JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
YM500v2: a small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) database for human cancer miRNome research.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously presented YM500, which is an integrated database for miRNA quantification, isomiR identification, arm switching discovery and novel miRNA prediction from 468 human smRNA-seq datasets. Here in this updated YM500v2 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/), we focus on the cancer miRNome to make the database more disease-orientated. New miRNA-related algorithms developed after YM500 were included in YM500v2, and, more significantly, more than 8000 cancer-related smRNA-seq datasets (including those of primary tumors, paired normal tissues, PBMC, recurrent tumors, and metastatic tumors) were incorporated into YM500v2. Novel miRNAs (miRNAs not included in the miRBase R21) were not only predicted by three independent algorithms but also cleaned by a new in silico filtration strategy and validated by wetlab data such as Cross-Linked ImmunoPrecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq) to reduce the false-positive rate. A new function 'Meta-analysis' is additionally provided for allowing users to identify real-time differentially expressed miRNAs and arm-switching events according to customer-defined sample groups and dozens of clinical criteria tidying up by proficient clinicians. Cancer miRNAs identified hold the potential for both basic research and biotech applications.
Related JoVE Video
Implementation of cervical cancer screening and prevention in China-challenges and reality.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article summarizes great efforts that Chinese scholars had made in fighting against cervical cancer from aspects of the epidemiology, etiology, population-based screening studies, novel screening technology development, guideline, strategy and policy making and population delivery. After decades of continuous efforts, Chinese scientists successfully translated their scientific discovery to appropriate screening product development and eventually, delivered it to the whole population. We hope our experience could serve as a 'case-story' for cancer prevention in other low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, challenges confronted in the prevention and control of cervical cancer in China are reviewed as well to appeal for future multi-collaborations and potential solutions to acquire the final success of the campaign.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We performed a meta-analysis to compare treatment with a combination of solifenacin plus tamsulosin oral controlled absorption system (TOCAS) with placebo or TOCAS monotherapy. The aim of the meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy and safety of the combination treatments method for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We searched for trials of men with LUTS that were randomized to combination treatment compared with TOCAS monotherapy or placebo. We pooled data from three placebo-controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes of interest included changes in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and urinary frequency. We also assessed postvoid residual, maximum urinary ?ow rate, incidence of urinary retention (UR), adverse events. Data were pooled using random or fixed effect models for continuous outcomes and the Mantel-Haenszel method to generate risk ratio. Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and total urgency and frequency score (TUFS) were observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P< 0.0001 and P< 0.0001, respectively). Reductions in IPSS storage subscore and TUFS were observed with solifenacin 9 mg plus TOCAS compared with placebo (P = 0.003 and P= 0.0006, respectively). Reductions in TUFS was observed with solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS compared with TOCAS (P = 0.01). Both combination treatments were well tolerated, with low incidence of UR. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS significantly improved total IPSS, storage and voiding symptoms compared with placebo. Solifenacin 6 mg plus TOCAS also improved storage symptoms compared with TOCAS alone. There was no additional benefit of solifenacin 9 mg compared with 6 mg when used in combination with TOCAS.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594?bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.
Related JoVE Video
Facile Preparation of Biocompatible Sulfhydryl Cotton Fiber-Based Sorbents by "Thiol-ene" Click Chemistry for Biological Analysis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF) has been widely used as adsorbent for a variety of metal ions since 1971. Thanks to the abundant thiols on SCF, in this study, we reported a universal method for the facile preparation of SCF-based materials using "thiol-ene" click chemistry for the first time. With the proposed method, two types of SCF-based materials, phenylboronic acid grafted sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-PBA) and zirconium phosphonate-modified sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+)), were successfully prepared. The grafted functional groups onto the thiol group of SCF were demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The prepared fibrous materials exhibited excellent fiber strength, good stability in aqueous or nonaqueous solutions, and great biocompatibility. Moreover, we developed filter-free in-pipet-tip SPE using these SCF-based materials as adsorbent for the enrichment of ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and phosphopeptides. Our results showed that SCF-PBA adsorbent can selectively capture ribonucleosides and glycopeptides from complex biological samples. And SCF-pVPA-Zr(4+) adsorbent exhibited high selectivity and capacity in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin (BSA), as well as human serum and nonfat milk digest. Generally, the preparation strategy can be a universal method for the synthesis of other functionalized cotton-based adsorbents with special requirement in microscale biological analysis.
Related JoVE Video
A double-blind, randomized phase II study of dicycloplatin plus paclitaxel versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel as first-line therapy for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancers.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and toxicity of dicycloplatin plus paclitaxel with those of carboplatin plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Clinical evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by careHPV™ test on physician-samples and self-samples using the indicating FTA Elute® card.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To make the clinical evaluation of a solid-state human papillomavirus (HPV) sampling medium in combination with an economical HPV testing method (careHPV™) for cervical cancer screening.
Related JoVE Video
Shortest path analyses in the protein-protein interaction network of NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) overexpression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) is a novel cancer-related protein involves multiple functions in many cancers and other diseases. We previously overexpressed NGAL to analyze its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) was constructed and the shortest paths from NGAL to transcription factors in the network were analyzed. We found 28 shortest paths from NGAL to RELA, most of them obeying the principle of extracellular to cytoplasm, then nucleus. These shortest paths were also prioritized according to their normalized intensity from the microarray by the order of interaction cascades. A systems approach was developed in this study by linking differentially expressed genes with publicly available PPI data, Gene Ontology and subcellular localizaton for the integrated analyses. These shortest paths from NGAL to DEG transcription factors or other transcription factors in the PPI network provide important clues for future experimental identification of new pathways.
Related JoVE Video
[Staging treatment for complex tibial metaphyseal fractures with external fixator].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the clinical effects of combined type external fixator in treating complex tibial metaphyseal fractures.
Related JoVE Video
A molecular prognostic model predicts esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has the highest mortality rates in China. The 5-year survival rate of ESCC remains dismal despite improvements in treatments such as surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation, and current clinical staging approaches are limited in their ability to effectively stratify patients for treatment options. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to develop an immunohistochemistry-based prognostic model to improve clinical risk assessment for patients with ESCC.
Related JoVE Video
"Old" metal oxide affinity chromatography as "novel" strategy for specific capture of cis-diol-containing compounds.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) materials have been extensively used for extraction of phosphate compounds in the past decade. Actually, some of these materials also possess adsorption affinity towards cis-diol-containing compounds, which was seldom explored in separation field so far. Here we present the proof-of-concept study to evaluate the feasibility of expanding MOAC for specific capture of cis-diol biomolecules. Benefitting from the high commercialisation of the metal oxide materials, such MOAC strategy possesses several advantages, like synthesis-free, low cost and high expandability. Firstly, the recognition of adenosine against 2'-deoxyadenosine was performed using zirconium oxide and cerium oxide, two typical commercial MOAC materials. The results showed that efficient adsorption and elution could be achieved easily by pH switching from basic to acidic. The isotherm curves demonstrated the adsorption process fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model and was spontaneous at room temperature (?G(0)<0) with an exothermic nature (?H(0)<0). Afterwards, the highly efficient and selective enrichment of various model cis-diol biomolecules, including ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and glycoproteins, was achieved using this MOAC strategy. Finally, the endogenous ribonucleosides and modified ribonucleosides were successfully purified from human urine sample, which demonstrated the potential application of MOAC materials in the enrichment of target compounds from complex biological samples. Besides the excellent performance of extraction for cis-diol-containing compounds, equally important is that these materials are commercially available with low cost, which makes the MOAC a promising strategy for the study of cis-diol biomolecules in metabolomics and proteomics.
