant production, and the diversity of rare species also increased with plant production. However, rare species that accounted for this difference were predators, parasitoids, and detritivores, not herbivores. Herbivore species richness could be simply explained by the relationship between abundance and diversity. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), we also found significant changes in arthropod species composition with increasing levels of production. Our findings have important implications in the intertidal salt marsh, where human activities have increased nitrogen runoff into the marsh, and demonstrate that such nitrogen inputs cascade to affect community structure, diversity, and abundance in higher trophic levels.
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Winter predation of diapausing cocoons of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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Predators exert strong top-down pressure on herbivorous insects, but research on how predators affect herbivore fitness often focuses on the more active juvenile and adult life stages while ignoring the pupal or cocoon life stage. Few studies have investigated predation of lepidopteran pupae or cocoons and even fewer have investigated species that are not forest pests. Here we present a study on overwinter survival for two moth species in the family Limacodidae, a group of polyphagous species found in deciduous forests. We placed cocoons of the saddleback caterpillar, Acharia stimulea (Clemens), and the spiny oak-slug caterpillar, Euclea delphinii (Boisduval), in the field under saplings of six different tree species and monitored predation and survival. This is the first study to examine predation rate among different host plants within a site. We found that cocoon predation was fairly high and differed significantly between limacodid species (29% for A. stimulea vs. 22% for E. delphinii). Predation rate did not differ among the six host plant species that we tested and also did not vary annually. Through phenotypic selection analyses, we found that cocoon mass affected both the likelihood of predation and overwinter survival; larger cocoons were less likely to be depredated and more likely to successfully emerge the following year. Overall our results indicate that cocoon predation is an important source of mortality for these two limacodid species and that there may be positive selection for greater cocoon mass for both limacodid species.
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Chronic care improvement in primary care: evaluation of an integrated pay-for-performance and practice-based care coordination program among elderly patients with diabetes.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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To examine the effects of an intervention comprising (1) a practice-based care coordination program, (2) augmented by pay for performance (P4P) for meeting quality targets, and (3) complemented by a third-party disease management on quality of care and resource use for older adults with diabetes.
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Interspecies predation between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Interaction of aquatic stages of coexisting mosquito species may have significant influence on resulting adult mosquito populations. We used two coexisting species, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus to investigate whether third instars of one species consumed first instars of the other. First instars of one species were readily consumed by a third instar of the other species irrespective food quantity. DNA of Cx. quinquefasciatus was detected in the eight An. gambiae s.s. third instars presumed to have consumed at least one Cx. quinquefasciatus first instar. Likewise, DNA of An. gambiae s.s. was detected in five of eight Cx. quinquefasciatus third instars presumed to have consumed at least one An. gambiae s.s. first instar. A small number of dead first instars was found in the controls indicating that some larvae in the treatment group may have been consumed after they had died. These findings suggest that intraguild predation between the two species may be common in nature and that it is a facultative process that is not induced by food shortage. The findings further suggest that polymerase chain reaction could be a useful technique in the study of this phenomenon in natural habitats.
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Postnatal lung development of rhesus monkey airways: cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) is a protective lung protein that is believed to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. Evidence suggests that CCSP is involved in mitigating many lung disease states during development including asthma. This studys rationale is to define the distribution and abundance of CCSP in the airway epithelium of the rhesus monkey during postnatal lung development using carefully controlled site-specific morphometric approaches in defined airway regions. Immunoreactive CCSP was found in nonciliated cells and mucous cells, including glands, throughout the airway epithelium at all ages, with proximal and mid-level airways having the highest labeling. Overall airway CCSP levels were low at 1 week and 1 month, doubled between 1 and 3 months, and changed little from 3 months to 3 years. Thus, the critical developmental window for CCSP expression to reach adult levels in the rhesus conducting airways occurs between 1 and 3 months of age.
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What we know about the effectiveness of farm safety day programs and what we need to know.
J Rural Health
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Farm safety day camps are grassroots educational interventions organized and conducted by members of a local community. These events are held in an effort to promote safety knowledge and behavior in children who live on family farms or are exposed to the hazards of the agricultural industry. Since the dramatic increase in farm safety day camps beginning in the 1990s, researchers have been called upon to evaluate their effectiveness.
