Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg(-1) and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm(-2) HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of KFL against HPM-induced oxidative stress. In summary, the dietary supplement KFL is a promising natural complex, which ameliorates oxidative stress, with neuroprotective effects against HPM.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor; it is highly aggressive and is associated with a poor prognosis. Binding of the chemokine CXCL12 to its receptors (CXCR4 and CXCR7) contributes to the activation of many downstream signaling pathways and promotes the invasion of various malignant tumor cells, including GBM cells. FOXM1, a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is overexpressed in GBM and is involved in GBM progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CXCL12 promotes the invasion of human GBM cells remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that CXCL12 increases the production of FOXM1 by binding to CXCR4 in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, pretreatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway abrogated the CXCL12-induced expression of FOXM1. In addition, there was a positive correlation between CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and FOXM1 expression in human malignant glioma tissues. Finally, a functional assay revealed that CXCL12 does not stimulate GBM cell invasion when FOXM1 expression is silenced using a small interfering RNA (siRNA). Collectively, these findings suggest that CXCL12 promotes GBM cell invasion in part by increasing the expression of FOXM1, which is mediated in part by a PI3K/AKT-dependent mechanism in vitro.
Graphene nanoribbon aerogels are fabricated by directly unzipping multi-walled carbon nanotube sponges. These fascinating materials have potential applications as high performance nanocomposites and supercapacitor electrodes.
Cell fate and function can be regulated and reprogrammed by intrinsic genetic program, extrinsic factors and niche microenvironment. Direct reprogramming has shown many advantages in the field of cellular reprogramming. Here we tried the possibility to generate corneal endothelia (CE) -like cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by the non-genetic direct reprogramming of recombinant cell-penetrating proteins Oct4/Klf4/Sox2 (PTD-OKS) and small molecules (purmorphamine, RG108 and other reprogramming chemical reagents), as well as biomimetic platforms of simulate microgravity (SMG) bioreactor. Co-cultured with corneal cells and decellularized corneal ECM, Reprogrammed ADSCs revealed spherical growth and positively expressing Nanog for RT-PCR analysis and CD34 for immunofluorescence staining after 7 days-treatment of both purmorphamine and PTD-OKS (P-OKS) and in SMG culture. ADSCs changed to CEC polygonal morphology from spindle shape after the sequential non-genetic direct reprogramming and biomimetic platforms. At the same time, induced cells converted to weakly express CD31, AQP-1 and ZO-1. These findings demonstrated that the treatments were able to promote the stem-cell reprogramming for human ADSCs. Our study also indicates for the first time that SMG rotary cell culture system can be used as a non-genetic means to promote direct reprogramming. Our methods of reprogramming provide an alternative strategy for engineering patient-specific multipotent cells for cellular plasticity research and future autologous CEC replacement therapy that avoids complications associated with the use of human pluripotent stem cells.
To understand the molecular basis of viral diseases, transcriptome profiling has been widely used to correlate host gene expression change patterns with disease symptoms during viral infection in many plant hosts. We used infection of apple by Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), which produces no disease symptoms, to assess the significance of host gene expression changes in disease development. We specifically asked the question of whether such asymptomatic infection is attributed to limited changes in host gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we identified a total of 184 up-regulated and 136 down-regulated genes in apple shoot cultures permanently infected by ASGV in comparison with virus-free shoot cultures. As in most plant hosts showing disease symptoms during viral infection, these differentially expressed genes encode known or putative proteins involved in cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, response to biotic and abiotic stress, development and fruit ripening, phytohormone function, metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, translation, transport, and photosynthesis. Thus, global host gene expression changes do not necessarily lead to virus disease symptoms. Our data suggest that the general approaches to correlate host gene expression changes under viral infection conditions to specific disease symptom, based on the interpretation of transcription profiling data and altered individual gene functions, may have limitations depending on particular experimental systems.