Related JoVE Video
A Mn(III)/TEMPO-co-mediated tandem azidation-1,2-carbon migration reaction of allylic silyl ethers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel Mn(III)/TEMPO-co-mediated tandem azidation-1,2-carbon migration reaction of allylic silyl ethers with an unactivated C=C bond has been explored, generating ?-aryl-alkyl ?-azido ketones with an ?-quaternary stereocenter.
Related JoVE Video
Copper-catalyzed intermolecular azidocyanation of aryl alkenes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A copper-catalyzed Markovnikov-type intermolecular azidocyanation of aryl alkenes has been developed to give a series of ?-azido-propanenitriles in moderate to good yields. This method may provide a potential strategy for the synthesis of corresponding 3-amino-2-arylpropanoic acid.
Related JoVE Video
Metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) uptake and tolerance by mangroves in relation to root anatomy and lignification/suberization.
Tree Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metal pollution has been widely reported in mangrove wetlands; however, the mechanisms involved in metal detoxification by mangroves are still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of root anatomy and lignification/suberization on metal uptake and tolerance in seedlings of six species of mangroves. The results revealed that the three rhizophoraceous species (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir, Kandelia obovata Sheue, Liu & Yong and Rhizophora stylosa Griff) consistently exhibited higher metal tolerances than the three pioneer species (Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn.) Blanco, Acanthus ilicifolius L. and Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Viern.). Moreover, metal-tolerant species often exhibited a thick exodermis with high lignification and suberization. The tolerance indices of the mangroves were found to be positively correlated with the amounts of lignin and suberin deposition within the exodermal cell walls. The observed metal uptake by the excised roots further illustrated that a lignified/suberized exodermis directly delayed the entry of metals into the roots, and thereby contributed to a higher tolerance to heavy metals. In summary, the present study proposes a barrier property of the lignified/suberized exodermis in dealing with the stresses of heavy metals, such that the mangroves which possessed more extensive lignification/suberization within the exodermis appeared to exhibit higher metal tolerance.
Related JoVE Video
[Improvement of survival quality of the patients with hemodialysis treated with moxibustion for regulating spleen and stomach functions: multi-central randomized controlled study].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To discuss the impacts of moxibustion for regulating spleen and stomach function on the survival quality of the patients of end stage renal disease (ESRD) with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).
Related JoVE Video
Optimal target range for blood glucose in hyperglycaemic patients in a neurocritical care unit.
Diab Vasc Dis Res
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperglycaemia is common among patients with critical neurological injury, even if they have no history of diabetes. The optimal target range for normalizing their blood glucose is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Propargylic cation-induced intermolecular electrophilic addition–semipinacol rearrangement.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel propargylic electrophile-induced tandem intermolecular addition-semipinacol rearrangement was developed efficiently under mild conditions. Various allylic silylether substrates as well as Co-complexed propargylic species were applicable to this protocol and gave a series of synthetically useful ?-propargyl spirocyclic ketones in moderate to good yields. Its synthetic application was also demonstrated by an efficient construction of the key tricyclic moiety of daphlongamine E.
Related JoVE Video
Spiro-fused six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene: a new scaffold toward unique properties and activities.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene fused with a spiro-scaffold is designed. The new NHC shows stronger ?-donation ability than typical 5-membered NHCs. This property leads to interesting reactivities of this spiro-fused six-membered NHC. For example, the NHC-BF3 Lewis pair complex can be readily prepared by using LiBF4 as the BF3 source, or through a direct bond-reconstruction of the tetrafluoroborate salt NHC·HBF4.
Related JoVE Video
Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors among Chinese college students.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
College students are recommended as the target groups for catch-up human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Systematical exploration of awareness, acceptability, and decision-making factors of HPV vaccination among Chinese college students has been limited.
Related JoVE Video
[Assessing Chinese herbal medicines for benefiting qi and activating blood circulation in treating unstable angina based on Markov model: a long-term clinical effectiveness exploration].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the long-term clinical effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicines for benefiting qi and activating blood circulation (CHMBQABC) plus routine Western medical intervention in treating unstable angina (UA) patients of qi deficiency blood stasis syndrome (QDBSS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) based on Markov model.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological Predictors of Poor Survival and Recurrence After Curative Resection in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Without Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many factors associated with long-term outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) were previously identified. However, those in HCC without PVTT have not been elucidated. This study was designed to define the risk factors of poor post-surgical survival and recurrence in this subgroup of HCC. Medical records and follow-up data of consecutive 152 patients with PVTT-absent HCC underwent curative resection were reviewed. The impacts of clinical and pathological variables on patient survival and recurrence were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. It was shown that Edmondson-Steiner grade, TNM stage, microvascular invasion (MVI), satellite nodule, serum AFP level, tumor size and number were significant for tumor-specific and/or tumor-free survival in univariate analysis. Among them, Edmondson-Steiner grade and TNM stage were of independent significances for both, whereas satellite nodule independently predicted tumor-free survival. In Chi-square test, Edmondson-Steiner grade, TNM stage and MVI were significantly related to overall as well as early recurrence. Stepwise logistic regression identified Edmondson-Steiner grade as the single independent predictor of both. To be summarized, variables that are associated with poor prognosis and recurrence in HCC without PVTT are all tumor-related ones. Of these, differentiation degree might be of particular importance.
Related JoVE Video
A three-gene signature and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is increasingly apparent that cancer development depends not only on genetic alterations, but also on epigenetic changes involving histone modifications. GASC1, member of the histone demethylases affecting heterochromatin formation and transcriptional repression, has been found to be dysregulation in many types of cancers including breast cancer, prostate cancer, metastatic lung sarcomatoid carcinoma, and leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of GASC1 and certain GASC1-targeted genes (KLF4, MYC, SOX2, PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG) and identified a three-gene prognostic signature (PPARG, MDM2, and NANOG), using risk scores based on immunohistochemical analyses of 149 tumor specimens from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The presence of a high-risk three-gene signature in the ESCC tumors was significantly associated with decreased overall survival (OS) of the patients. We validated the predictive value of the three-gene signature in a second independent cohort of 101 patients with ESCC in order to determine whether it had predictive value. The results were similar to those in 149 patients. According to multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, the predictive model of a three-gene signature was an independent predictor for OS (p?=?0.005 in cohort 1, p?=?0.025 in cohort 2). In addition, ROC analysis indicated that the predictive ability of the three-gene model was more robust than that of a single biomarker. Therefore, our three-gene signature is closely associated with OS among patients with ESCC and may serve as a predictor for the poor prognosis of ESCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research.