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Postnatal exposure history and airways: oxidant stress responses in airway explants.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
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Postnatally, the lung continues to grow and differentiate while interacting with the environment. Exposure to ozone (O(3)) and allergens during postnatal lung development alters structural elements of conducting airways, including innervation and neurokinin abundance. These changes have been linked with development of asthma in a rhesus monkey model. We hypothesized that O(3) exposure resets the ability of the airways to respond to oxidant stress and that this is mediated by changes in the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Infant rhesus monkeys received episodic exposure to O(3) biweekly with or without house dust mite antigen (HDMA) from 6 to 12 months of age. Age-matched monkeys were exposed to filtered air (FA). Microdissected airway explants from midlevel airways (intrapulmonary generations 5-8) for four to six animals in each of four groups (FA, O(3), HDMA, and HDMA+O(3)) were tested for NK-1R gene responses to acute oxidant stress using exposure to hydrogen peroxide (1.2 mM), a lipid ozonide (10 ?M), or sham treatment for 4 hours in vitro. Airway responses were measured using real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NK-1R and IL-8 gene expression. Basal NK-1R gene expression levels were not different between the exposure groups. Treatment with ozonide or hydrogen peroxide did not change NK-1R gene expression in animals exposed to FA, HDMA, or HDMA+O(3). However, treatment in vitro with lipid ozonide significantly increased NK-1R gene expression in explants from O(3)-exposed animals. We conclude that a history of prior O(3) exposure resets the steady state of the airways to increase the NK-1R response to subsequent acute oxidant stresses.
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Nutrient presses and pulses differentially impact plants, herbivores, detritivores and their natural enemies.
PLoS ONE
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Anthropogenic nutrient inputs into native ecosystems cause fluctuations in resources that normally limit plant growth, which has important consequences for associated food webs. Such inputs from agricultural and urban habitats into nearby natural systems are increasing globally and can be highly variable, spanning the range from sporadic to continuous. Despite the global increase in anthropogenically-derived nutrient inputs into native ecosystems, the consequences of variation in subsidy duration on native plants and their associated food webs are poorly known. Specifically, while some studies have examined the effects of nutrient subsidies on native ecosystems for a single year (a nutrient pulse), repeated introductions of nutrients across multiple years (a nutrient press) better reflect the persistent nature of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We therefore contrasted the effects of a one-year nutrient pulse with a four-year nutrient press on arthropod consumers in two salt marshes. Salt marshes represent an ideal system to address the differential impacts of nutrient pulses and presses on ecosystem and community dynamics because human development and other anthropogenic activities lead to recurrent introductions of nutrients into these natural systems. We found that plant biomass and %N as well as arthropod density fell after the nutrient pulse ended but remained elevated throughout the nutrient press. Notably, higher trophic levels responded more strongly than lower trophic levels to fertilization, and the predator/prey ratio increased each year of the nutrient press, demonstrating that food web responses to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment can take years to fully manifest themselves. Vegetation at the two marshes also exhibited an apparent tradeoff between increasing %N and biomass in response to fertilization. Our research emphasizes the need for long-term, spatially diverse studies of nutrient enrichment in order to understand how variation in the duration of anthropogenic nutrient subsidies affects native ecosystems.
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Predator hunting mode influences patterns of prey use from grazing and epigeic food webs.
Oecologia
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Multichannel omnivory by generalist predators, especially the use of both grazing and epigeic prey, has the potential to increase predator abundance and decrease herbivore populations. However, predator use of the epigeic web (soil surface detritus/microbe/algae consumers) varies considerably for reasons that are poorly understood. We therefore used a stable isotope approach to determine whether prey availability and predator hunting style (active hunting vs. passive web-building) impacted the degree of multichannel omnivory by the two most abundant predators on an intertidal salt marsh, both spiders. We found that carbon isotopic values of herbivores remained constant during the growing season, while values for epigeic feeders became dramatically more enriched such that values for the two webs converged in August. Carbon isotopic values for both spider species remained midway between the two webs as values for epigeic feeders shifted, indicating substantial use of prey from both food webs by both spider species. As the season progressed, prey abundance in the grazing food web increased while prey abundance in the epigeic web remained constant or declined. In response, prey consumption by the web-building spider shifted toward the grazing web to a much greater extent than did consumption by the hunting spider, possibly because passive web-capture is more responsive to changes in prey availability. Although both generalist predator species engaged in multichannel omnivory, hunting mode influenced the extent to which these predators used prey from the grazing and epigeic food webs, and could thereby influence the strength of trophic cascades in both food webs.
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A method for estimating cost savings for population health management programs.
Health Serv Res
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To develop a quasi-experimental method for estimating Population Health Management (PHM) program savings that mitigates common sources of confounding, supports regular updates for continued program monitoring, and estimates model precision.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.