The substituent group and hydrogen bonds play important roles in supramolecular self-assembly. To exploit the influential mechanism of hydrogen bonds during the dipole-dipole induced supramolecular self-assembly, some rigid azobenzene molecules with different electronegativity and hydrogen bonding capabilities were identified and designed. Different regular-shaped architectures were constructed via a simple solution process under mild conditions. Both experimental results and density functional theory calculations show that weak ?-? stacking interactions lead to thick and short nanocylinders, strong dipole-dipole interactions and dipole induced ?-? stacking lead to long and thin nanorods, appropriate hydrogen bonds consolidate the dipole-dipole interactions and dipole induced ?-? stacking, forming thin nanosheets, while excessive hydrogen bonds in azobenzene would ruin the regular-shaped structures, giving irregular and stochastic aggregates. Namely there exists a certain hydrogen bond saturation effect in generating azobenzene nanostructures driven by dipole-dipole interactions. The results indicate that the morphologies of organic materials with azobenzene structures can be effectively controlled through rational molecular design by way of introducing appropriate dipole and hydrogen bonds.
Introducing twists into carbon nanotube yarns could produce hierarchical architectures and extend their application areas. Here, we utilized such twists to produce elastic strain sensors over large strain (up to 500%) and rotation actuators with high energy density. We show that a helical nanotube yarn can be overtwisted into highly entangled, macroscopically random but locally organized structures, consisting of mostly double-helix segments intertwined together. Pulling the yarn ends completely resolved the entanglement in an elastic and reversible way, yielding large tensile strains with linear change in electrical resistance. Resolving an entangled yarn and releasing its twists could simultaneously rotate a heavy object (30?000 times the yarn weight) for more than 1000 cycles at high speed. The rotational actuation generated from a single entangled yarn produced energy densities up to 8.3 kJ/kg, and maintained similar capacity during repeated use. Our entangled CNT yarns represent a complex self-assembled system with applications as large-range strain sensors and robust rotational actuators.
In this study, we generated sequences of the apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) coat protein (CP) gene. Genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses were carried out on these sequences along with others reported previously. ACLSV populations clustered into four types: in three of the four types, combinations of three amino acids at positions of 40, 75 and 79 were conserved. The fourth phylogenetic type, newly identified here, was characterized by co-variation of Ser(40)-Tyr(75)-Ser(79). Statistically significant genetic differentiation and infrequent gene flow were detected among the four types. Two natural recombinants were detected for the first time among ACLSV isolates/genotypes from China.
Orthoptera, the largest polyneopteran insect order, contains 2 suborders and 235 subfamilies. Orthoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) follow the ancestral insect gene order, with the exception of a trnD-trnK rearrangement in Acridomorphs and rare tRNA inversions. A question still remains regarding whether a long thymine-nucleotide stretch (T-stretch) involved in the recognition of the replication origin exists in the control region (CR) of Orthoptera mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Herein, we completed the sequencing of whole mitogenomes of two congeners (Sinochlora longifissa and S. retrolateralis), which possess overlapping distribution areas. Additionally, we performed comparative mitogenomic analysis to depict evolutionary trends of Orthoptera mitogenomes.
Reagents which can promote the proliferation, adhesion and migration of cultured corneal endothelial cells (CECs) will be helpful for the treatment of reduced visual acuity due to CECs deficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential use of an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), Y-27632, to cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells (B-CECs) and evaluated its effects on the proliferation, adhesion and migration of B-CECs. The proliferation of cultured B-CECs was moderately enhanced by 10?M Y-27632. Y-27632 induced fibroblast-like morphological changes in the cultured B-CECs and normal cell morphology could recover after Y-27632 removal. In addition, Y-27632 was found to significantly enhance the adhesion and migration of B-CECs. Furthermore, the hanging drop aggregation assay showed that Y-27632 promoted B-CECs to form cellular networks and sheets, which proliferated along the liquid-air interface and migrated to the surface of the lid of dish. Our study demonstrated that Y-27632 is a potentially powerful reagent which can enhance the proliferation of cultured B-CECs. Y-27632 will be useful in CEC injection therapy and topical application for CEC deficiency.
The strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) allow them to be constructed into a variety of innovated architectures with fascinating properties. Here, we show that CNTs can be made into a highly twisted yarn-derived double-helix structure by a conventional twist-spinning process. The double-helix is a stable and hierarchical configuration consisting of two single-helical yarn segments, with controlled pitch and unique mechanical properties. While one of the yarn components breaks early under tension due to the highly twisted state, the second yarn produces much larger tensile strain and significantly prolongs the process until ultimate fracture. In addition, these elastic and conductive double-helix yarns show simultaneous and reversible resistance change in response to a wide range of input sources (mechanical, photo, and thermal) such as applied strains or stresses, light illumination, and environmental temperature. Our results indicate that it is possible to create higher-level, more complex architectures from CNT yarns and fabricate multifunctional nanomaterials with potential applications in many areas.