Related JoVE Video
Is brain damage really involved in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea?
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is a surprisingly complex and highly individualized disease, with different factors contributing toward the disease process. Many factors can induce OSA disease, such as hypertrophy uvula, adenoidectomy, tonsil caused by mechanical obstruction of the airway, airway obstruction on obesity cause of decubitus, etc.; in addition, abnormal structure and function of the central nervous system (CNS) is also one of the important factors. This paper examines the relationship of the CNS with the onset of OSA. Evidence has shown that dysfunction of the CNS may be related to the occurrence of OSA. Although modification of the behaviors of the motor neurons may offer a potentially interesting means of controlling the airway, human afferent and motor pathways that regulate eupnea are still poorly understood. Combining some clinical phenomena of patients with cerebral hemorrhage or brain trauma at the temporal lobe, it seems that no close relation with OSA has been observed in clinical work and animal experiments; however, CNS damage at the temporal lobe is involved in the pathogenesis of OSA. This article examines the role of the CNS in the pathogenesis of OSA and its mechanisms. We have summarized previous findings of OSA-related brain damage, which were obtained by brain functional MRI, clinical, and animal experiment data to better understand the roles of the CNS in the pathogenesis of OSA. More specifically, this review summarizes how altered activity of the limbic system and its related structures could be associated with the occurrence of OSA. This conclusion may contribute toward our understanding of nosogenesis and the treatment of OSA.
Related JoVE Video
Multivitamin and mineral supplementation is associated with the reduction of fracture risk and hospitalization rate in Chinese adult males: a randomized controlled study.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Controversy exists in the literature regarding the efficacy of bone health-related nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin D, in preventing fractures. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on fracture incidence among 3,318 participants from a nutritional intervention trial in Linxian, China. A total of 1,461 men and 1,857 women were enrolled and randomized to daily supplementation with 26 vitamins and minerals tablet or placebo pills for 6 years, followed by a 16-year post-interventional follow-up. The dates, sites, and causes of the fractures were collected retrospectively via a standardized questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of fracture incidence in the intervention versus the placebo group. A total of 221 fractures (57 in men and 164 in women) occurred during the entire study period of 21 years and 9 months. In men, the supplement reduced the risk of fracture by 63 % during the trial period, and this protective effect was sustained and statistically significant when analysis included both the trial period and 5- or 10-year post-intervention follow-up (years 0-11, P = 0.04; years 0-16, P = 0.02, respectively). The protection against fracture was not apparent >10 years after cessation of the intervention. In women, no significant effect of supplementation on fracture incidence was seen in any of the study periods. These results demonstrate that a 6-year multivitamin and mineral intervention was associated with significant reduction of fracture risk and fracture-related hospitalization in men, but not in women.
Related JoVE Video
Human papillomavirus-related psychosocial impact of patients with genital warts in China: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genital warts (GW) are the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, few studies using a human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific questionnaire have focused on the impact of quality of life (QoL) among patients with GW in developing countries. The origins of GW related psychosocial burdens and variations between genders were poorly characterized as well.
Related JoVE Video
PCNA: a silent housekeeper or a potential therapeutic target?
Trends Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is known as a molecular marker for proliferation given its role in replication. Three identical molecules of PCNA form a molecular sliding clamp around the DNA double helix. This provides an essential platform on which multiple proteins are dynamically recruited and coordinately regulated. Over the past decade, new research has provided a deeper comprehension of PCNA as a coordinator of essential cellular functions for cell growth, death, and maintenance. Although the biology of PCNA in proliferation has been comprehensively reviewed, research progress in unveiling the potential of targeting PCNA for disease treatment has not been systematically discussed. Here we briefly summarize the basic structural and functional characteristics of PCNA, and then discuss new developments in its protein interactions, trimer formation, and signaling regulation that open the door to possible therapeutic targeting of PCNA.
Related JoVE Video
Increase of Zinc Finger Protein 179 in Response to CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Delta Conferring an Antiapoptotic Effect in Astrocytes of Alzheimer's Disease.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactive astrogliosis is a cellular manifestation of neuroinflammation and occurs in response to all forms and severities of the central nervous system (CNS)'s injury and disease. Both astroglial proliferation and antiapoptotic processes are aspects of astrogliosis. However, the underlying mechanism of this response remains poorly understood. In addition, little is known about why activated astrocytes are more resistant to stress and inflammation. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD) is a transcription factor found in activated astrocytes that surround ?-amyloid plaques. In this study, we found that astrocytes activation was attenuated in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1 E9 (AppTg)/Cebpd (-/-)mice. Furthermore, an increase in apoptotic astrocytes was observed in AppTg/Cebpd (-/-)mice, suggesting that CEBPD plays a functional role in enhancing the antiapoptotic ability of astrocytes. We found that Zinc Finger Protein 179 (ZNF179) was a CEBPD-regulated gene that played an antiapoptotic, but not proliferative, role in astrocytes. The transcriptions of the proapoptotic genes, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and BCL2-interacting killer (BIK), were suppressed by ZNF179 via its interaction with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein in astrocytes. This study provides the first evidence that ZNF179, PLZF, IGFBP3, and BIK contributed to the novel CEBPD-induced antiapoptotic feature of astrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Catalytic asymmetric semipinacol rearrangements.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the past few decades, the semipinacol rearrangement has been widely applied in the field of organic synthesis. However, its catalytic asymmetric version has not caught much attention until the beginning of the 21st century. Significant breakthroughs have been made due to the efforts of organic chemists. These important progressions are summarized in this paper.
Related JoVE Video
A synthetic approach for constructing the 3/6/6/5-fused tetracyclic skeleton of tenuipesine A.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient approach toward the 3/6/6/5-fused tetracyclic skeleton of tenuipesine A has been accomplished. The strategy featured 1)?a tandem Mitsunobu and 3,3-rearrangement reaction yielding the key intermediate 7 with two adjacent all-carbon quaternary centers with high d.r.; and 2)?a tandem DBDMH-mediated semipinacol rearrangement via a 1,2-oxygen migration of an allylic hemiketal to construct the highly substituted tetrahydropyran ring.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of molecular mechanisms associated with low silk production in silkworm Bombyx mori.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the low fibroin production of the ZB silkworm strain, we used both SDS-PAGE-based and gel-free-based proteomic techniques and transcriptomic sequencing technique. Combining the data from two different proteomic techniques was preferable in the characterization of the differences between the ZB silkworm strain and the original Lan10 silkworm strain. The correlation analysis showed that the individual protein and transcript were not corresponded well, however, the differentially changed proteins and transcripts showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. In the ZB strain, numerous ribosomal proteins and transcripts were down-regulated, along with the transcripts of translational related elongation factors and genes of important components of fibroin. The proteasome pathway was significantly enhanced in the ZB strain, indicating that protein degradation began on the third day of fifth instar when fibroin would have been produced in the Lan10 strain normally and plentifully. From proteome and transcriptome levels of the ZB strain, the energy-metabolism-related pathways, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and citrate cycle were enhanced, suggesting that the energy metabolism was vigorous in the ZB strain, while the silk production was low. This may due to the inefficient energy employment in fibroin synthesis in the ZB strain. These results suggest that the reason for the decreasing of the silk production might be related to the decreased ability of fibroin synthesis, the degradation of proteins, and the inefficiency of the energy exploiting.
Related JoVE Video
miR-21 overexpression enhances TGF-?1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by target smad7 and aggravates renal damage in diabetic nephropathy.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Smad7 (a inhibitory smad), a downstream signaling molecules of TGF-?1, represses the EMT. The physiological function of miR-21 is closely linked to EMT and RIF. However, it remained unclear whether miR-21 over-expression affected TGF-?1-induced EMT by regulating smad7 in DN. In this study, real-time RT-PCR, cell transfection, luciferase reporter gene assays, western blot and confocal microscope were used, respectively. Here, we found that miR-21 expression was upregulated by TGF-?1 in time- and concentration -dependent manner. Moreover, miR-21 over-expression enhanced TGF-?1-induced EMT(upregulation of a-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin) by directly down-regulating smad7/p-smad7 and indirectly up-regulating smad3/p-smad3, accompanied by the decrease of Ccr and the increase of col-IV, FN, the content of collagen fibers, RTBM, RTIAW and ACR. Meantime, the siRNA experiment showed that smad7 can directly regulate a-SMA and E-cadherin expression. More importantly, miR-21 inhibitor can not only inhibit EMT and fibrosis but also ameliorate renal structure and function. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-21 overexpression can contribute to TGF-?1-induced EMT by inhibiting target smad7, and that targeting miR-21 may be a better alternative to directly suppress TGF-?1-mediated fibrosis in DN.
Related JoVE Video
The prognostic implications of microvascular density and lymphatic vessel density in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Comparative analysis between the traditional whole sections and the tissue microarray.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Focal distribution of microvascular and lymphatic vessels is a critical issue in cancer, and is measured by tissue microarray (TMA) construction from paraffin-embedded surgically obtained tissues, a process that may not accurately reflect true focal distribution. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance of microvascular density (MVD) and lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in TMAs with corresponding whole sections, and to correlate the MVD or LVD with clinicopathological parameters in 124 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MVD, determined by CD105 immunohistochemistry of whole sections, was strongly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.000) and pTNM stage (p=0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that increasing CD105 microvessel count correlated with decreasing survival (p<0.001). The same result was acquired when MVD was calculated from tissue microarrays. Analysis of continuous data showed a highly significant correlation between whole sections and TMA data (Pearson r=0.522, p<0.001). Increasing LVD, as determined by D2-40 immunohistochemistry of whole sections, correlated with decreasing survival, but this relationship was undetectable using TMAs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that for the selected endothelial markers, TMAs can provide a realistic and reliable estimate of the extent of MVD, but not LVD in ESCC samples.
Related JoVE Video
Vulnerability for apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats with cognitive impairment.
J. Endocrinol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperglycemia impaired hippocampal network via triggering suicide program of immanent neurons, this is regarded as an etiological factor for diabetic cognition deficits.
Related JoVE Video
?-catenin deacetylation is essential for WNT-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deregulation of the WNT signaling pathway is associated with the development and progression of breast cancer. ?-catenin mutations have been found to constitutively activate ?-catenin-T-cell factor (TCF) signaling in other types of cancer. ?-catenin acetylation regulates ?-catenin-TCF4 interaction in WNT signaling, but it remains unknown whether the acetylation of ?-catenin is involved in WNT-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells. In this study, a lower level of acetylated ?-catenin (K345) was observed in breast cancer tissues. WNT3A stimulated the downregulation of ?-catenin acetylation and promoted the proliferation of MCF7 cells. The K345Q mutation in ?-catenin inhibited WNT-induced cell growth and axin2/TCF7 upregulation in breast cancer cells. By contrast, K345R mutants could mimic deacetylated ?-catenin to generate the WNT-elicited phenotype. Additionally, the acetylation of ?-catenin may prime ?-catenin for phosphorylation. Further investigation revealed that the deacetylase HDAC6 was responsible for WNT-induced deacetylation of ?-catenin in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, the epigenetic modification of ?-catenin may be essential for WNT signaling in breast cancer progression, and blocking the occurrence of ?-catenin acetylation may provide a novel therapeutic approach for breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
The expression of ?-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its correlations with prognosis of patients.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a member of the catenin family, expression of ?-catenin and its clinical implication in numerous tumors remain unclear. In the present study, expression of ?-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its correlations with patient prognosis were explored. We detected the expression of ?-catenin, by immunohistochemistry, in ESCC tissues from 299 cases and analyzed the correlation between ?-catenin expression and patient clinicopathological features. Compared with a lack of expression in adjacent normal esophageal epithelium (0%, 0/47), the frequency of ?-catenin protein was increased in ESCC tissues to 41.5% (124/299, P < .001) and expression correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis (P = .025 and .019, respectively). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with high ?-catenin expression had shorter survival than patients with low expression (P = .010), and multivariate Cox analysis revealed that high ?-catenin expression was also an independent prognostic factor (P = .001). In transwell assays, migration of ESCC cells was enhanced by ?-catenin overexpression, whereas proliferation of ESCC cells was unchanged. Together, our results suggest that ?-catenin acts as an oncoprotein when overexpressed in ESCC, and its expression is associated with poor prognosis and malignant cell behavior.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-199a inhibits the ability of proliferation and migration by regulating CD44-Ezrin signaling in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the second most common form of human cancer, is an epithelial skin tumor, which can result in metastasis with lethal consequences accounting for about 20% of all skin cancer-related deaths. The metastasis is the main reason for cSCC-related deaths with an overall 5-year survival rate < 30% in cases that spread systemically. The role of miRNAs has been involved in SCC of different origins. Recent data have revealed that the expression of miRNA-199a was changed in many human cancers. In this study, we found that miR-199a was significantly decreased in cSCC tissues, which had an inverse relationship with CD44. MiR-199a specifically regulated the expression of CD44 at mRNA and protein levels, and the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin in cSCC cells. Moreover, the suppressive role of miR-199a in cell migration in cSCC cells was also associated with the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. Taken together, our data indicated that increased expression of endogenous mature miR-199a might prevent the growth and migration of human cSCC via decreasing the expression of CD44 and regulating the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin, which may provide a potentially important therapeutic target for human cSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Hydroxyapatite-Coated Sillicone Rubber Enhanced Cell Adhesion and It May Be through the Interaction of EF1? and ?-Actin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silicone rubber (SR) is a common soft tissue filler material used in plastic surgery. However, it presents a poor surface for cellular adhesion and suffers from poor biocompatibility. In contrast, hydroxyapatite (HA), a prominent component of animal bone and teeth, can promote improved cell compatibility, but HA is an unsuitable filler material because of the brittleness in mechanism. In this study, using a simple and economical method, two sizes of HA was applied to coat on SR to counteract the poor biocompatibility of SR. Surface and mechanical properties of SR and HA/SRs confirmed that coating with HA changes the surface topology and material properties. Analysis of cell proliferation and adhesion as well as measurement of the expression levels of adhesion related molecules indicated that HA-coated SR significantly increased cell compatibility. Furthermore, mass spectrometry proved that the biocompatibility improvement may be related to elongation factor 1-beta (EF1?)/?-actin adjusted cytoskeletal rearrangement.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South china sea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.