Glucose metabolism is essential for most mammalian neurons, and the passage of glucose across cell membranes is mainly facilitated by glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3). In ischemia/reperfusion injured brains, increase of IGF-1 secretion and GLUT3 up-regulation, are regarded as protective processes. Recent works have shown that various growth factors and cytokines including IGF-1 can stimulate HIF-1? expression, thereby triggering transcription of numerous hypoxia-inducible genes by oxygen-independent mechanisms. So, we hypothesized that HIF-1? might play important role in the process of IGF-1 induced GLUT3. Using echinomycin, a HIF-1 inhibitor, and HIF-1? siRNA, we demonstrated IGF-1 induced GLUT3 expression through HIF-1? in neuronal PC12 cells. Moreover, IGF-1 stimulated HIF-1? and GLUT3 protein expression through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR dependent pathways. Analysis of GLUT3 promoter deletion sequences indicated that a putative hypoxia-response element (HRE) was critical in GLUT3 promoter activity when PC12 cells were treatment with CoCl(2) and IGF-1. In conclusion, we showed that the expression of GLUT3 in response to IGF-1 was dependent on PI-3-kinase and mTOR activity, and required the transcription factor HIF-1?.
In this contribution, a new, real-time and sensitive colorimetric sensor, di-N-methyl-N-hydroxyethylaniline squaraine (SQ), has been identified and synthesized for cysteine analysis based on its ?A in neutral aqueous medium (pH ? 7.5). The proposed method was applied to analyse synthetic amino acid samples and human serum samples. The results show that the linear range of cysteine detection in aqueous medium at pH ? 7.5 is 10~700 nmol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9984 and a limit of detection (3?, n = 20) of 3.9 nmol L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for cysteine detection was lower than 4.1% (n = 5). The proposed method possesses the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high selectivity and sensitivity. This makes it possible, for the first time, the real-time detection of cysteine under normal physiological conditions.
The objective of this study is to generate dendritic cell (DC) vaccines by exposing DCs to C6 glioma cancer cell antigenic (tumor) peptides following the exposure of C6 cells to photodynamic therapy (PDT) and acid elution. Effects of these DCs on host immunity were assessed by measuring cytokine induction (following adaptive transfer into rats) and assessing DC-induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis of C6 target cells. Precursor dendritic cells were purified from rat bone marrow and matured in vitro. C6 cells were stimulated with PDT, and adherent cells were acid-eluted to obtain cell surface antigens, whole cell antigens were also isolated from supernatants. C6 cells not stimulated with PDT were also used to isolate antigens by acid elution or freeze-thaw methods for comparison purposes. The isolated antigens from the respective purification methods were used to sensitize DCs for the generation of DC vaccines subsequently transferred into SD rats. Following adoptive transfer, the changes in interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, and TNF-? expression were measured in rat serum by ELISA. CTL-mediated lysis was assessed using the MTT assay. PDT-generated antigens further purified by acid elution had the greatest stimulatory effect on DCs based on the elevated serum IL-12 and TNF-? levels and decreased serum IL-10 levels. CTL activity in this group was also highest (percent lysis 95.5% ± 0.016) compared with that elicited by PDT-supernatants, acid elution, and freeze-thawing (or the control group), which had 90.2% ± 0.024, 73.3% ± 0.027, 63.6% ± 0.049, or 0.4% ± 0.063 lysis, respectively. PDT significantly enhanced tumor cell immunogenicity. These data suggested that DC vaccines prepared by treating tumor cells with PDT to generate antigen-specific CTL responses can be developed as novel cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.
Tanshinone II A, which was known unique to the salvia, was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallisation from an ethyl acetate-soluble portion (the anti-inflammatory active portion) of ethanol extract of Periploca forrestii. The diterpenoid quinone was obtained from the Periploca for the first time.