Related JoVE Video
Osteopontin (OPN) is an important protein to mediate improvements in the biocompatibility of C ion-implanted silicone rubber.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Medical device implants are drawing increasing amounts of interest from modern medical practitioners. However, this attention is not evenly spread across all such devices; most of these implantable devices can cause adverse reactions such as inflammation, fibrosis, thrombosis, and infection. In this work, the biocompatibility of silicone rubber (SR) was improved through carbon (C) ion implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that these newly generated carbon-implanted silicone rubbers (C-SRs) had large, irregular peaks and deep valleys on their surfaces. The water contact angle of the SR surface decreased significantly after C ion implantation. C ion implantation also changed the surface charge distribution, silicone oxygen rate, and chemical-element distribution of SR to favor cell attachment. The dermal fibroblasts cultured on the surface C-SR grew faster and showed more typical fibroblastic shapes. The expression levels of major adhesion proteins, including talin-1, zyxin, and vinculin, were significantly higher in dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR coated plates than in dermal fibroblasts cultured on SR. Those same dermal fibroblasts on C-SRs showed more pronounced adhesion and migration abilities. Osteopontin (OPN), a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, was up-regulated and secreted from dermal fibroblasts cultured on C-SR. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also increased. These cells were highly mobile and were able to adhere to surfaces, but these abilities were inhibited by the monoclonal antibody against OPN, or by shRNA-mediated MMP-9 knockdown. Together, these results suggest that C ion implantation significantly improves SR biocompatibility, and that OPN is important to promote cell adhesion to the C-SR surface.
Related JoVE Video
TiO2-based solid phase extraction strategy for highly effective elimination of normal ribonucleosides before detection of 2-deoxynucleosides/low-abundance 2-O-modified ribonucleosides.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel TiO2-based SPE strategy was developed for eliminating normal ribonucleosides before mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of 2-deoxynucleosides and 2-O-modified ribonucleosides. The chromatographic research for the retention behavior of ribonucleosides and 2-deoxynucleosides on TiO2 materials was investigated using TiO2 separation column. The results indicated a specific affinity interaction mechanism between TiO2 and cis-diol-containing ribonucleosides, and the interaction was proved effective even under a wide range of pH conditions and salt concentrations. Benefiting from these features, a TiO2-based solid phase extraction (SPE) method was developed for highly efficient elimination of RNA contamination from genomic DNA. Compared with the widely used enzymatic digestion method, the proposed TiO2-based SPE method showed much more efficiency for the removal of RNA as well as provided high recoveries for the 2-deoxynucleosides. In addition, the sample processing time is dramatically shortened using the TiO2-based SPE method (~5 min) compared to the traditional enzymatic digestion method (~12 h). Finally, the purification of 2-O-methylated ribonucleosides from RNA was successfully achieved in HeLa cells by the TiO2-based SPE method, which provided a proof-of-concept for the purification of relevant modified ribonucleosides from bulky normal ribonucleosides. Taken together, this strategy developed in the current study offers a promising option to purify 2-deoxynucleosides/2-O-modified ribonucleosides for their sensitive and accurate determination by eliminating normal ribonucleosides in biological samples.
Related JoVE Video
Regional distribution of longevity population and chemical characteristics of natural water in Xinjiang, China.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xinjiang Province, China is recognized for the longevity of its inhabitants. To study the temporal and spatial variation of longevity region and chemical characteristics of natural water of longevity region in Xinjiang, three population censuses on county-level and 51 natural water samples from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang were collected and analyzed. 103 natural water samples were collected from the public papers. Population statistics on county-level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC) in Southern Xinjiang was 7.4(year 1990), 4.9(year 2000) and 2.1 times (year 2010) more than that of Northern Xinjiang, respectively. And distribution of the longevity index (LI%), centenarity index (CI%) and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65year-old subjects (UC) on county-level decreased from south to north. Natural water in Northern Xinjiang was mainly fresh soft water, and it was mainly fresh hard water and brackish hard water in Southern Xinjiang. Water quality of natural water in Northern Xinjiang was superior compare to that of Southern Xinjiang, while number of centenarians 65year-old & over per 10,000 subjects in Northern Xinjiang were less than that of Southern Xinjiang before 2010. The research indicates that keeping on drinking water with high total hardness (TH) and Mg/Ca ratio might be good for the health.
Related JoVE Video
Divergent and efficient syntheses of the Lycopodium alkaloids (-)-lycojaponicumin?C, (-)-8-deoxyserratinine, (+)-fawcettimine, and (+)-fawcettidine.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four from one: The four title alkaloids (structures shown in blue box) have been synthesized by using a common versatile intermediate with a 6/5/5 tricyclic skeleton. This tricyclic intermediate could be easily assembled by using an intramolecular carbene addition/cyclization and a Dieckmann condensation/Tsuji-Trost allylation as key steps.
Related JoVE Video
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? in macrophages contributes to immunosuppression and inhibits phagocytosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although tumors tend to be associated with immune cells and inflammation, this immune response often fails to eliminate the cancer and instead promotes cancer progression. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) fail to phagocytose tumor cells, and they also produce signals that suppress the adaptive immune response. We showed that immunosuppressive prostaglandin E? (PGE?) led to the production and activity of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) by stimulating the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the RNA binding protein Hu antigen R (HuR), which bound to and stabilized CEBPD mRNA in macrophages. An increase in C/EBP? abundance in macrophages in response to PGE? resulted in enhanced production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), which suppresses the ability of macrophages to phagocytose tumor cells. Furthermore, conditioned medium from C/EBP?-replete, but not C/EBP?-deficient, macrophages inhibited the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages, suggesting an autocrine mode of regulation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the amount of cytosolic HuR protein correlated with increased C/EBP? abundance in TAMs in malignant nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Together, these data suggest that the inflammatory PGE?-HuR-C/EBP? axis in macrophages promotes tumor progression by preventing the phagocytosis of tumor cells and inducing immunosuppressive cytokine production.
Related JoVE Video
The lateral habenula is a common target of cocaine and dexamethasone.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) receives projections from areas rich in dopaminergic neurons and sends efferent fibers to these areas, suggesting that the LHb has a role in dopaminergic reward-related activity. The LHb is also implicated in multiple stress reactions, including responses to painful stimuli. However, it is unclear whether the LHb facilitates glucocorticoid/cocaine interactions by serving as a common target of both. In this study we investigated the effect of cocaine and dexamethasone (a synthesized glucocorticoid) on pain-related neurons (pain-excitatory and pain-inhibitory). Cocaine treatment effectively increased the firing rate of 89.7% of pain-excitatory neurons (cocaine-up response) and decreased the firing rate of 81.8% of pain-inhibitory neurons (cocaine-down response) in the LHb, suggesting that LHb neurons respond to cocaine via different mechanisms. Dexamethasone enhanced the firing rate of the cocaine-up neurons, while cocaine-down neurons were not influenced, indicating that both drugs may elicit an electrophysiological response at the same LHb neuron. Effects of either cocaine or dexamethasone alone, or both combined, on FOS expression in the LHb were observed via immunohistochemistry. Single administration of either cocaine or dexamethasone increased the number of FOS-positive neurons in the LHb. Pretreatment with dexamethasone and then cocaine markedly enhanced the number of FOS-positive neurons in the LHb relative to cocaine treatment alone, suggesting that stress and addictive drugs exert a synergistic effect on the LHb. We conclude that the LHb responds to cocaine via more than one mechanism and is a common target of both cocaine and the dexamethasone.
Related JoVE Video
Statin therapy on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that statin therapy has cardiovascular benefit among patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, statins were reported to increase risk of diabetes by 9%. The aim was to investigate by a meta-analysis whether statins deteriorate glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Two cytochrome P450 genes are involved in imidacloprid resistance in field populations of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in China.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is an invasive and damaging pest of field crops worldwide. The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid has been widely used to control this pest. We assessed the species composition (B vs. Q), imidacloprid resistance, and association between imidacloprid resistance and the expression of five P450 genes for 14-17 B. tabaci populations in 12 provinces in China. Fifteen of 17 populations contained only B. tabaci Q, and two populations contained both B and Q. Seven of 17 populations exhibited moderate to high resistance to imidacloprid, and eight populations exhibited low resistance to imidacloprid, compared with the most susceptible field WHHB population. In a study of 14 of the populations, resistance level was correlated with the expression of the P450 genes CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64 but not with the expression of CYP6CX1, CYP6CX4, or CYP6DZ7. This study indicates that B. tabaci Q has a wider distribution in China than previously reported. Resistance to imidacloprid in field populations of B. tabaci is associated with the increased expression of two cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6CM1 and CYP4C64).
Related JoVE Video
Autoantibodies as Potential Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVES:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death worldwide and effective diagnosis is needed. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may benefit early diagnosis.METHODS:We analyzed data for patients with ESCC and normal controls in a test cohort and a validation cohort. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens (p53, NY-ESO-1, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), and BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene (Bmi-1)) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS:We assessed serum autoantibodies in 513 participants: 388 with ESCC and 125 normal controls. The validation cohort comprised 371 participants: 237 with ESCC, and 134 normal controls. Autoantibodies to at least 1 of 6 antigens demonstrated a sensitivity/specificity of 57% (95% confidence interval (CI): 52-62%)/95% (95% CI: 89-98%) and 51% (95% CI: 45-57%)/96% (95% CI: 91-99%) in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. Measurement of the autoantibody panel could differentiate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls (sensitivity 45% (95% CI: 32-59%) and specificity 95% (95% CI: 89-98%) in the test cohort; 46% (95% CI: 35-58%) and 96% (95% CI: 91-99%) in the validation cohort). In either cohort, no significant differences were seen when patients were subdivided by age, gender, smoking status, size of tumor, site of tumor, depth of tumor invasion, histological grade, lymph node status, TNM stage, or early-stage and late-stage groups.CONCLUSIONS:Measurement of an autoantibody response to multiple tumor-associated antigens in an optimized panel assay, to help discriminate early-stage ESCC patients from normal controls, may aid in early detection of ESCC.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 3 December 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.384.
Related JoVE Video
The lateral habenular nucleus mediates signal transduction from the insular cortex in OSA rats.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The insular cortex (Ic) and habenular nuclei (Hb) of the limbic system are associated with human and animal dyspnea by regulating 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the raphe nuclei (RN). However, the Hb are composed of the medial habenular nucleus (MHb) and the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb). Therefore, it is still unclear whether the Ic signal is conducted through the MHb or LHb. This study aimed to investigate the role of the Hb and Ic in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and the functional relationship between these two structures.
Related JoVE Video
[Gene sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of sigmaB protein of Muscovy duck reovirus YB strain].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Muscovy ducks reovirus (DRV) is an important pathogen with a high mortality rate in Muscovy ducks, the researches in the test and the immunity were useful for the prevention and control of DRV infection. In this study, the S3 genes of the three Fujian DRVs were cloned by RT-PCR and sequencing technology. It was found that DRV-YH and YJL were close to avian reovirus (ARV) in the genetic distance, with high identities ranged from 94. 6% to 98. 9%, however, the identities of DRV-YB strain and reference ARV strains in the S3 gene were only 60.6% - 61.7%. The expression vector pET-30a-S3 harboring DRV YB strain S3 gene was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21, and then the fusion sigmaB protein expression was induced with IPTG. The SDS-PAGE of the expressed products indicated that the fusion protein of approximately 42ku in molecular weight was expressed highly in inclusion body, and made up 67. 7% of the total proteins. The most efficient concentration of IPTG and inducing time were 0. 1 mM and 5h respectively, while the best temperature for expression was 37 degrees C. After purification with the Ni2+ affinity chromatography, the fusion sigmaB protein was 93% of the total proteins, and the purified protein amounted to 0. 86g/L. The Western blot analysis showed that the fusion aB protein was recognized specifically by the antiserum against DRV, confirming that the recombinant fusion protein had good immunoreactivity.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of a Chinese strain of Tembusu virus from Hy-Line Brown layers with acute egg-drop syndrome in Fujian, China.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tembusu virus (TMUV) has been a causative agent of an acute egg-drop syndrome found in Chinese duck populations since at least 2010. In this paper, we report the characterization of a TMUV-like flavivirus (named CJD05) isolated from naturally infected egg-laying fowl. The virus was identified and then isolated from hens suffering from severe egg drop and fever in Fujian Province, China. The virus replicated well in MDEF and CEF cells, and its cytopathogenic effect (CPE) was apparent. Hemagglutinating activity (HA) was negative for this virus using erythrocytes from both chickens and pigeons. Viral particles were enveloped and approximately 45 nm in diameter, as observed by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length nucleotide sequence of CJD05 indicated that this virus is closely related to the duck-origin TMUV, belonging to Ntaya group of flavivirus. Most importantly, pathogenicity studies showed that CJD05 is highly virulent in 1-day-old chicks, 1-day-old Muscovy ducks, egg-laying chickens and shelducks. Our research highlights the increase in epidemic disease caused by avian TMUV, and subsequent outbreaks are becoming more complicated to treat. The pathogenic mechanisms of the virus are still not fully understood, further research is needed.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac signaling molecules and plasma biomarkers after cardiac transplantation: Impact of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated cardiac proinflammatory, mitogenic, and apoptotic signaling events, and plasma biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in de novo adult cardiac transplant (CTX) patients receiving tacrolimus (TAC) or cyclosporine A (CsA).