The adsorption of antimony acetate (Sb(OAc)(3)) on sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) was studied at five different initial concentrations, and data from the adsorption isotherm were modeled using the Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R isotherm equations. The kinetics of adsorption was also discussed using three kinetic models: the pseudo-first-order, the pseudo-second-order and the intraparticle diffusion model. The rate constants of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetics, and the amount of Sb(OAc)(3) adsorbed at equilibrium were determined. Moreover, the desorption of Sb(OAc)(3) from several kinds of Sb-MMT (Na-MMT was intercalated by antimony acetate) was investigated at room temperature and 180 °C. The results show that according to the maximum amounts of adsorbate and correlation coefficients calculated from the three isotherm equations mentioned above, the corresponding data from adsorption experiments fit fairly well to the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption data show a good compliance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and also follow the intraparticle diffusion model up to 30 min. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of Sb(OAc)(3) on MMT is close to the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the montmorillonite. The desorption amount of Sb(OAc)(3) is correlated with both the temperature of desorption and the drying temperature of Sb-MMT.
GITRL (Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand) has been recently identified as a novel inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and hence called Osteostat. In this study, we expressed recombinant extracellular domain of GITRL protein in Escherichia coli and analyzed its bioactivity. Using an Eco31I enzyme-based restriction and ligation method, we obtained an E. coli-preferred DNA sequence coding for the extracellular domain of human GITRL. The DNA was cloned into expression vector pQE-30Xa that encodes a fusion tag of 6xHis before the insert. The resultant recombinant expression vector pQE/GITRL was subsequently transformed into E. coli strain M15[pREP4]. After induction with Isopropyl beta-D-Thiogalactoside (IPTG), the cells produced the fusion protein mainly in the form of inclusion bodies as identified by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography through Ni-NTA column and recognized by anti-His polyclonal antibody using Western blotting analysis. Moreover, we established a simple, efficient and sensitive reporter gene-based method to detect the activity of the recombinant protein. The results showed that the target protein was biologically active.
Oral sex is widely used in human foreplay, but rarely documented in other animals. Fellatio has been recorded in bonobos Pan paniscus, but even then functions largely as play behaviour among juvenile males. The short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx exhibits resource defence polygyny and one sexually active male often roosts with groups of females in tents made from leaves. Female bats often lick their mates penis during dorsoventral copulation. The female lowers her head to lick the shaft or the base of the males penis but does not lick the glans penis which has already penetrated the vagina. Males never withdrew their penis when it was licked by the mating partner. A positive relationship exists between the length of time that the female licked the males penis during copulation and the duration of copulation. Furthermore, mating pairs spent significantly more time in copulation if the female licked her mates penis than if fellatio was absent. Males also show postcopulatory genital grooming after intromission. At present, we do not know why genital licking occurs, and we present four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that may explain the function of fellatio in C. sphinx.
Recognising and appropriately treating psychosomatic factors in dermatological conditions can have a significant positive impact on the outcomes of patients. Treatment of psychodermatological patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves dermatologists, psychiatrists and allied health professionals.
To investigate the morphological and growth characteristics of rabbit keratocytes when cultured on decellularized cornea under simulate microgravity (SMG) rotary cell culture system (RCCS) and static culture or in plastic culture supplemented with small molecules of valproic acid (VPA) and vitamin C (VC). Bovine corneas were firstly decellularized with Triton X-100 and NH(4)OH and through short-term freezing process. Then cell count kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry were used to test the effects of VPA and VC on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of rabbit keratocytes. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that cells were eliminated in the decellularized bovine corneas. The proliferation of cultured keratocytes was promoted by VPA and VC in the cell proliferation assay. VPA and VC moderately decreased the number of apoptotic cells and obviously promoted cell-cycle entrance of keratocytes. Rabbit keratocytes in plastic displayed spindle shape and rare interconnected with or without VPA and VC. Cells revealed dendritic morphology and reticular cellular connections when cultured on the carriers of decellularized corneas supplemented with VPA and VC even in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). When cultured in RCCS supplemented with VPA, VC and 10% FBS, keratocytes displayed round shape with many prominences and were more prone to grow into the pores of carriers with aggregation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis proved that the keratocytes cultured on decellularized bovine cornea under SMG with VPA and VC expressed keratocan and lumican. Keratocytes cultured on plastic expressed lumican but not keratocan. Immunofluorescence identification revealed that cells in all groups were positively immunostained for vimentin. Keratocytes on decellularized bovine cornea under SMG or in static culture were positively immunostained for keratocan and lumican. Thus, we reasonably made a conclusion that the combination of VPA, VC, RCCS and decellularized corneal carriers provide a good condition for keratocytes to well grow. Keratocytes can be manipulated to be aggregates or physiological morphological growth in vitro, which are important for the research of corneal stem cells and corneal tissue engineering.
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