Related JoVE Video
Water-based synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 (ZIF-90) with a controllable particle size.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ZIF code: ZIF-90 materials were successfully synthesized in an optimized water-based system. The particle size, ranging from micro- to nanoscales, could be controlled by different amounts of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Zn/imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde ratio and alcohol.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization and expression analysis of three CBF/DREB1 transcriptional factor genes from mangrove Avicennia marina.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three CBF/DREB1 (C-repeat binding factor/dehydration responsive element-binding factor 1) homologues were isolated from mangrove Avicennia marina and designated AmCBF1, 2 and 3. Multiple sequence analysis showed that the three deduced proteins all contain an AP2 DNA-binding domain and two CBF signature sequences. According to the phylogenetic analysis, these proteins belong to the A-1 subgroup of the DREB subfamily. Expression analyses based on quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the AmCBF2 displayed relatively high expression under normal conditions, with the highest level in stems, while both AmCBF1 and 3 were weakly expressed without stress. The three genes also showed different responses to various environmental stimuli. The AmCBF2 was inducible by cold, drought, high salinity, heavy metals, as well as abscisic acid (ABA), and exhibited much stronger induction by cold, drought, Pb(2+) or Zn(2+) than by NaCl, ABA or Cd(2+). In contrast, both AmCBF1 and AmCBF3 displayed insignificant changes under these stimuli. These results indicate that the three AmCBF genes play different roles in A. marina and the AmCBF2 might be involved in the signaling pathway of cold, drought and heavy metal stress response.
Related JoVE Video
Infection of Prions and Treatment of PrP106-126 Alter the Endogenous Status of Protein 14-3-3 and Trigger the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Possibly via Activating Bax Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly homologous and ubiquitously expressed isoforms that are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. 14-3-3 have showed actively molecular interaction with PrP and positive 14-3-3 is frequently observed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). However, the alterations of 14-3-3 in the brain tissues of patients with prion diseases remain little addressed. To address the possible change of brain 14-3-3 during prion infection, we firstly tested the levels of 14-3-3 in the brain tissues of scrapie agent 263 K infected hamsters. Obviously decreased 14-3-3 were observed in the samples of the infected animals, showing time-dependent reduction in the incubation period, while the amounts of S-nitrosylated 14-3-3 were increased in the brains collected at the late stage. A low level of 14-3-3 was also observed in the scrapie infectious cell line SMB-S15, accompanied with up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2. Moreover, we found that treatment of PrP106-126 on the cultured cells decreased the cellular 14-3-3 and caused translocations of cellular Bax to the membrane fractions. Knockdown of cellular 14-3-3 sensitized the cultured cells to the challenge of PrP106-126. These data illustrate that significant down-regulation of brain 14-3-3 levels during prion infection may not only be a scenario of the terminal consequence of interacting with abnormal PrP(Sc) but may also participate in the pathogenesis of neuronal damage.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of an educational intervention on HPV knowledge and vaccine attitudes among urban employed women and female undergraduate students in China: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to the potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for decreasing cervical cancer rates in Mainland China, where some of the highest incidences in the world have been reported, our study aimed to assess HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, and to evaluate the effect of a brief educational intervention on HPV knowledge and vaccine acceptability in Chinese undergraduate students and employed women.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation of mesoporous silica embedded pipette tips for rapid enrichment of endogenous peptides.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesoporous silica embedded pipette tips (mSiO2-Tips) were successfully prepared by a simple method and applied to rapid enrichment of endogenous peptides for the first time. The prepared mSiO2-Tips showed low back pressure when solvent was pipetted up and down. As a result, mSiO2-Tip could selectively trap peptides and exclude high-MW proteins simultaneously based on size-exclusion mechanism due to the uniform mesopore structure of the sorbent bed. The in-pipette-tip SPE approach was proved to be easy-operation, sensitive and fast (less than 2 min) for the analysis of peptides, which was further successfully applied in the efficient enrichment of peptides from human plasma.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.
Related JoVE Video
Glycogen synthase kinase-3?-mediated CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta phosphorylation in astrocytes promot es migration and activation of microglia/macrophages.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alzheimers disease is neuropathologically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? protein into senile plaques that are sites of chronic inflammation involving reactive microglia, astrocytes, and proinflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?. The human CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) delta (CEBPD) is known to be induced in many inflammation-related diseases. In Alzheimers disease, this protein is responsive to amyloid-? and proinflammatory cytokines in astrocytes. However, the functional role of CEBPD in astrocytes remains largely unclear. In this study, we show that CEBPD is upregulated by interleukin-1? through the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPKp38) signaling pathway and phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? at Ser167 in astrocytes. CEBPD in astrocytes is associated with microglia activation and migration in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice (AppTg) mice. We further identified that the monocyte chemotactic protein-1, a chemoattractive factor, and migration factors matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 are responsive to GSK3?-mediated CEBPD Ser167 phosphorylation. Our results revealed the novel regulation of LiCl on astrocytes and that GSK3?-mediated CEBPD phosphorylation in astrocytes plays an important role in the activation of microglia.
Related JoVE Video
Combination of Chinese Herbal Medicines and Conventional Treatment versus Conventional Treatment Alone in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (5C Trial): An Open-Label Randomized Controlled, Multicenter Study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) plus conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods and Results. Participants (n = 808) with ACS who underwent PCI from thirteen hospitals of mainland China were randomized into two groups: CHMs plus conventional treatment group (treatment group) or conventional treatment alone group (control group). All participants received conventional treatment, and participants in treatment group additionally received CHMs for six months. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and ischemia-driven revascularization. Secondary endpoint was the composite of readmission for ACS, stroke, or congestive heart failure. The safety endpoint involved occurrence of major bleeding events. The incidence of primary endpoint was 2.7% in treatment group versus 6.2% in control group (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.87; P = 0.015). The incidence of secondary endpoint was 3.5% in treatment group versus 8.7% in control group (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.72; P = 0.002). No major bleeding events were observed in any participant. Conclusion. Treatment with CHMs plus conventional treatment further reduced the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with ACS after PCI without increasing risk of major bleeding.
Related JoVE Video
Bacterial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases in the sediments from the Pearl River estuary, China.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial community compositions were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the sediments of the Pearl River estuary. Sequencing analyses of the excised bands indicated that Gram-negative bacteria, especially Gammaproteobacteria, were dominant in the Pearl River estuary. The diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD) gene in this estuary was then assessed by clone library analysis. The phylogenetic analyses showed that all PAH-RHD gene sequences of Gram-negative bacteria (PAH-RHD[GN]) were closely related to the nagAc gene described for Ralstonia sp. U2 or nahAc gene for Pseudomonas sp. 9816-4, while the PAH-RHD gene sequences of Gram-positive bacteria (PAH-RHD[GP]) at sampling site A1 showed high sequence similarity to the nidA gene from Mycobacterium species. Meanwhile, molecular diversity of the two functional genes was higher at the upstream of this region, while lower at the downstream. Redundancy analysis indicated that environmental factors, such as NH4-N, ?PAHs, pH, SiO3-Si, and water depth, affected the distribution of the PAH-RHD[GN] gene in the Pearl River estuary.
Related JoVE Video
Abnormal activation of microglia accompanied with disrupted CX3CR1/CX3CL1 pathway in the brains of the hamsters infected with scrapie agent 263K.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microglial cells are resident mononuclear phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS). Active proliferation of microglia in the brain has been identified in neurodegenerative disorders, including some kinds of prion disease. However, the detailed regional distribution between microglia and PrP(Sc) deposition has not been presented, and investigation of fractalkine signaling which is involved in the regulation of activation of microglia in prion disease is not well documented. In this study, the disease phenomenon of microglial accumulation in the CNS was thoroughly analyzed using a scrapie-infected experimental model. Western blots of microglia-specific markers Iba1 and CD68, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays demonstrated obviously activation of microglia in almost whole brain regions in the infected animals. Under the dynamic analysis on hallmarks of activation of microglia, a time-dependent increase of Iba1 and CD68 was detected, accompanied by accumulation of PrP(Sc) and progression of neurodegenerative symptoms. With serial brain sections and double staining of Iba1 and PrP(Sc), we observed that the microglia distributed around PrP(Sc) deposits in 263K-infected hamsters brains, proposing PrP(Sc) phagocytosis. Flow cytometry assays with the single-cell suspensions prepared from the cortical region of the infected brains verified an activation of microglial population. ELISA assays of the cytokines in brain homogenates revealed significant upregulations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? when infected. Evaluation of fractalkine signaling in the infected hamsters brains showed progressively downregulation of CX3CL1 during the incubation. Prion peptide PrP106-126 also disrupted fractalkine and evoked microglial activation in rat primary neuron-glia mixed cultures. Our data here demonstrate an activated status of microglia in CNS tissues of infectious prion disease, possibly through fractalkine signaling deficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Knockdown of lipocalin-2 suppresses the growth and invasion of prostate cancer cells.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily, and it has an important role in the regulation of cellular oncogenesis and apoptosis. However, the role for LCN2 in prostate cancer remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Six-year regression and progression of cervical lesions of different human papillomavirus viral loads in varied histological diagnoses.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) viral loads as a biomarker for triage into colposcopy and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) therapy to reduce the colposcopy referral rate and CIN2 overtreatment in low-resource settings.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of endogenous brassinosteroids in plant tissues using solid-phase extraction with double layered cartridge followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Phytochem Anal
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of important phytohormones that play vital roles in plant growth, development and a series of physiological phenomena. In order to understand biosynthesis, degradation and metabolic pathways of BRs, a reliable analytical method of BRs with effective sample pre-treatment process is favourable.
Related JoVE Video
Flotillin-1 mediates PrPc endocytosis in the cultured cells during Cu²? stimulation through molecular interaction.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flotillins are membrane association proteins consisting of two homologous members, flotillin-1 (Flot-1) and flotillin-2 (Flot-2). They define a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway in mammal cells, which are also distinct from some other endocytosis mechanisms. The implicated cargoes of the flotillin-dependent pathway are mainly some GPI-anchored proteins, such as CD59 and Thy-1, which positionally colocalize with flotillins at the plasma membrane microdomains. To see whether flotillins are involved in the endocytosis of PrP(C), the potential molecular interaction between PrP(C) and flotillins in a neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH was analyzed. Co-immunoprecipitation assays did not reveal a detectable complex in the cell lysates of a normal feeding situation. After stimulation of Cu(2+), PrP(C) formed a clear complex with Flot-1, but not with Flot-2. Immunofluorescent assays illustrated that PrP(C) colocalized well with Flot-1, and the complexes of PrP(C)-Flot-1 shifted from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm along with the treatment of Cu(2+). Down-regulating the expression of Flot-1 in SK-N-SH cells by Flot-1-specific RNAi obviously abolished the Cu(2+)-stimulated endocytosis process of PrP(C). Moreover, we also found that in the cell line human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) without detectable PrP(C) expression, the distribution of cellular Flot-1 maintained almost unchanged during Cu(2+) treatment. Cu(2+)-induced PrP(C)-Flot-1 molecular interaction and endocytosis in HEK293 cells were obtained when expressing wild-type human PrP (PrP(PG5)), but not in the preparation expressing octarepeat-deleted PrP (PrP(PG0)). Our data here provide direct evidences for the molecular interaction and endocytosis of PrP(C) with Flot-1 in the presence of copper ions, and the octarepeat region of PrP(C) is critical for this process, which strongly indicates that the Flot-1-dependent endocytic pathway seems to mediate the endocytosis process of PrP(C) in the special situation.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors of poor prognosis and portal vein tumor thrombosis after curative resection of solitary hepatocellular carcinoma.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Predictors of poor prognosis of solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), a subgroup encompassing most patients with the malignancy, are still controversial. Hence, risk factors for portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in SHCC are obscure. The present study was designed to address this issue.
Related JoVE Video
Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China.
Related JoVE Video
Abortive cell cycle events in the brains of scrapie-infected hamsters with remarkable decreases of PLK3/Cdc25C and increases of PLK1/cyclin B1.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) consist of a family of kinases which play critical roles during multiple stages of cell cycle progression. Increase of PLK1 and decrease of PLK3 are associated with the developments and metastases of many types of human malignant tumors; however, the situations of PLKs in prion diseases are less understood. Using Western blots and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays, marked increase of PLK1 and decrease of PLK3 were observed in the brains of scrapie strain 263K-infected hamsters, presenting obviously a time-dependent phenomenon along with disease progression. Similar alterations of PLKs were also detected in a scrapie infectious cell line SMB-S15. Both PLK1 and PLK3 were observed in neurons by confocal microscopy. Accompanying with the changes of PLKs in the brains of 263K-infected hamsters, Cdc25C and its phosphorylated forms (p-Cdc25C-Ser198 and p-Cdc25C-Ser216) were significantly down-regulated, whereas Cyclin B1 and PCNA were obviously up-regulated, while phospho-histone H3 remained almost unchanged. Moreover, exposure of the cytotoxic peptide PrP106-126 on the primary cultured cortical neuron cells induced similar changes of cellular PLKs and some cell cycle-related proteins, such as Cdc25C and its phosphorylated forms, phospho-histone H3. Those results illustrate obviously aberrant expressions of cell cycle regulatory proteins in the prion-infected neurons, which may lead to the cell cycle arrest at M phase. Possibly due to the ill-regulation of some key cell cycle events during prion infection, together with the fact that neurons are unable to complete mitosis, the cell cycle reentry in prion-infected neurons is definitely abortive, which may lead to neuron apoptosis and neuron degeneration.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.